马来西亚的印度人

Feb 10, 2017 | Views: 2,940
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Indian001

我已在马来西亚居住20多年了。这么多年来,马来西亚文化与风俗习惯中所蕴含的多样性令我十分欣赏,于是我想针对这个国家的丰富文化多写一些文章。

早在英国殖民马来亚以前,印度人就已开始迁移到本区域来,希望借此开拓贸易网、扩张影响力及推广他们的信仰。英国殖民期间,当局鼓励更多的印度人前来英属马来亚——即现今的马来西亚与新加坡——各领域工作,其中包括当警员、政府行政人员或园丘工人。然而到了第二次世界大战(1936-1945)期间和之后,随着许多印度人选择回国参加印度国民军,再加上许多英属机构也陆续从马来亚撤离,马来西亚的印裔人口亦开始减少。

到了今天,印度文化已经在马来西亚文化中留下深刻的痕迹,不管是马来文学、马来美食或马来民俗习惯,我们都可以从中看到印度文化的踪影。这篇文章主要为大家介绍印度人在马来西亚的历史发展、印度人的独特庆典、马来西亚印裔名人,以及印度文化之于马来西亚文化的影响。

詹杜固仁波切

 


 

印度人移居马来西亚

The ruins of a Hindu temple in Kedah

吉打州一座印度寺庙废墟

 

前英国殖民时期

早在英国殖民马来亚之前,印度人就已到马来亚半岛(即现今的西马半岛)来经商、传扬宗教及扩大领土和势力。印度文化在马来西亚的影响最早可见于古吉打王国。早期的古吉打王国统治者主要信奉兴都教(印度教),后来才逐渐转为回教(穆斯林)苏丹统治。古吉打王国在古代印度文献中也被称为Kadaram(或Kataha,羯荼诃),并与当时的帕拉瓦王朝(Pallava Dynasty,公元4~9世纪)和朱罗王朝(Chola Dynasty,公元9~13世纪)等强盛的印度王国维持着长期友好关系。

A map of the Chola Empire. Kedah, also known as Kadaram in India, was one of the Chola Empire’s subordinates

朱罗王朝版图。吉打在古代印度文献中也被称为Kadaram,曾经是朱罗王朝的附属国。

Emperor Rajendra Chola I

罗贞陀罗·朱罗一世(Rajendra Chola I)

A ship from the Chola Empire that can carry up to 200 people

可承载200人的朱罗王朝帆船

1025年,罗贞陀罗朱罗一世(公元1014 – 1044年)率领军队袭击室利佛逝王国(Srivijaya Kingdom)和今日的马来西亚和印尼等区域,印度商人亦随之取得了更多前来东南亚,包括马来西亚在内的经商机会。朱罗王朝的大船经常川行于恒河、马来西亚和苏门答腊之间, 这为印度商人和传教士前来经商和传教提供了很大的方便。到了今天,我们仍可看到古吉打王国与印度人民之间确实曾经频繁往来的种种迹象。在印度南部的坦贾武尔(Tanjore,曾为朱罗王朝领地)甚至出现了一个名为Kadaram Kondan(意即“吉打的征服者”)的村庄。这村庄里种有据说是从马来西亚引进的橘子品种,名为Kadarangkay或kadaram-pulp(意即“吉打果”)。

Jalan Kadaram in Kedah State

吉打州Kadaram路。路名显示印度和古吉打王国之间确实存在互动关系

 

英殖民时期

Indian plantation workers in British Malaya, by Charles Kleingrothe, a German photographer

德国摄影师Charles Kleingrothe镜头下英属马来亚时期的印裔园丘工人

英国势力于18世纪开始入侵马来亚半岛,随后成立了包含新加坡在内的英属马来亚。英政府因看上印度人的英语能力而鼓励他们迁往马来亚,从事劳工、警员、商人、政府行政人员和士兵等工作。这段时期前来马来亚的多是只身离乡背井前来谋生的印度男性,这样的情况也造成当时印度人在马来亚的流动率很高。他们来马来亚工作,尔后又返回家乡;有的只是回乡探亲,有的就此回归家乡去了。

The SS Rajula, a British vessel that transported many Indians to British Malaya

英国轮船SS Rajula号曾经载着许多印度人前来英属马来亚讨生活

20世纪初,居留于英属马来亚的印度人大约有12万人口。往后30年间,这数字翻了超过4.3倍;到了1931年,马来亚印裔人口已达64万人之多。然而到了第二次世界大战期间,由于许多印度人回国从军,马来亚印裔的人口增长率也相应降低;1931至1957年间,马来亚的印裔人口只增长了28%,达约82万人。

