马来西亚的印度人

Feb 10, 2017 | Views: 3,630
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Indian001

我已在马来西亚居住20多年了。这么多年来,马来西亚文化与风俗习惯中所蕴含的多样性令我十分欣赏,于是我想针对这个国家的丰富文化多写一些文章。

早在英国殖民马来亚以前,印度人就已开始迁移到本区域来,希望借此开拓贸易网、扩张影响力及推广他们的信仰。英国殖民期间,当局鼓励更多的印度人前来英属马来亚——即现今的马来西亚与新加坡——各领域工作,其中包括当警员、政府行政人员或园丘工人。然而到了第二次世界大战(1936-1945)期间和之后,随着许多印度人选择回国参加印度国民军,再加上许多英属机构也陆续从马来亚撤离,马来西亚的印裔人口亦开始减少。

到了今天,印度文化已经在马来西亚文化中留下深刻的痕迹,不管是马来文学、马来美食或马来民俗习惯,我们都可以从中看到印度文化的踪影。这篇文章主要为大家介绍印度人在马来西亚的历史发展、印度人的独特庆典、马来西亚印裔名人,以及印度文化之于马来西亚文化的影响。

詹杜固仁波切

 


 

印度人移居马来西亚

The ruins of a Hindu temple in Kedah

吉打州一座印度寺庙废墟

 

前英国殖民时期

早在英国殖民马来亚之前,印度人就已到马来亚半岛(即现今的西马半岛)来经商、传扬宗教及扩大领土和势力。印度文化在马来西亚的影响最早可见于古吉打王国。早期的古吉打王国统治者主要信奉兴都教(印度教),后来才逐渐转为回教(穆斯林)苏丹统治。古吉打王国在古代印度文献中也被称为Kadaram(或Kataha,羯荼诃),并与当时的帕拉瓦王朝(Pallava Dynasty,公元4~9世纪)和朱罗王朝(Chola Dynasty,公元9~13世纪)等强盛的印度王国维持着长期友好关系。

A map of the Chola Empire. Kedah, also known as Kadaram in India, was one of the Chola Empire’s subordinates

朱罗王朝版图。吉打在古代印度文献中也被称为Kadaram,曾经是朱罗王朝的附属国。

Emperor Rajendra Chola I

罗贞陀罗·朱罗一世(Rajendra Chola I)

A ship from the Chola Empire that can carry up to 200 people

可承载200人的朱罗王朝帆船

1025年,罗贞陀罗朱罗一世(公元1014 – 1044年)率领军队袭击室利佛逝王国(Srivijaya Kingdom)和今日的马来西亚和印尼等区域,印度商人亦随之取得了更多前来东南亚,包括马来西亚在内的经商机会。朱罗王朝的大船经常川行于恒河、马来西亚和苏门答腊之间, 这为印度商人和传教士前来经商和传教提供了很大的方便。到了今天,我们仍可看到古吉打王国与印度人民之间确实曾经频繁往来的种种迹象。在印度南部的坦贾武尔(Tanjore,曾为朱罗王朝领地)甚至出现了一个名为Kadaram Kondan(意即“吉打的征服者”)的村庄。这村庄里种有据说是从马来西亚引进的橘子品种,名为Kadarangkay或kadaram-pulp(意即“吉打果”)。

Jalan Kadaram in Kedah State

吉打州Kadaram路。路名显示印度和古吉打王国之间确实存在互动关系

 

英殖民时期

Indian plantation workers in British Malaya, by Charles Kleingrothe, a German photographer

德国摄影师Charles Kleingrothe镜头下英属马来亚时期的印裔园丘工人

英国势力于18世纪开始入侵马来亚半岛,随后成立了包含新加坡在内的英属马来亚。英政府因看上印度人的英语能力而鼓励他们迁往马来亚,从事劳工、警员、商人、政府行政人员和士兵等工作。这段时期前来马来亚的多是只身离乡背井前来谋生的印度男性,这样的情况也造成当时印度人在马来亚的流动率很高。他们来马来亚工作,尔后又返回家乡;有的只是回乡探亲,有的就此回归家乡去了。

The SS Rajula, a British vessel that transported many Indians to British Malaya

英国轮船SS Rajula号曾经载着许多印度人前来英属马来亚讨生活

20世纪初,居留于英属马来亚的印度人大约有12万人口。往后30年间,这数字翻了超过4.3倍;到了1931年,马来亚印裔人口已达64万人之多。然而到了第二次世界大战期间,由于许多印度人回国从军,马来亚印裔的人口增长率也相应降低;1931至1957年间,马来亚的印裔人口只增长了28%,达约82万人。

Artist’s illustration of an Indian coffee shop in Negeri Sembilan in British Malaya

画家笔下英属马来亚时期森美兰州的一家印度咖啡店

英殖民政府于1946至1948年间曾试图组成马来亚联邦(Malayan Union)却告失败,并于1948由马来亚联合邦(Federation of Malaya)所取代,同时恢复了马来统治者的象征地位。1957年8月31日,马来亚联合邦宣布独立,终结了英国在马来亚的殖民统治。独立后,随着英国政府和机构相继撤离马来亚,本区域的印度人口也急剧减少。

1963年9月16日,马来亚联合邦与新加坡、北婆罗洲和砂拉越联合,共同组成马来西亚联邦,简称马来西亚。新加坡于两年后的1965年脱离了马来西亚。

 

后英殖民时代

Indian010

如今仍有大量印度人涌入马来西亚。他们当中有白领专业人士,也有在印度餐厅打工的蓝领工人,还有一些人则是与本地印裔结婚,以配偶身份留下。

 

人口统计

Indian011

截至2016年7月,马来西亚共有30,949,962人口。其中印裔占6.7%,相等于约200万人;这200万人当中又以淡米尔族(Tamil)为最大族群,占90%。其余10%则由泰卢固族(Telugu)、马拉雅拉姆族(Malayalam)、旁遮普族(Punjabi)、古吉拉特族(Gujarati)和信德族(Sindhi)所组成。马来西亚印裔社群——因各自所属族群而异——多能操几种不同方言,如淡米尔语、泰卢固语、马来语、印地语或旁遮普语等。

 

宗教

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在殖民时期或更早之前迁移到马来西亚的印度人多为佛教徒或兴都教徒。然而现今印度人因种族同化的情况下,也有信奉回教或基督教者。

 

印度文化对马来西亚本土文化的影响

A performance of Hikayat Seri Rama

《罗摩圣传》(Hikayat Seri Rama)戏剧演出

 

民间传说

马来西亚好一些耳熟能详的马来文学作品,其实都受到了印度神话如《摩诃婆罗多》(Mahabharata)和《罗摩衍那》的重大影响。其中一些最古老的作品皆源自印度文,包括梵语和帕拉瓦文:

  • 《罗摩圣传》(Hikayat Seri Rama)—— 改编自印度神话《罗摩衍那》,故事情节和人物个性作细微修改。
  • 《梅隆马哈旺萨传》(Hikayat Merong Mahawangsa),又称《吉打纪年》—— 这是一部淡米尔文学作品,描述淡米尔王子与古吉打王国的渊源故事。本书也记载了朱罗王朝时期印度商人前来吉打经商的事迹。
  • 《Hikayat Panca Tanderan》 —— 改编自古印度著名动物寓言故事集《五卷书》(Panchatantra)。
  • 《仁慈鹦鹉传》(Hikayat Bayan Budiman)—— 改编自印度文学作品《鹦鹉故事七十则》(Sukasaptati)。故事中的鹦鹉为了防止女主人犯错而给她说了70则故事。
An illustration of Hikayat Merong Mahawangsa on a Malaysian stamp

马来西亚一款以《梅隆马哈旺萨传》为设计的邮票

 

语文

在语文方面,马来文也明显受到了印度文的影响。一些马来词汇源自印地文、梵文或淡米尔文原文:
部分源自印度文、梵文或淡米尔文的马来词汇:

马来文 中文意思 原文 语源
Agama 宗教 Agama 梵文
Aksara 字母 Aksara 梵文
Anugerah 恩典、祝福 Anugraha 梵文
Asmara 爱情 Smara 梵文
Buat Wuat 梵文
Bumi 地球 Bhūmi 梵文
Cendana 檀香 Candana 梵文
Dobi 洗衣店 Dhobī Hindi
Duka 悲伤 Dhuka 梵文
Kapal Kappal 淡米尔文
Kedai 商店 Kadai 淡米尔文
Kuil 寺庙 Koyil 淡米尔文
Kuda Kudda 梵文
Maha 崇高,伟大 Maha 梵文
Mangga 芒果 Mangkai 淡米尔文
Wanita 女性 Vanithai 淡米尔文/ 泰卢固文
Mutiara 珍珠 Muthu 淡米尔文
Kakak 姐姐 Akka 淡米尔文

 

马来西亚印度人的节庆

Thaipusam Festival celebration at Batu Caves

大宝森节每年都在黑风洞盛大举行

 

大宝森节——庆祝战神的诞生

大宝森节旨在纪念湿婆和雪山女神的幼子战神穆卢干(Murugan),于每年淡米尔历“泰月”满月时(一、二月间)举行。在大宝森节前一天,战神穆卢干的信徒们背上卡瓦地(Kavadi),以忏悔和赎罪的形式向战神表示谢恩。一些信徒把铜制牛奶壶顶在头上,一些则以铁钩刺穿身体各部位,这些都是供养战神的仪式。在大宝森节庆典上,时而会看到战神穆卢干的信徒们陷入一种深层的恍惚状态中,这是常有的。

Women carrying Paal Kavadi that contain milk and other holy substances during a Thaipusam procession

女信徒们在大宝森节游行队伍中头上顶着装有牛奶或其他圣品的“帕尔”(牛奶)卡瓦第(Paal Kavadi)

Thaipusam is celebrated in many Hindu temples in Malaysia, but the biggest events are usually held in the Sri Subramaniar Swamy Temple in Batu Caves.

马来西亚许多兴都教庙宇每年都有举行大宝森节庆典,当中最盛大的庆典活动则在黑风洞脚下的苏巴马廉兴都庙(Sri Subramaniar Swamy Temple)举行。

 

屠妖节——万灯节

STAR

屠妖节(Deepavali / Diwali)又称万灯节,落在印度历Kartika月(十、十一月间)。关于屠妖节的起源众说纷纭,其中一种说法是为了敬拜掌管财富、运气与昌盛的吉祥天女(Lakshmi)。为了迎接吉祥天女的到来,信徒们会进行大扫除,把家里清理得干干净净。一般家庭也会到十五碑小印度的商店和摊贩购买一些独特饰品来布置家里。附加一说,游客们也可以在这里的商店选购精美传统印度服饰和珠宝。屠妖节前夕,信徒们多会留在家里或到庙里去进行膜拜仪式,过后便与家人和亲戚欢聚一堂,享受盛宴。他们也在家里点油灯,象征着 “以光明驱走黑暗,以善良战胜邪恶”。

Deepavali celebration in Malaysia

马来西亚屠妖节庆典

 

馬拉亞利人的新年

The female members of a Malayalee family prepare vishu kanni or offering to Lord Vishnu. The offerings include gold coins, vegetables, flowers and fruits.

马拉亚利家庭的女性成员们正准备vishu kanni以供养保护之神毗湿奴。这些供品包括金币、蔬菜、鲜花和水果

Vishu是马拉亚利人的新年,落在马拉亚利历Medam月的第一天(四月第二个星期)。对马拉亚利人来说,Vishu是一年之中最吉祥的日子,也是向兴都教诸神礼敬的最佳时刻。在这充满欢乐气氛的佳节里,长辈会派钱(Kaineetam)给晚辈们。

Malayalee elders often give kaineetam or money offering to the younger generation

传统上,马拉亚利裔的长辈将派发红包Kaineetam给晚辈们

 

欧南节

The Festival of Onam, a celebration of gratitude

欧南节是一个感恩的节日

欧南节是马拉亚利人的丰收节,每年于马拉雅拉姆历Chingam月(八、九月間)举行。人们在欧南节庆祝水稻種植季節的結束,同时迎接玛哈巴立魔王(King Mahabali)从地狱归来。玛哈巴立是被毗湿奴第五化身打入地狱的慈善魔王。

The celebration of Onam at the Klang Malayalee Association

吧生马拉亚利协会欢庆欧南节

 

乌贾迪节——泰卢固人的新年

Ugadi celebration organised by Telugu Association of Malaysia

马来西亚泰卢固协会举办乌贾迪节庆典

乌贾迪节是泰卢固人欢庆新年的大日子,落在Panchanga印度历Chaitra月(三、四月間)。在乌贾迪节除夕来临之前,泰卢固人家家户户都要来个大扫除、买新衣,并以芒果叶和蓝果丽(Rangoli)装饰家里。蓝果丽是印度一种传统地画艺术,一般以彩色米、面粉、沙子、花瓣等材料来绘制。在乌贾迪节前夕,家中最年长者带领全家人向兴都神明祈祷,祈求加持,希望来年能享有健康、财富和幸福。

 

马来西亚印度人的代表性景点

以下为马来西亚两大具有浓厚印度文化色彩的景点:

Little India, Brickfields entrance

吉隆坡十五碑小印度入口牌坊

 

十五碑小印度

小印度位于吉隆坡十五碑,与中环车站(KL Sentral)只有几分钟步行距离。马来西亚政府多年前把十五碑一个住宅区转型为印度社区和商业枢纽,继而令这个地方发展成为大家熟悉的小印度。2010年10月,印度首相曼莫汉辛格与马来西亚首相纳吉阿都拉萨共同为小印度主持开幕礼。

Little India, Brickfields

十五碑小印度

顺应发展趋势,小印度的范围也从特拉维斯路(Jalan Travers)扩大至敦辛班丹路(Jalan Tun Sambathan)。这里林立着形形色色的商店,从印度美食、首饰、配饰、珠宝、时装到各种配料,可说是无所不有。小印度也是个充满活力的热闹地区,这里许多商店营运到深夜才打烊。小印度位于交通便利的市中心,游客可乘搭火车到吉隆坡中环车站,下车后再步行几分钟就能抵达。若您想要开车来,那就得要做好心理准备,这里的停车位不好找。

 

十五碑小印度旅游资讯

交通

前往十五碑小印度的交通选项:

  • 单轨火车(Monorail)—— 游客可乘搭单轨火车(KL Monorail)到敦辛班丹(Tun Sambanthan)站下车
  • 轻快铁(LRT)—— 游客可乘搭Kelana Jaya线轻快铁(LRT)到吉隆坡中环车站(KL Sentral)下车
  • 火车—— 游客可乘搭电动火车(KTM Komuter)或机场快铁(ERL)到吉隆坡中环车站下车
  • 巴士—— 游客也可选择乘搭Rapid KL巴士前往十五碑。更多巴士路线详情请浏览Rapid KL网站http://www.myrapid.com.my/

住宿
若想在十五碑小印度附近留宿,这里提供一些酒店资讯让您参考(请做进一步的资料搜集,以找到最适合您的住宿):

  1. 小印度布瑞克菲尔德OYO客房酒店(OYO Rooms Brickfields Little India)
    地址:
    My Signature Hotel Little India
    130 Jalan Thamby Abdullah
    Kuala-Lumpur, KL Sentral, 50470
    Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur
    Malaysia
    Phone: +60104011393
  2. 吉隆坡中环广场雅乐轩酒店(Aloft Kuala Lumpur Sentral Hotel)
    地址:
    No. 5 Jalan Stesen Sentral 5,
    Kuala Lumpur Sentral
    50470 Kuala Lumpur
    Malaysia
    电话: +60 3-2723 1188

 

黑风洞

Batu Caves

黑风洞

黑风洞原文“Batu Caves”,意指石灰岩溶洞群。黑风洞是印度教的朝拜圣地,位于雪兰莪州,距离吉隆坡市中心约13公里。黑风洞的建立是为了纪念战神穆卢干,这里每年吸引了上百万名兴都教徒和游客前来参观,因为这里也是大宝森节最盛大的庆典场地。游客可到寺庙拜拜以获得印度教祭司的祝福。

Batu Caves的取名灵感源自一条河流——Sungai Batu,这条河贯穿黑风洞周围的一座石灰岩山和三个主要岩洞。黑风洞的三大主洞包括了庙洞(Temple Cave or Cathedral Cave)、洞穴艺术村(Cave Villa)和罗摩衍那洞(Ramayana Cave)。
黑风洞苏巴马廉庙 (Sri Subramaniar Swamy Temple)
地址:
Batu Caves
68000 Selangor
Malaysia
电话: +603 6189 6284
传真: +603 6187 2404
电邮: [email protected]

 

庙洞( Temple Cave or Cathedral Cave)

Temple Cave or Cathedral Cave

庙洞

庙洞是黑风洞岩洞群中最大的一个,入口山脚有一尊全球最高(42米)的穆卢干镀金雕像,十分雄伟。游客必须从山脚爬上272级台阶才能进入庙洞。进入庙洞参观无需买票,但游客可随喜乐捐。

 

洞穴艺术村(Cave Villa)

Cave Villa

洞穴艺术村

洞穴艺术村位于山脚,洞里是一个艺术画廊兼博物馆,展有许多印度教的神像和彩绘。洞穴艺术村门票每人RM15,马来西亚公民则每人RM7。

Art Gallery at Cave Villa.

洞穴艺术村画廊

The pool outside Cave Villa in Batu Caves.