Artist’s illustration of an Indian coffee shop in Negeri Sembilan in British Malaya

画家笔下英属马来亚时期森美兰州的一家印度咖啡店

英殖民政府于1946至1948年间曾试图组成马来亚联邦(Malayan Union)却告失败,并于1948由马来亚联合邦(Federation of Malaya)所取代,同时恢复了马来统治者的象征地位。1957年8月31日,马来亚联合邦宣布独立,终结了英国在马来亚的殖民统治。独立后,随着英国政府和机构相继撤离马来亚,本区域的印度人口也急剧减少。

1963年9月16日,马来亚联合邦与新加坡、北婆罗洲和砂拉越联合,共同组成马来西亚联邦,简称马来西亚。新加坡于两年后的1965年脱离了马来西亚。

 

后英殖民时代

Indian010

如今仍有大量印度人涌入马来西亚。他们当中有白领专业人士,也有在印度餐厅打工的蓝领工人,还有一些人则是与本地印裔结婚,以配偶身份留下。

 

人口统计

Indian011

截至2016年7月,马来西亚共有30,949,962人口。其中印裔占6.7%,相等于约200万人;这200万人当中又以淡米尔族(Tamil)为最大族群,占90%。其余10%则由泰卢固族(Telugu)、马拉雅拉姆族(Malayalam)、旁遮普族(Punjabi)、古吉拉特族(Gujarati)和信德族(Sindhi)所组成。马来西亚印裔社群——因各自所属族群而异——多能操几种不同方言,如淡米尔语、泰卢固语、马来语、印地语或旁遮普语等。

 

宗教

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在殖民时期或更早之前迁移到马来西亚的印度人多为佛教徒或兴都教徒。然而现今印度人因种族同化的情况下,也有信奉回教或基督教者。

 

印度文化对马来西亚本土文化的影响

A performance of Hikayat Seri Rama

《罗摩圣传》(Hikayat Seri Rama)戏剧演出

 

民间传说

马来西亚好一些耳熟能详的马来文学作品,其实都受到了印度神话如《摩诃婆罗多》(Mahabharata)和《罗摩衍那》的重大影响。其中一些最古老的作品皆源自印度文,包括梵语和帕拉瓦文:

  • 《罗摩圣传》(Hikayat Seri Rama)—— 改编自印度神话《罗摩衍那》,故事情节和人物个性作细微修改。
  • 《梅隆马哈旺萨传》(Hikayat Merong Mahawangsa),又称《吉打纪年》—— 这是一部淡米尔文学作品,描述淡米尔王子与古吉打王国的渊源故事。本书也记载了朱罗王朝时期印度商人前来吉打经商的事迹。
  • 《Hikayat Panca Tanderan》 —— 改编自古印度著名动物寓言故事集《五卷书》(Panchatantra)。
  • 《仁慈鹦鹉传》(Hikayat Bayan Budiman)—— 改编自印度文学作品《鹦鹉故事七十则》(Sukasaptati)。故事中的鹦鹉为了防止女主人犯错而给她说了70则故事。
An illustration of Hikayat Merong Mahawangsa on a Malaysian stamp

马来西亚一款以《梅隆马哈旺萨传》为设计的邮票

 

语文

在语文方面,马来文也明显受到了印度文的影响。一些马来词汇源自印地文、梵文或淡米尔文原文:
部分源自印度文、梵文或淡米尔文的马来词汇:

马来文 中文意思 原文 语源
Agama 宗教 Agama 梵文
Aksara 字母 Aksara 梵文
Anugerah 恩典、祝福 Anugraha 梵文
Asmara 爱情 Smara 梵文
Buat Wuat 梵文
Bumi 地球 Bhūmi 梵文
Cendana 檀香 Candana 梵文
Dobi 洗衣店 Dhobī Hindi
Duka 悲伤 Dhuka 梵文
Kapal Kappal 淡米尔文
Kedai 商店 Kadai 淡米尔文
Kuil 寺庙 Koyil 淡米尔文
Kuda Kudda 梵文
Maha 崇高,伟大 Maha 梵文
Mangga 芒果 Mangkai 淡米尔文
Wanita 女性 Vanithai 淡米尔文/ 泰卢固文
Mutiara 珍珠 Muthu 淡米尔文
Kakak 姐姐 Akka 淡米尔文

 

马来西亚印度人的节庆

Thaipusam Festival celebration at Batu Caves

大宝森节每年都在黑风洞盛大举行

 