洞穴艺术村洞外景色

 

罗摩衍那洞(Ramayana Cave)

Ramayana Cave

罗摩衍那洞

罗摩衍那洞位于石灰岩山的最左侧。在通往罗摩衍那洞的路上,矗立着一尊15米高的绿色哈奴曼(Hanuman)神像。哈奴曼是罗摩衍那史诗中的猴神,而黑风洞出名猴子多,这或许就是猴神像被设立在这里的原因吧。

除了哈奴曼神像之外,游客也可前往参观毗湿奴第七化身罗摩之庙。庙内壁画描述着罗摩衍那生平事迹。进入罗摩衍那洞的门票为每人RM5。

Hanuman statue in front of Ramayana Cave

罗摩衍那洞前的猴神哈奴曼神像

 

黑风洞交通资讯

黑风洞位于吉隆坡市中心以北13公里。每年大宝森节举行期间,游客和信徒们可从吉隆坡中环车站乘搭特别增设的直通巴士前往黑风洞。游客也可以叫的士服务;或从中环车站乘搭KTM电动火车(黑风洞 – 芙蓉线)前往目的地,火车票单程每人RM2。

 

马来西亚印度美食

Banana Leaf Rice

香蕉叶饭

论及马来西亚美食肯定少不了印度风味美食。由于马来西亚印度人有百分之90来自淡米尔族,因此这里的印度食物也偏重于南印度风味,并形成了一种独特的“嘛嘛”(Mamak)美食。

印度美食一般上都少不了咖喱叶、丁香等香料、豆蔻、肉桂和新鲜椰浆等配料。比较广为人知的印度美食就包括了阿杂(accar)、阿榜糕(appam)、椰浆蔬菜(Avial)、香蕉叶饭(banana leaf)、印度香饭(nasi briyani)、印度煎饼(roti canai)、印度麦面饼(chapatti)及其它等。

Briyani Rice

印度香饭

Roti Canai

印度煎饼

如果您想要品尝正宗的印度美食,可以试试以下这几家餐馆:
Spice of India
地址:
Level 4 Suria KLCC, Suria KLCC
Jalan Ampang
50088 Kuala Lumpur
Malaysia
电话: +60 3-2164 9221
营业时间: 11:30AM–10PM
Chappati.com
地址:
9B-2, Jalan Kemajuan
Seksyen 13,
Petaling Jaya
46200 Selangor
Malaysia
电话:+60 3-7931 3106
营业时间:11:30AM–2:30PM, 5:30–10:30PM
Namaste Indian Restaurant
地址:
4, Jalan Datuk Sulaiman
Taman Tun Dr Ismail
60000 Kuala Lumpur
Malaysia
电话:+60 3-7724 1195
营业时间: 10AM–10PM
Sagar Restaurant Sdn. Bhd.
地址:
4, Lorong Maarof, Bangsar
59000 Kuala Lumpur
Malaysia
电话:+60 3-2284 2532
营业时间: 12–3PM, 6–10:30PM

 

知名大马印裔历史人物

在马来西亚漫长历史中,印度人对于这国家的贡献可说是功不可没。以下为大家介绍几位著名的印裔历史人物:

 

历史人物

An artist’s illustration of Tun Fatimah on a Malaysian stamp

印有敦法蒂玛肖像的马来西亚邮票

 

敦法蒂玛(Tun Fatimah)

敦法蒂玛是敦墨泰修家族被灭门后唯一存活的女儿。敦法蒂玛的第一任丈夫是敦阿里,在苏丹马末沙处决了敦墨太修全家(包括敦阿里)之后,她便嫁给了苏丹成为三太太。嫁给了苏丹的前几年,敦法蒂玛由于悲伤过度而几度流产。后来苏丹向她承诺,若生下儿子,便让她的儿子成为王位的推定继承人。尔后,敦法蒂玛相继诞下了二男二女。

Malay actress Maria Menado playing the role of Tun Fatimah.

马来女演员Maria Menado扮演敦法蒂玛

敦法蒂玛是一位魅力型的王后。在位期间,她让所有涉及杀害她全家——除了她的丈夫——的罪人得到应有的惩罚。在葡萄牙入侵马六甲后,她的两名儿子向外发展势力并建立了各自的苏丹国。她的大儿子拉惹罗登阿里(Raja Raden Ali)建立了霹雳苏丹国;二儿子苏丹阿拉乌丁(Alauddin Riayat Shah II)则建立了柔佛苏丹王朝。

 

敦阿里(Sri Nara Diraja Tun Ali),1445至1456年间在位

敦阿里是马六甲王朝第四任宰相,淡米尔族,也是马六甲王朝历史中的一个强悍角色。敦阿里在他的君主拉惹斯里拜里米苏(Raja Sri Parameswara Dewa Shah),又称苏丹阿布沙希德沙(Sultan Abu Syahid Shah)逝世后,推立自己的外甥拉惹卡西姆(Raja Kassim)为王,并封他为苏丹慕扎法沙(Sultan Muzaffar Shah),1445至1459年间在位。

 

敦墨太修(Tun Mutahir),1500至1510年间在位

敦墨太修是马六甲王朝第七任宰相。他有淡米尔血统,也是一位极具影响力的穆斯林领袖。敦墨太修当宰相期间,安插了好一些自己的亲戚在马六甲皇宫中担任重要职位,这样的裙带关系引起了时任港务大臣拉惹门德利亚(Raja Mudaliar)的不满,于是诬蔑敦墨太修想要谋朝篡位。当时的苏丹马末沙(Sultan Mahmud Shah)随后下令处决敦墨太修全家,除了敦墨太修的女儿敦法蒂玛。敦法蒂玛后来嫁给了苏丹。

 

Businessmen 企业家

 

东尼费南德斯(Tony Fernandes)

Tony Fernandez

东尼费南德斯

丹斯理安东尼弗朗西斯费南德斯(Tan Sri Anthony Francis Fernandez)也就是东尼费南德斯, 1964年4月30日出生于吉隆坡一个印裔家庭。东尼费南德斯最广为人知的事迹,就是他拯救了国有企业亚洲航空(AirAsia),把它从濒临破产的边缘转变成全球最赚钱的廉价航空公司之一。除了亚航之外,他也是Tune Hotels连锁经济型酒店的创办人兼股东,以及卡特汉姆(Caterham)一级方程式车队总长。

 

阿南达克里斯南(Ananda Krishnan)

Ananda Krishnan

阿南达克里斯南

阿南达生于1938年4月1 日,其祖先是来自斯里兰卡的淡米尔人。在获得墨尔本大学文学学士和哈佛大学工商管理学院硕士学位之后,阿南达开始创立一番自己的事业。他所涉足的领域非常广,在媒体方面,他拥有寰宇电视(Astro)和英国报章《翰斯顿报》(Johnston Press);在通讯卫星方面,他拥有东亚卫星(MEASAT)和SES;在石油和天然气方面,他拥有布米阿马达(Bumi Armada)和Pexco公司;在电信业方面,他所控制的公司就包括了明讯(Maxis)、印度电讯公司Aircel、印尼Axis电讯和斯里兰卡电讯(Sri Lanka Telecom)。2016福布斯杂志全球富豪排行榜中,阿南达排名第158,也是马来西亚第2大富豪。

 

艺术与娱乐

 

V. Nagaraj

V. Nagaraj于1962年11月20日出生于一个淡米尔家庭,是马来西亚著名电影制作人兼导演。V. Nagaraj涉足马来西亚娱乐界超过30年,曾经执导多部马来电影,其中包括 “Gila-Gila Remaja”、“Mati Hidup Semula”、“Sepi Itu Indah”、“Keluarga 99” 等。他曾经以 “Ghazal Untuk Rabiah” 获得最有前途导演奖,也在印度金奈举行的马来西亚印度电影展中赢得了最佳导演奖。

 

社运参与者与社会工作者

 

安美嘉斯仁瓦山(Ambiga Sreenevasan)

Ambiga Sreenevasan

安美嘉斯仁瓦山

拿督安美嘉斯仁瓦山是一名律师,也是一名人权社运分子,1956年出生于一个印度家庭。拿督安美嘉是妇女援助组织(Women’s Aid Organisation, WAO)执行委员会成员,也是证券业纠纷调解中心(Securities Industry Dispute Resolution Centre)的董事部成员。在2007至2009年间,拿督安美嘉曾任马来西亚律师公会主席。

 

政治人物

 

敦马哈迪莫哈末

Mahathir Mohamad

敦马哈迪莫哈末

敦马哈迪莫哈末医生是马来西亚第四任首相(1981-2003),目前则是土著团结党(Malaysian United Indigenous Party)主席。敦马哈迪1925年7月10日出生在吉打州一个印度血统家庭,其父亲是一名校长,这也让他立志要把书读好。
敦马哈迪是马来西亚政坛上其中一个最重要的人物,曾经担任多项政府要职,包括国会下议院议员(1964-1969)、上议院议员(1972-1974)、第21任不结盟运动(Non-Aligned Movement)秘书长、教育部长(1974-1977)、贸易及工业部长(1978-1981)、国防部长(1981-1986)、内政部长(1986-1999)、财政部长(2001-2003)、马来西亚第四任副首相(1976-1981),以及马来西亚第四任首相(1981-2003)。

 

蒂凡那(Devan Nair Chengara Veetil, 1923 – 2005)

C.V. Devan Nair (1923 – 2005)]

蒂凡那

蒂凡那是新加坡第三任总统,于1923年8月5日出生于马六甲一个来自印度喀拉拉邦的家庭。他和家人在他10岁时移居新加坡。1954年,蒂凡那加入由李光耀(1959-1990年新加坡总理)所创立的人民行动党(People’s Action Party)。此后,他成了马新两地的著名政治人物。蒂凡那有生之年曾担任多项要职,包括马来西亚民主行动党(Democratic Action Party)秘书长(1965-1967)、马来西亚人民行动党秘书长(1965)、马来西亚雪兰莪州孟沙区国会议员(1964-1969)、新加坡安顺区国会议员(1979-1981),以及最后于1981年至1985年担任新加坡第三任总统。

 

敦善班丹(Tun V.T. Sambanthan Thevar, 1919-1979)

V. T. Sambanthan giving a garland of flowers to Tunku Abdul Rahman

敦善班丹为东姑阿都拉曼献上花环

敦善班丹全名Tun Thirunyanasambanthan s/o Veerasamy,也被称为T. Sampatang,1919年生于霹雳合丰。敦善班丹是马来西亚印度国大党(Malaysian Indian Congress, MIC)第五任(1955-1973)主席,也是争取马来亚独立的重要功臣。敦善班丹、东姑阿都拉曼和敦陈祯禄合作,领导人民争取马来亚独立建国,是公认的开国元勋。
资料来源:

  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malaysian_Indian
  • http://www.sabrizain.org/malaya/hindu2.htm
  • http://www.forbes.com/profile/ananda-krishnan/
  • http://www.worldometers.info/world-population/malaysia-population/
  • https://www.quora.com/What-are-some-of-the-achievements-of-Chola-dynasty-of-South-India
  • http://www.indexmundi.com/malaysia/demographics_profile.html
  • http://www.littleindia.com/nri/1781-indians-in-malaysia-an-alienated-community.html
  • http://www.indianhighcommission.com.my/index.html
  • http://www.malaysia.travel/en/places/states-of-malaysia/kuala-lumpur/little-india-brickfields
  • http://minorityrights.org/minorities/indians-2/
  • http://www.malaysiasite.nl/indians.htm
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tamil_place_names_in_Malaysia
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rajendra_Chola_I
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panchatantra
  • http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/thaipusam-festival-hindus-facial-body-piercings-make-pilgrimage-malaysias-batu-caves-1486368
  • http://www.wonderfulmalaysia.com/malaysia-thaipusam-hindu-festival.htm
  • http://www.timeanddate.com/holidays/malaysia/deepavali
  • http://www.wonderfulmalaysia.com/faq/deepavali.htm
  • http://www.rappler.com/life-and-style/travel/45536-kuala-lumpur-ten-places
  • http://www.malaysia-traveller.com/batu-caves.html
  • http://www.kuala-lumpur.ws/attractions/brickfields.htm
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Batu_Caves
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Onam
  • http://www.dgreetings.com/ugadi/ugadi.html
  • http://www.telugu-malaysia.com/2013/05/kuchipudi-dance-for-ugadi-celebration.html
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tun_Ali_of_Malacca
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tun_Fatimah#First_Marriage_To_Tun_Ali
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tony_Fernandes
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ananda_Krishnan
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/V._Nagaraj
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Devan_Nair
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ambiga_Sreenevasan
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/V._T._Sambanthan
  • https://asianinspirations.com.au/asian-culture/all-about-malaysian-indian-culture/
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malaysian_Indian_cuisine

更多精彩链接:

 

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One Response to 马来西亚的印度人

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  1. Alice Tay on Mar 21, 2017 at 11:40 pm

    马来西亚被公认为一个非常独特的国家。它是一个拥有多元种族、宗教和文化的国家。截至2016年7月,马来西亚共有大约31億人口,而其中印裔只占少数的6.7%,相等于约200万人。虽然如此,马来西亚各族人民依然可以和睦相处。从这篇博文,我们可以看到印度文化对马来西亚其他种族文化存有一定的影响,尤其是语文和美食方面。此外,马来西亚可称为一个民主国家,因此这里来自不同种族和宗教信仰的人民都可以各自举办庆典活动。

    感谢仁波切分享这篇有趣的博文。

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  • Stella Cheang
    Wednesday, Apr 26. 2017 06:10 PM
    OMG! This is very touching. To see a doggie who never left go of his owner in spite of death. Way more powerful than many who proclaimed “till death do us part.” Just like the human, not all doggies are as loyal as this tear-jerking pet, but I truly believe almost all doggies offer unconditional love to the person who feeds and cares for them. Even when they are stray animals. There was a stray dog who will run two streets from the entrance of the “Taman” until the car stops in front of the house, just to greet me. You can imagine the warm and conviction in my heart that these beings are more than capable of loving than many of us, human! Thank you for this lovely sharing. I miss my doggie, Sherab.

    http://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/animals-vegetarianism/faithful-dog-chases-deceased-owner.html
  • Stella Cheang
    Wednesday, Apr 26. 2017 06:00 PM
    Thank you, Pastor Seng Piow, for this amazing sharing. There is no doubt about the ability of our Guru, His Eminence the 25th Tsem Tulku Rinpoche. His incarnations have been compassionate and taken rebirth to return and spread the dharma so that sentient beings can benefit and learn some dharma in our short life.

    We shall never doubt our Guru; but must see that He is one with our Yidam and Protector, an attained being. Even if our Guru does not demonstrate clairvoyance abilities, we must never contest our Guru, for he holds the key (dharma) that can liberate us from eternal suffering in samsara.

    http://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/personal-attendant/the-miracles-of-tsem-rinpoche-true-story-1-2.html
  • Stella Cheang
    Wednesday, Apr 26. 2017 05:50 PM
    Thank you, Pastor Seng Piow, for the illustrated miracle story on how Rinpoche guided Cynthia and Marici away from danger through protector’s practice. The unseen exist, whether we like it or not. Some of them are malicious and have the affinity or karma with some of us. Hence they can cause harm and disturbance. By engaging in Protectors’ practice like Dorje Shugden and Setrap that have been practiced by the high lamas of the Gelug school of Tibetan Buddhism, we are protected and guarded against harm.

    Rinpoche is compassionate and only want the best for us. His teachings are not meant to show off the power of the divines but offer us a way out from our desperate samsara conundrum that binds us from engaging in deeper spiritual practice. Rinpoche always teaches us to focus on mind transformation and Tsongkhapa practice. How fortunate we are to have met Rinpoche in this lifetime. We must not let this rare and precious opportunity go to waste.

    http://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/personal-attendant/the-miracles-of-tsem-rinpoche-true-story-12.html
  • Samfoonheei
    Wednesday, Apr 26. 2017 04:30 PM
    Miracles do happen,when we have faith and trust in our Guru.What is important is to follow Rinpoche’s advice and do as instructed by our Guru to clear the osbtacles all the way.Angie and Herry were so fortunate to have meet Rinpoche.Its because of Rinpoche ‘s compassion and caring for his student Angie’s life was saved.Infact Rinpoche has helped many people through his intervention, advice and instructions.
    Thank you Rinpoche and Pastor Loh Seng Piow for sharing miracles stories which i enjoyed reading.
    http://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/personal-attendant/the-miracles-of-tsem-rinpoche-true-story-2.html
  • Samfoonheei
    Wednesday, Apr 26. 2017 02:45 PM
    WOW….interesting a miracles true story. Thank you Rinpoche and Pastor Loh Seng Piow for sharing.Reciting mantras by family members and doing 20 pujas done at the monastery to help the baby. These proved that pujas, which have been done for hundreds of years in the monasteries are very powerful methods for us to overcome difficulties, create huge amounts of merit and for protection, good health and long life.This show us how powerful pujas can help us when we have trust and faith in our Guru.And with Rinpoche divination,the baby was born and now a healthy boy.
    http://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/personal-attendant/the-miracles-of-tsem-rinpoche-true-story-1-2.html
  • Samfoonheei
    Wednesday, Apr 26. 2017 12:47 PM
    Thank you Rinpoche for sharing these powerful teachings.Its a privilege
    to do Dharma work to benefits other,do it with motivation and a good attitude when engaging ourselves It will be guide line for me.When we serve others to do Dharma work together at Kechara Forest Retreat ,we will improve ourself , purify our negative karma and to benefit others too.I will be sponsoring to the healings bricks soon and i will cherish every moment in supporting KFR.
    http://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/me/dharma-work-attitude-tdl.html
  • Lin Mun
    Wednesday, Apr 26. 2017 11:06 AM
    Bigfoot is just another beings living in this world although not commonly seen and live in the deep jungle in high mountains. There were many evidences that people from many parts of the world sighted this beings. Whatever shape they are I think importantly we are all sharing this world and therefore need to have mutual respect and not intervene each others.

    http://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/science-mysteries/its-in-the-scriptures-they-exist.html
  • Alice Tay
    Tuesday, Apr 25. 2017 04:26 PM
    Thank you Rinpoche and Pastor Adeline sharing this interesting post about Bodhidharma, a great master favoured meditation and introduced the Lankavatara Sutra to Chinese Buddhism.