大宝森节——庆祝战神的诞生

大宝森节旨在纪念湿婆和雪山女神的幼子战神穆卢干(Murugan),于每年淡米尔历“泰月”满月时(一、二月间)举行。在大宝森节前一天,战神穆卢干的信徒们背上卡瓦地(Kavadi),以忏悔和赎罪的形式向战神表示谢恩。一些信徒把铜制牛奶壶顶在头上,一些则以铁钩刺穿身体各部位,这些都是供养战神的仪式。在大宝森节庆典上,时而会看到战神穆卢干的信徒们陷入一种深层的恍惚状态中,这是常有的。

Women carrying Paal Kavadi that contain milk and other holy substances during a Thaipusam procession

女信徒们在大宝森节游行队伍中头上顶着装有牛奶或其他圣品的“帕尔”(牛奶)卡瓦第(Paal Kavadi)

Thaipusam is celebrated in many Hindu temples in Malaysia, but the biggest events are usually held in the Sri Subramaniar Swamy Temple in Batu Caves.

马来西亚许多兴都教庙宇每年都有举行大宝森节庆典,当中最盛大的庆典活动则在黑风洞脚下的苏巴马廉兴都庙(Sri Subramaniar Swamy Temple)举行。

 

屠妖节——万灯节

STAR

屠妖节(Deepavali / Diwali)又称万灯节,落在印度历Kartika月(十、十一月间)。关于屠妖节的起源众说纷纭,其中一种说法是为了敬拜掌管财富、运气与昌盛的吉祥天女(Lakshmi)。为了迎接吉祥天女的到来,信徒们会进行大扫除,把家里清理得干干净净。一般家庭也会到十五碑小印度的商店和摊贩购买一些独特饰品来布置家里。附加一说,游客们也可以在这里的商店选购精美传统印度服饰和珠宝。屠妖节前夕,信徒们多会留在家里或到庙里去进行膜拜仪式,过后便与家人和亲戚欢聚一堂,享受盛宴。他们也在家里点油灯,象征着 “以光明驱走黑暗,以善良战胜邪恶”。

Deepavali celebration in Malaysia

马来西亚屠妖节庆典

 

馬拉亞利人的新年

The female members of a Malayalee family prepare vishu kanni or offering to Lord Vishnu. The offerings include gold coins, vegetables, flowers and fruits.

马拉亚利家庭的女性成员们正准备vishu kanni以供养保护之神毗湿奴。这些供品包括金币、蔬菜、鲜花和水果

Vishu是马拉亚利人的新年,落在马拉亚利历Medam月的第一天(四月第二个星期)。对马拉亚利人来说,Vishu是一年之中最吉祥的日子,也是向兴都教诸神礼敬的最佳时刻。在这充满欢乐气氛的佳节里,长辈会派钱(Kaineetam)给晚辈们。

Malayalee elders often give kaineetam or money offering to the younger generation

传统上,马拉亚利裔的长辈将派发红包Kaineetam给晚辈们

 

欧南节

The Festival of Onam, a celebration of gratitude

欧南节是一个感恩的节日

欧南节是马拉亚利人的丰收节,每年于马拉雅拉姆历Chingam月(八、九月間)举行。人们在欧南节庆祝水稻種植季節的結束,同时迎接玛哈巴立魔王(King Mahabali)从地狱归来。玛哈巴立是被毗湿奴第五化身打入地狱的慈善魔王。

The celebration of Onam at the Klang Malayalee Association

吧生马拉亚利协会欢庆欧南节

 

乌贾迪节——泰卢固人的新年

Ugadi celebration organised by Telugu Association of Malaysia

马来西亚泰卢固协会举办乌贾迪节庆典

乌贾迪节是泰卢固人欢庆新年的大日子,落在Panchanga印度历Chaitra月(三、四月間)。在乌贾迪节除夕来临之前,泰卢固人家家户户都要来个大扫除、买新衣,并以芒果叶和蓝果丽(Rangoli)装饰家里。蓝果丽是印度一种传统地画艺术,一般以彩色米、面粉、沙子、花瓣等材料来绘制。在乌贾迪节前夕,家中最年长者带领全家人向兴都神明祈祷,祈求加持,希望来年能享有健康、财富和幸福。

 

马来西亚印度人的代表性景点

以下为马来西亚两大具有浓厚印度文化色彩的景点:

Little India, Brickfields entrance

吉隆坡十五碑小印度入口牌坊

 