    Here are a few points I have learned from this post:
    1. Bodhidharma had strong imprints of Dharma from the past and therefore he is interested in Buddha’s teachings and show his great wisdom. at a very young age.
    2. His strong guru devotion and determination in learning and spreading the dharma based on meditation though he confronted with difficulties such as Emperor Wu Di was not impressed by his teachings, being ostracized and rejected and lived as a beggar for many months. Notwithstanding, he continued and never give up to practice meditation in complete silence for nine years in cave wall when he was not accepted by Shaolin Monastery at the beginning .
    3. When Bodhidharma was allowed enter to the monastery, he had put a lot of efforts to help the monks in improving their physical body as well as their mind through the meditation. Then, Bodhidharma continued to develop a system of 18 dynamic tension exercises which were printed as Yi Gin Ching (Changing Muscle/Tendon Classic) in 550 CE. It is known as the Luohan (arhat) 18 Hand Movements today which serves as the basis of both Chinese Temple Boxing and the Shaolin Martial Arts.

    http://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/great-lamas-masters/bodhidharma-the-founder-of-gongfu.html
  • Stella Cheang
    Tuesday, Apr 25. 2017 04:10 PM
    Thank you, Grace, for sharing with us the many tips on how to care for and maintain our hair. Personal grooming is important because when we care for our appearance, we are respecting the people who have to deal with us. Caring for our hair, making sure that it is neat and clean should be something we need to take care of since young as it is part of personal grooming. The key is not to be attached to our body and outer-images, that results in spending much time and resources just to make ourselves look good.

    http://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/guest-contributors/how-much-do-you-know-about-hair.html
  • Alice Tay
    Tuesday, Apr 25. 2017 03:00 PM
    Thank you for sharing these wonderful and significant photos showed that Kechara Pastors’ tireless efforts to bring dharma to many others and do the blessings whenever is necessary.

    Basically, the pastorship role was conceptualized by our precious guru, H.E. Tsem Tulku Rinpoche, to preserve the Dharma and to give laypeople an opportunity to commit to benefiting others. Kechara Pastors are fully dedicated and selflessly serving others especially in spiritual growth and therefore this is good for us to support the Pastors so that they can focus and spend more of their time and effort to serve others and most importantly Buddhist teachings can be spread and shared to many others. The supports to Pastors including food, lodging, transportation, items necessary for their work, such as ritual items or spiritual gifts for those in need and many others. (If you are interested to know more about Kechara Pastors, please have a good read at http://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/kechara-13-depts/support-the-kechara-pastors.html)

    http://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/buddhas-dharma/10-amazing-house-blessings-by-kechara-pastors.html
  • Samfoonheei
    Tuesday, Apr 25. 2017 02:13 PM
    Its such a great blessing for all of us to hear the holy voice recordings of H.H Kyabje Zong Rinpoche a great master..His profound teachings ,got to take seroiusly,more as an important advice on Dorje Shugden’s practice.H.H Kyabje Zong Rinpoche’s explaination was very clear before any of the practitioner’s commitment and receive sogtae.They must keep the lineage practice and teachings no matter what ever happen.
    Thank you Rinpoche for sharing with us on the important advice by a great master.
    http://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/great-lamas-masters/kyabje-zong-rinpoches-advice-on-dorje-shugdens-practice.html
  • Lin Mun
    Tuesday, Apr 25. 2017 11:50 AM
    Thank you Pastor Han Nee for your sharing your thoughts and review about the book “Be Happy” written by Rinpoche. It is indeed not easy to be happy as we all have various expectation in every situation and people.

    We may think having a big house, lots of cash and good career is happiness but this is the wrong perception. Being happy is not about material and everything about ourselves. It is only when we can do more for others and focus out that we gain happiness. I never realised this until I joined Kechara. I think we have such a fixed mindset of what happiness is and when our expectation is not met, we are unhappy.

    Rinpoche has pointed out many ways for us to rectify our thoughts and methods to be happy. Now it is for us to take initiative to change and transform our mind if we want to be happy.

    Thank you Rinpoche and Pastor Han Nee for this article.

    http://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/buddhas-dharma/be-happy.html
  • Lin Mun
    Monday, Apr 24. 2017 12:30 PM
    Many people do not believe in reincarnation and only relates it to certain religion such as Hinduism and Buddhism. However, there were many instances and signs that proven reincarnation exist. As Buddhist we will believe in reincarnation and karma. It is by understanding that everything has its cause and effect that we should learn to live life in the correct attitude and mindset. Thank you Rinpoche for sharing this interesting articles to remind us of karma and the importance of doing dharma practise.

    http://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/science-mysteries/interesting-signs-of-reincarnation.html
  • Samfoonheei
    Sunday, Apr 23. 2017 08:29 PM
    Thank you Rinpoche for your teachings.
    Always be generous and kind in what ever we could do even its little help.It’s the little things in life that bring the greatest happiness. Its between us and our Buddha ,so we would not bother what the receipient thinks and say of us. What ever was said ,should not deter our motivation to do Dharma work.
    (It will change people’s lives in one way or another. It will change your life for the better.)….well said by Rinpoche.
    http://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/inspiration-worthy-words/its-not-between-you-and-the-recipient.html
  • Lin Mun
    Sunday, Apr 23. 2017 07:16 PM
    Thank you Grace for this interesting articles about hair. There are just so much info which we do not know previously. Most of the time we may neglect the details, thinking as long as we clean our hair everyday it is sufficient. But there are so many things we need to know for example types of hair, scalp condition, our environment and our physical condition which may affect our hair. Great tips.

    http://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/guest-contributors/how-much-do-you-know-about-hair.html

1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · »

Messages from Rinpoche

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CREDITS

Concept: Tsem Rinpoche
Technical: Lew Kwan Leng, Justin Ripley, Yong Swee Keong
Design: Justin Ripley, Cynthia Lee
Content: Tsem Rinpoche, Justin Ripley, Pastor Shin Tan, Sarah Yap
Writer: Pastor Loh Seng Piow
Admin: Pastor Loh Seng Piow, Beng Kooi

I must thank my dharma blog team who are great assets to me, Kechara and growth of dharma in this wonderful region. I am honoured and thrilled to work with them. I really am. Maybe I don't say it enough to them, but I am saying it now. I APPRECIATE THESE GUYS VERY MUCH!

Tsem Rinpoche

What Am I Writing Now

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The Unknown

The Known and unknown are both feared,
Known is being comfortable and stagnant,
The unknown may be growth and opportunities,
One shall never know if one fears the unknown more than the known.
Who says the unknown would be worse than the known?
But then again, the unknown is sometimes worse than the known. In the end nothing is known unless we endeavour,
So go pursue all the way with the unknown,
because all unknown with familiarity becomes the known.
~Tsem Rinpoche

Photos On The Go

Click on the images to view the bigger version. And scroll down and click on "View All Photos" to view more images.
Holy Lady Buddha Vajra Yogini\'s blessing can be found when we decide to focus out to others instead of in to only ourselves.
~ Tsem Tulku Rinpoche
2 weeks ago
Holy Lady Buddha Vajra Yogini's blessing can be found when we decide to focus out to others instead of in to only ourselves. ~ Tsem Tulku Rinpoche
His Holiness Vajradhara Kyabje Zong Rinpoche of Gaden Monastery who is the refuge of countless, gives a clear explanation of Dorje Shugden. One is able to hear his holy voice and translation by Geshe Tsultrim Gyeltsen! Please see here and share: http://www.tsemrinpoche.com/?p=122352
2 weeks ago
His Holiness Vajradhara Kyabje Zong Rinpoche of Gaden Monastery who is the refuge of countless, gives a clear explanation of Dorje Shugden. One is able to hear his holy voice and translation by Geshe Tsultrim Gyeltsen! Please see here and share: http://www.tsemrinpoche.com/?p=122352
: This picture says it all. Click on it to enlarge and read and please share.
2 weeks ago
: This picture says it all. Click on it to enlarge and read and please share.
This is a simple chart showing the three main psychic channels used in tantric meditations to control the winds, raise tummo (fire energy), gain higher consciousness and insight and also for gaining siddhis. These channels are used in meditations for controlling the mind, when the mind ejects from the body (phowa) and one\'s death. These three channels are very important. Tsem Rinpoche
2 weeks ago
This is a simple chart showing the three main psychic channels used in tantric meditations to control the winds, raise tummo (fire energy), gain higher consciousness and insight and also for gaining siddhis. These channels are used in meditations for controlling the mind, when the mind ejects from the body (phowa) and one's death. These three channels are very important. Tsem Rinpoche
I think my cute doggie Oser is actually Tintin\'s dog Snowy!
2 weeks ago
I think my cute doggie Oser is actually Tintin's dog Snowy!
Great Masters of Gaden Shartse Monastery. From left to right: His Eminence Kensur Jampa Yeshe Rinpoche, His Holiness Sharpa Choeje Jetsun Lobsang Nyima, H.E. Kyabje Zemey Rinpoche, H.E. Kyabje Lati Rinpoche, His Holiness 101st Gaden Tripa throne holder Jetsun Lungrik Namgyal.
3 weeks ago
Great Masters of Gaden Shartse Monastery. From left to right: His Eminence Kensur Jampa Yeshe Rinpoche, His Holiness Sharpa Choeje Jetsun Lobsang Nyima, H.E. Kyabje Zemey Rinpoche, H.E. Kyabje Lati Rinpoche, His Holiness 101st Gaden Tripa throne holder Jetsun Lungrik Namgyal.
 Left to right: Dharma boy, Mumu boy and Oser girl. The three of them are my beautiful and loved Schnauzer dogs. They loved looking through the window to see traffic, people and movement. They loved the smells that drifted through their little noses. I love seeing the three of them together like this. I love them. Tsem Rinpoche
3 weeks ago
Left to right: Dharma boy, Mumu boy and Oser girl. The three of them are my beautiful and loved Schnauzer dogs. They loved looking through the window to see traffic, people and movement. They loved the smells that drifted through their little noses. I love seeing the three of them together like this. I love them. Tsem Rinpoche
Little Mumu boy...he loved balloons. When he saw them, he wanted to get close and perhaps bite them. Cute. I love this picture of Mumu reaching for the balloons. He was young and healthy! This picture captures his energy, enthusiasm, curiosity and high energy. I love this picture of him chasing the balloons. His pictures are always so nice....He was not a pet but family to me. I love him tremendously and always will. Tsem Rinpoche
3 weeks ago
Little Mumu boy...he loved balloons. When he saw them, he wanted to get close and perhaps bite them. Cute. I love this picture of Mumu reaching for the balloons. He was young and healthy! This picture captures his energy, enthusiasm, curiosity and high energy. I love this picture of him chasing the balloons. His pictures are always so nice....He was not a pet but family to me. I love him tremendously and always will. Tsem Rinpoche
Little Mumu boy and myself.. He was not a pet but family to me. I love him tremendously and always will. Tsem Rinpoche
3 weeks ago
Little Mumu boy and myself.. He was not a pet but family to me. I love him tremendously and always will. Tsem Rinpoche
2017-His Holiness the 101st Gaden Tripa, Jetsun Lungrik Namgyal is doing well and 90 years old. His Holiness Lungrik Namgyal is a powerful master of sutra and tantra and practitioner of Dorje Shugden. Currently residing in France.
3 weeks ago
2017-His Holiness the 101st Gaden Tripa, Jetsun Lungrik Namgyal is doing well and 90 years old. His Holiness Lungrik Namgyal is a powerful master of sutra and tantra and practitioner of Dorje Shugden. Currently residing in France.
One of the most sacred statues of Avalokitesvara made of sandalwood housed in Lhasa, Tibet. He has shown miracles also. Every pilgrim wishes to make offerings to this Lord of Compassion.
3 weeks ago
One of the most sacred statues of Avalokitesvara made of sandalwood housed in Lhasa, Tibet. He has shown miracles also. Every pilgrim wishes to make offerings to this Lord of Compassion.
 Sacred Avalokitesvara statue in Nepal. Thousands come to worship this special Buddha as it has conferred wishes in the past.
3 weeks ago
Sacred Avalokitesvara statue in Nepal. Thousands come to worship this special Buddha as it has conferred wishes in the past.
Tsem Rinpoche\'s Vajra Yogini statue and offerings
3 weeks ago
Tsem Rinpoche's Vajra Yogini statue and offerings
Two of my teachers from Gaden Shartse Monastery in South India. Left side is Most Venerable Geshe Tsultrim Gyeltsen whom I lived with for 8 years in Los Angeles where his centre Thubten Dhargye Ling is located. On the right is the abbot emeritus H.E. Kyabje Lati Rinpoche the scholar and yogi. I was very fortunate to have them in my life and learn so much dharma from them. Tsem Rinpoche
3 weeks ago
Two of my teachers from Gaden Shartse Monastery in South India. Left side is Most Venerable Geshe Tsultrim Gyeltsen whom I lived with for 8 years in Los Angeles where his centre Thubten Dhargye Ling is located. On the right is the abbot emeritus H.E. Kyabje Lati Rinpoche the scholar and yogi. I was very fortunate to have them in my life and learn so much dharma from them. Tsem Rinpoche
 It is so wonderful to be kind to people, be caring, feed them, make sure they are healthy and share dharma if they are interested with them for their future. But simply to be nice to others is worth getting up and being alive...otherwise why be alive to hurt/use/distrust and hate others? No point living that way..must change that..... It is nice to live our lives to benefit others and be patient even if we have been hurt before because by caring we can heal the hurt and \'defeat\' the ones that hurt us because we don\'t become bitter..... Tsem Rinpoche
3 weeks ago
It is so wonderful to be kind to people, be caring, feed them, make sure they are healthy and share dharma if they are interested with them for their future. But simply to be nice to others is worth getting up and being alive...otherwise why be alive to hurt/use/distrust and hate others? No point living that way..must change that..... It is nice to live our lives to benefit others and be patient even if we have been hurt before because by caring we can heal the hurt and 'defeat' the ones that hurt us because we don't become bitter..... Tsem Rinpoche
Tsem Rinpoche\'s heritage in China. Must read: http://www.tsemrinpoche.com/?p=120499
3 weeks ago
Tsem Rinpoche's heritage in China. Must read: http://www.tsemrinpoche.com/?p=120499
Thank you Buddhist Pastor Chia for sharing your story on how you met His Eminence Tsem Rinpoche over 20 years ago. We can learn much from your story.~Admin  Please read: http://www.tsemrinpoche.com/?p=116928
3 weeks ago
Thank you Buddhist Pastor Chia for sharing your story on how you met His Eminence Tsem Rinpoche over 20 years ago. We can learn much from your story.~Admin Please read: http://www.tsemrinpoche.com/?p=116928
Mumu boy is incredibly photogenic. He is beyond cute. Tsem Rinpoche
3 weeks ago
Mumu boy is incredibly photogenic. He is beyond cute. Tsem Rinpoche
 (left to right) Rabten Tulku, Gonsar Rinpoche, Gyume Kensur Rinpoche, Trijang Rinpoche, H.H. Gaden Trisur Rinpoche (France)
3 weeks ago
(left to right) Rabten Tulku, Gonsar Rinpoche, Gyume Kensur Rinpoche, Trijang Rinpoche, H.H. Gaden Trisur Rinpoche (France)
Beautiful 200 roses arrived today for me as a gift from Su Ming. Very kind and thoughtful of her as usual. Tsem Rinpoche
4 weeks ago
Beautiful 200 roses arrived today for me as a gift from Su Ming. Very kind and thoughtful of her as usual. Tsem Rinpoche
It\'s good to be with kind and sincere people.
4 weeks ago
It's good to be with kind and sincere people.
If we are kind, we lose less of ourselves-Tsem Rinpoche
4 weeks ago
If we are kind, we lose less of ourselves-Tsem Rinpoche
My Mumu boy didn\'t want to eat. Eating is not one of his favorite activities throughout his life. So I talked to him to let him know why he needs to eat and keep his strength up when this photo was taken. He was listening intently and after my talk with him, he ate. Tsem Rinpoche
4 weeks ago
My Mumu boy didn't want to eat. Eating is not one of his favorite activities throughout his life. So I talked to him to let him know why he needs to eat and keep his strength up when this photo was taken. He was listening intently and after my talk with him, he ate. Tsem Rinpoche
This is so true. Click to enlarge and understand more about unpleasant people.
4 weeks ago
This is so true. Click to enlarge and understand more about unpleasant people.
This mahasiddha Kukkuripa is easy to identify as he is accompanied by a small dog whom he loved very much.
1 month ago
This mahasiddha Kukkuripa is easy to identify as he is accompanied by a small dog whom he loved very much.
Mumu taking a rest in the turquoise room. Over the years, I always feel very satisfied when I see him covered with a blanket, safe and sleeping. I always wanted to make sure he was safe from harm, illness and distress. I wanted him to have a happy and loved life. Tsem Rinpoche
1 month ago
Mumu taking a rest in the turquoise room. Over the years, I always feel very satisfied when I see him covered with a blanket, safe and sleeping. I always wanted to make sure he was safe from harm, illness and distress. I wanted him to have a happy and loved life. Tsem Rinpoche
I wrapped my little Mumu boy up in my blanket and propped him up on my bed. He didn\'t move or wiggle and just looked at me. He is one funny entertaining little guy. Tsem Rinpoche
1 month ago
I wrapped my little Mumu boy up in my blanket and propped him up on my bed. He didn't move or wiggle and just looked at me. He is one funny entertaining little guy. Tsem Rinpoche
March 2017-Coaxing my little Mumu boy to eat his meal. He was not well and therefore not hungry. Tsem Rinpoche
1 month ago
March 2017-Coaxing my little Mumu boy to eat his meal. He was not well and therefore not hungry. Tsem Rinpoche
Click on picture to enlarge and see what Milarepa says. Profound.
1 month ago
Click on picture to enlarge and see what Milarepa says. Profound.
We are always trying to get somewhere, try something new, find some friends, get some entertainment and in the end we end up in the same place. Time to really practice Dharma seriously and stop wasting time we don\'t have. ~Tsem Rinpoche
1 month ago
We are always trying to get somewhere, try something new, find some friends, get some entertainment and in the end we end up in the same place. Time to really practice Dharma seriously and stop wasting time we don't have. ~Tsem Rinpoche
March 20, 2017-Mumu is just so adorable with his bright eyes.
1 month ago
March 20, 2017-Mumu is just so adorable with his bright eyes.
More and more people inviting Lord Dorje Shugden home to connect with on their shrines. I am so happy to see this as it will benefit them and their families so much. That is the purpose to be alive which is to benefit others as much as possible. Tsem Rinpoche
1 month ago
More and more people inviting Lord Dorje Shugden home to connect with on their shrines. I am so happy to see this as it will benefit them and their families so much. That is the purpose to be alive which is to benefit others as much as possible. Tsem Rinpoche
His Eminence Tsem Rinpoche is a good sport watching his students do Halloween drag costumes for a charity show. Funny!
1 month ago
His Eminence Tsem Rinpoche is a good sport watching his students do Halloween drag costumes for a charity show. Funny!
His Eminence Tsem Rinpoche is a good sport watching his students do Halloween drag costumes for a charity show. Funny!
1 month ago
His Eminence Tsem Rinpoche is a good sport watching his students do Halloween drag costumes for a charity show. Funny!
The Japanese are very innovative. Tsem Rinpoche
1 month ago
The Japanese are very innovative. Tsem Rinpoche
Read this as it will be interesting
1 month ago
Read this as it will be interesting
Recite this before any meal or drinks for blessings of abundance. Tsem Rinpoche
1 month ago
Recite this before any meal or drinks for blessings of abundance. Tsem Rinpoche
This sacred statue of Buddha is in Nepal brought originally from Tibet and has spoken on many occasions. Very blessed to see this holy image and keep a picture...bless you always. Tsem Rinpoche
1 month ago
This sacred statue of Buddha is in Nepal brought originally from Tibet and has spoken on many occasions. Very blessed to see this holy image and keep a picture...bless you always. Tsem Rinpoche
I love Mumu boy tremendously. We went through so much together for so many years. You are a great being to be with. Tsem Rinpoche
1 month ago
I love Mumu boy tremendously. We went through so much together for so many years. You are a great being to be with. Tsem Rinpoche
Dear everyone, I am sharing this beautiful and modern altar to Dorje Shugden in Malaysia. I am glad to see more and more people creating sacred spaces. Tsem Rinpoche
1 month ago
Dear everyone, I am sharing this beautiful and modern altar to Dorje Shugden in Malaysia. I am glad to see more and more people creating sacred spaces. Tsem Rinpoche
Lhamo Karmo, a female buddha form visualized above the crown of one\'s head at the time of death, to encourage consciousness to leave the body via the crown aperture. From my book \"The Female Buddhas.\"- Glenn Mullin
2 months ago
Lhamo Karmo, a female buddha form visualized above the crown of one's head at the time of death, to encourage consciousness to leave the body via the crown aperture. From my book "The Female Buddhas."- Glenn Mullin
The Tibetan female tulku Dorje Pakmo, from a fresco on the wall of the Dorje Pakmo monastery (Samding) in Tibet, near the Turquoise Lake. In Tibet the Dorje Pakmo was ranked with the Dalai Lama, Panchen Lama and Sakya Trizin as the four highest lamas in the country.-from Glenn Mullin
2 months ago
The Tibetan female tulku Dorje Pakmo, from a fresco on the wall of the Dorje Pakmo monastery (Samding) in Tibet, near the Turquoise Lake. In Tibet the Dorje Pakmo was ranked with the Dalai Lama, Panchen Lama and Sakya Trizin as the four highest lamas in the country.-from Glenn Mullin
Dharma boy, Mumu boy and Oser girl checking out the scene..cute
2 months ago
Dharma boy, Mumu boy and Oser girl checking out the scene..cute
My Dharma boy has such a cute expression here. He is a good boy!
2 months ago
My Dharma boy has such a cute expression here. He is a good boy!
February 9,2017-My Mumu boy and Oser girl are just relaxing together..super cute
3 months ago
February 9,2017-My Mumu boy and Oser girl are just relaxing together..super cute
Click on the picture to enlarge and see what Suzy from Hawaii commented on the Dorje Shugden issue after much research. She is very candid and honest. Refreshing. Original is posted here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vl-4lIwxph4
3 months ago
Click on the picture to enlarge and see what Suzy from Hawaii commented on the Dorje Shugden issue after much research. She is very candid and honest. Refreshing. Original is posted here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vl-4lIwxph4
This is a good one to read
3 months ago
This is a good one to read
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Videos On The Go

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ASK A PASTOR


Ask the Pastors

A section for you to clarify your Dharma questions with Kechara’s esteemed pastors.

Just post your name and your question below and one of our pastors will provide you with an answer.

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  • April 20, 2017 10:45
    Ronnie asked: Dear Rinpoche and Pastors, I'm studying abroad and very far away from home, seeking guidance and advice as I have no one else I can talk to about this. Please read with an open mind, I don't know where else to go for help. I'm pregnant and it's an unplanned pregnancy. I'm stuck between keeping it or letting it go. I'm young and having a child at my age in the society we live in now would be considered taboo. The father of the child thinks I should let it go because it may cause a setback to both our careers and cause major family issues. He thinks we aren't ready to raise a child especially since we're both still in university and his parents think badly of me even though they've never met me or tried to get to know me. I'm sure no one would ever have the heart to take away a heartbeat but it seems like it isn't the right time to have a child now and if we did go through with it, the child probably won't be able to have the best things life can offer looking at where we are now in terms of finance and maturity. I'm lost, confused and unsure what the right thing to do is now. Any advice at all would be helpful right now. Thank you so very much for taking time to read my story.
    pastor answered: Dear Ronnie, I’m sorry to read that you are going through this situation. I can understand that this situation is tough to go through. You are always more than welcome to come here to ask questions. May I suggest that you talk to either someone in your family or your friends to help you come to an appropriate solution? This is because, what you feel, what you are going through, will change from time to time and you would need someone to talk to, someone that you can lean on through this situation you are facing. Depending on where you are in the world, professional help can also be sought to help you make a decision, which will be the best option for you seeking help. From a Buddhist perspective, the taking of a life is not considered a positive act, therefore those on the Buddhist path, would normally abstain taking a life if possible. However, that being said, one must always weigh the decision oneself. Everything we do in life, necessarily involves karma both positive and negative. That is why Buddhists try to overcome samsara in general. Your situation is complicated because you are abroad, but if possible you should really open up to someone you are close to in order to help you through making this decision on a personal basis. When you talk to someone, whom you are able to express yourself more, you may able to come to better decision that is right for you. There may be other options open to you if you seek help. I personally know women who have been in similar situations. One of these women, let the child go and the other went through the pregnancy and then gave the child up for adoption. You may or may not have thought of this option, but it is one that could be open to you, depending on where in the world you are. Any decision we make in life, however big or small it may seem, has far reaching consequences whether in this life, or in future lives. This is just a part and parcel of life within samsara. However, we should weigh the decisions we make clearly given the situation we are in. We cannot always do this weighing ourselves, but need to talk about our options with others we can rely on such a friends, family or professionals. You should consider doing this, which will help you greatly emotionally, and may give you the grounding you need to make the correct decision for you. I hope this helps.
  • April 19, 2017 04:57
    Dongho asked: What is a nyung ne practice? According to Lama Zopa Rinpoche, it's a purification sadhana. However, what are the instructions for this? I'm guessing it's to Chenrezig, but how does it work? Also, from what I have read, Vajrasattva practice is only for broken vows while Akshobhya is for regular misdeeds. Does that mean one has to take the Akshobhya practice to purify bad karma from this life and previous instead of Vajrasattva? As for the purification practices, are some like Vajrasattva and Chenrezig only to purify the bad karma and let it come quickly or is it to prevent it from coming? I am confused in it. As for signs, I recited a mantra of White Yangchenma that a Sakya lama, Lama Kunga Thartse Rinpoche, gave me with the Sakya visualizations I read on, and after one mala, I heard some lady call my Korean name even though no one in my neighborhood knows of my name and my family members weren't in the area. What does this mean?
    pastor answered: Dear Dongho, Thank you for your questions, it’s nice to see you back here again. Nyung Ne practice is a purification practice that centres around Chenrezig. It is a very beneficial practice that stems from a holy nun named Gelong-ma Palmo. It is a two and a half day practice that can be repeated many times over and over again to intensify the purification and build a closer relationship with Chenrezig. As well as its purification aspect, the practice is known to generate vast amount of merit, and also compassion, as the practice centres around Chenrezig, the Buddha of compassion. The practice involves taking the eight Mahayana precepts for the duration, fasting, meditating, prostrating and praying. The practice usually entails empowerment into the practice of Chenrezig, therefore the exact meditations, prayers can only be explained to those who have the empowerment. Vajrasattva practice is not necessarily only for repairing broken vows, etc. That’s why it is advised that you engage in the practice at the end of the day, to repair any vows that you may have broken during that day, as well as stopping any negative karma you created that day from multiplying. This would entail reciting the mantra 21 times, together with the four opponent powers. However, if you engage in this practice more intensely, it definitely has the capability to purify all sorts of karma. That is the reason why in Ngondro, or preliminary practices one engages in before tantra, the practice of 100,000 Vajrasattva mantra recitation is an integral part. You can read more about Vajrasattva and his practice here: http://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/prayers-and-sadhanas/an-important-purification-practice.html. Within purification practices, some of the karma will be purified completely, so you do not feel its effects at all, but when purifying other karma you will need to feel its effects somehow. For example if you have the karma to be in a car accident and get seriously injured, and you are engaging in any practice, but especially the purification practice, since you have purified most of the karma, you will only experience being in a very minor car accident, with only very superficial injuries. Therefore, in this case, the karma has been purified to the extent that it does not affect you as much, but you still need to feel part of its effect. In regards to any signs that you receive which engaging in the practices given to you by one of your specific gurus, you should report the happenings to that particular guru. He will be able to give you more of an accurate answer, as it may be related to the particular practice that he gave to you. I hope this helps. Thank you.
  • April 17, 2017 07:06
    Thomas asked: Dear Pastors, When a serkyem set has been used so much and one is ready to get rid of it and replace it with a new one. What is a respecful mode of disposal?
    pastor answered: Dear Thomas, Thank you for your question. Your question shows that you have a lot of respect for offering items, which is very good. If possible, you should try to repair the item if within your means, and doing so make embellishments to make it a better offering item, which can still be used. If this is not possible, then you should dispose of the item with a good motivation. You should think that this item has been used to make offerings to the enlightened beings, but now that it is broken or unusable, you are going to dispose of it, and replace it with a new one. Since it itself is not a receptacle of energies of the enlightened beings, such as a statue, tsa tsa or thangka, it does not require a special dissolution before being disposed of. However since it was used to make offerings, it still requires some form of respect when disposing, and this comes from one’s motivation and the way in which you dispose of it. Usually, when disposing of items in this way, make the motivation that you have used it and that it is now time to dispose of it, and replace it with a new one. When you do this you can dispose of it in a respectful manner. For example, if you are going to throw it away, you do not simply open the trash can and throw it in. You wrap it up in something, like a bag or newspaper and dispose of it respectfully. Another method you can dispose of it is to recycle the object, if the material it is made from can be recycled. That way you are more conscious of the environment as well. I hope this explanation helps. Thank you.
  • April 16, 2017 22:38
    Curious asked: Dear pastors In a recent youtube video something like paying respect to deceased ones, pastor Nirel Patel explained that merits are like the interest and good karma is like the principal sum. So merits always regenerate themselves and hence do not get used up but good karma is like the principal sum so it gets used up. So my question is what are practices that generate merit? And can we turn a mundane daily activity into a meritorious one? Maybe can you provide an example?
    pastor answered: Dear Curious, Thank you for your question. First, to clarify a point, in regards to good karma, you are right, it is like a principal sum in a bank account, but you take away from it when you experience something good in your life, and you add to it when you do good deeds. Merit on the other hand, once accrued never diminishes, therefore when something is based on merit, it is based on the energies of this never diminishing sum, which you could say is like interest. In short, the principal sum when talking about karma is always added to and subtracted from. However, when talking about merit, once you have it, there is no way to destroy it, you will always benefit from it. There are various ways to explain how to generate merit. I will explain a way that I find easiest to understand. In normal life, when we go about performing any sort of activity, be it ‘good’ or ‘bad’ we do so out of ignorance of the true nature of existence, and it is usually self-motivated. For example, we work our entire lives to generate monetary income, so that we have enough money, resources, and materials goods to be comfortable. This is self-motivated, but it is the accepted way the world works these days, and is part and parcel of being bound to samsaric life. On the other hand, the act of merit making can be categorised into three parts: i) motivation, ii) the act itself, and iii) dedication. Let’s start with motivation, when engaging in various virtuous acts, we should have the motivation that by engaging in the act, we have the motivation to alleviate the suffering of someone else, and that may we gain enlightenment so that we can benefit them in the future. The second is the act itself. The third is to dedicate the energy of the virtuous act to gaining enlightenment. These three are what make merit. This may be a little confusing, so let me give an example: giving help to a homeless person. Whereas in ordinary life, this is something praised as a very good deed, it does not create merit without motivation and dedication. In order for this to become merit, one must set the motivation that one is giving help to the homeless free of the eight worldly concerns, to alleviate their suffering and also making the motivation that you will achieve enlightenment for the sake of the person or people you are helping. Then after you have helped them, you dedicate the energy created to the spiritual journey towards full enlightenment to help all sentient beings, while at the same time benefiting as many sentient beings as possible on the way there. This transforms the act into not only a virtuous action but also one that generates merit. On the other hand, if you were to help the homeless without these, you are creating good karma, which although beneficial, keeps you bound to existence within samsara. As it is the goal of Buddhist practice to overcome the cycle of samsara, a Buddhist would want to generate merit instead of good karma. I hope this explanation helps. Thank you.
  • April 13, 2017 11:38
    D.A. asked: If Begtse Chan is not from Mongolia, what are his real origins or story exactly? And which lamas offer his empowerment? As for Manjushri Nagarakshasa, which lamas specifically offer his empowerment and practice?
    pastor answered: Dear D.A. Thank you for your question. Begtse, is also known as Chamsing, or Jamsaran in Mongolian. As mentioned in an earlier sharing with someone who also asked a question about Begtse, the practiced was introduced to Tibet from India by the translator Nyen Lotsawa, and is considered one of the main protectors of the Hayagriva cycle of tantras. According to the scriptures that derive from the Sakya tradition, who incorporated the practice from the translators, and in which tradition Begtse became a very important protector, Begtse in a previous life was born many eons ago. In that particular life, he was born as the younger prince in a royal family. His name was Drag Gye, and his older brother’s name was Drag Den. Over time both princes developed differing religious beliefs, to the point where they could not get along with each as they both held their own religious views strongly. As was the custom during that time, they decided to settle their differences through logical debate, with the loser having to convert to the winner’s religion. This custom was also prevalent in ancient India, and there are many stories of such debates occurring between the great masters of the past and those of other faiths. Drag Gye lost the various debates, but ran away instead of converting to his older brother’s religion. Drag Den caught him, and tried to punish him for breaking the rules of debate and going back on his promise. Drag Gye told his brother that even if he was killed he would not give up his religion, however if Drag Den let him go, that in the future when Drag Den became enlightened, he would protect his teachings. With that Drag Den let him go, and gave him a set of copper armour, a stick, and a bow and arrow. Drag Den also gave Drag Gye a new name: Sog Dag Yam Shi Mar Po. After this incident the two brothers never saw each other again in that lifetime. Many lives after that Drag Den was reborn as Prince Siddharta, who eventually became enlightened and is now known as Buddha Shakyamuni. Drag Gye, or Sog Dag Yam Shi Mar Po, was reborn in a cemetery in the North West direction. His parents gave birth to two eggs, one was a coral-like colour and the other was an agate-like colour. These two eggs flew high into the sky and reached the heavenly realms, there they subdued the gods. Then flying back down to earth, they subdued many nagas. Eventually they even came to threaten their own parents. The parents petitioned the Dharma protector Ekajati for her help, who threw her own staff (khatvanga) at the eggs, and broke them apart. From the coral-like coloured egg came a ferocious man with yellow hair, he proclaimed that his name was ‘Sog Dag Yam Shi Mar Po’. When he emerged he was wearing a set of copper armour, wielding a stick, copper sword, and a bow and arrow. From the agate-like coloured egg came a female who was blue in colour, her teeth were like shells, she had turquoise eyebrows, and her hair was made of fire. She emerged wielding a copper knife, ritual dagger (phurba), rode a terrifying bear and wore an intricate necklace made of agate and lapis lazuli. It was then that Ekajati once again took action, and subdued them, after which they became Dharma protectors. The male figure became known as Begtse, and the female as his sister. When you propitiate Begtse, his sister is automatically included and aids practitioners as well. As for which lama offer his practice and empowerment, most lamas do not advertise which teachings or practice they hold. Therefore you should respectfully approach lamas and ask them if they have the practice and can bestow it, or if they know of any lamas that have the practice, depending on how much you want to practice Begtse. Similarly, this applies to those lamas who have the practice of Manjushri Nagarakshasa. However, this practice is included in the Rinjung Gyatsa series of empowerments. This unique cycle of teachings, includes all 4 classes of tantric practices, and includes the practice of Manjushri Nagarakshasa. Therefore those lamas who have received the complete transmission, and have kept their commitments for this practice, are qualified to pass this on to others. I hope this explanation helps. Thank you.
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Art expression using chalks and papers is an avenue for young children to cultivate positive perspective of life and connect with their artistic or creative side. Stella, KSDS
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Art expression using chalks and papers is an avenue for young children to cultivate positive perspective of life and connect with their artistic or creative side. Stella, KSDS
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Senior students of the children class of Kechara Sunday Dharma School had their class in the ghompa every Sunday. Stella, KSDS
Besides young Karlson and Ern Ern, there are new faces in Kechara Sunday Dharma School 2-4 years old. Stella, KSDS
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Kechara Sunday Dharma School students 5-6 years old making prostration to Lama Tsongkhapa at the beginning of the class every Sunday. Stella,KSDS
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Kechara Sunday Dharma School students 5-6 years old making prostration to Lama Tsongkhapa at the beginning of the class every Sunday. Stella,KSDS
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@KecharaHouse tonite, 48 puja attendees filled the air with a loud chorus of prayer n mantra 2 Dorje Shugden n Setrap! PHNee
A big Thank You to the kind volunteers and to Jace Chong!
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A big Thank You to the kind volunteers and to Jace Chong!
Make your weekend meaningful! Contact Jace Chong to volunteer in Kechara Forest Retreat for the aviaries.
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Make your weekend meaningful! Contact Jace Chong to volunteer in Kechara Forest Retreat for the aviaries.
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Thank you to our young volunteer to improve the life of the birds in our aviary!
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One of the outdoor activities for KSDS students is to exercise the drawing that near to the nature. Alice Tay, KSDS
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Teacher Laura guided the students do meditation. Alice Tay, KSDS
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