十五碑小印度

小印度位于吉隆坡十五碑,与中环车站(KL Sentral)只有几分钟步行距离。马来西亚政府多年前把十五碑一个住宅区转型为印度社区和商业枢纽,继而令这个地方发展成为大家熟悉的小印度。2010年10月,印度首相曼莫汉辛格与马来西亚首相纳吉阿都拉萨共同为小印度主持开幕礼。

Little India, Brickfields

十五碑小印度

顺应发展趋势,小印度的范围也从特拉维斯路(Jalan Travers)扩大至敦辛班丹路(Jalan Tun Sambathan)。这里林立着形形色色的商店,从印度美食、首饰、配饰、珠宝、时装到各种配料,可说是无所不有。小印度也是个充满活力的热闹地区,这里许多商店营运到深夜才打烊。小印度位于交通便利的市中心,游客可乘搭火车到吉隆坡中环车站,下车后再步行几分钟就能抵达。若您想要开车来,那就得要做好心理准备,这里的停车位不好找。

 

十五碑小印度旅游资讯

交通

前往十五碑小印度的交通选项:

  • 单轨火车(Monorail)—— 游客可乘搭单轨火车(KL Monorail)到敦辛班丹(Tun Sambanthan)站下车
  • 轻快铁(LRT)—— 游客可乘搭Kelana Jaya线轻快铁(LRT)到吉隆坡中环车站(KL Sentral)下车
  • 火车—— 游客可乘搭电动火车(KTM Komuter)或机场快铁(ERL)到吉隆坡中环车站下车
  • 巴士—— 游客也可选择乘搭Rapid KL巴士前往十五碑。更多巴士路线详情请浏览Rapid KL网站http://www.myrapid.com.my/

住宿
若想在十五碑小印度附近留宿,这里提供一些酒店资讯让您参考(请做进一步的资料搜集,以找到最适合您的住宿):

  1. 小印度布瑞克菲尔德OYO客房酒店(OYO Rooms Brickfields Little India)
    地址:
    My Signature Hotel Little India
    130 Jalan Thamby Abdullah
    Kuala-Lumpur, KL Sentral, 50470
    Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur
    Malaysia
    Phone: +60104011393
  2. 吉隆坡中环广场雅乐轩酒店(Aloft Kuala Lumpur Sentral Hotel)
    地址:
    No. 5 Jalan Stesen Sentral 5,
    Kuala Lumpur Sentral
    50470 Kuala Lumpur
    Malaysia
    电话: +60 3-2723 1188

 

黑风洞

Batu Caves

黑风洞

黑风洞原文“Batu Caves”,意指石灰岩溶洞群。黑风洞是印度教的朝拜圣地,位于雪兰莪州,距离吉隆坡市中心约13公里。黑风洞的建立是为了纪念战神穆卢干,这里每年吸引了上百万名兴都教徒和游客前来参观,因为这里也是大宝森节最盛大的庆典场地。游客可到寺庙拜拜以获得印度教祭司的祝福。

Batu Caves的取名灵感源自一条河流——Sungai Batu,这条河贯穿黑风洞周围的一座石灰岩山和三个主要岩洞。黑风洞的三大主洞包括了庙洞(Temple Cave or Cathedral Cave)、洞穴艺术村(Cave Villa)和罗摩衍那洞(Ramayana Cave)。
黑风洞苏巴马廉庙 (Sri Subramaniar Swamy Temple)
地址:
Batu Caves
68000 Selangor
Malaysia
电话: +603 6189 6284
传真: +603 6187 2404
电邮: [email protected]

 

庙洞( Temple Cave or Cathedral Cave)

Temple Cave or Cathedral Cave

庙洞

庙洞是黑风洞岩洞群中最大的一个,入口山脚有一尊全球最高(42米)的穆卢干镀金雕像,十分雄伟。游客必须从山脚爬上272级台阶才能进入庙洞。进入庙洞参观无需买票,但游客可随喜乐捐。

 

洞穴艺术村(Cave Villa)

Cave Villa

洞穴艺术村

洞穴艺术村位于山脚,洞里是一个艺术画廊兼博物馆,展有许多印度教的神像和彩绘。洞穴艺术村门票每人RM15,马来西亚公民则每人RM7。

Art Gallery at Cave Villa.

洞穴艺术村画廊

The pool outside Cave Villa in Batu Caves.

洞穴艺术村洞外景色

 

罗摩衍那洞(Ramayana Cave)

Ramayana Cave

罗摩衍那洞

罗摩衍那洞位于石灰岩山的最左侧。在通往罗摩衍那洞的路上,矗立着一尊15米高的绿色哈奴曼(Hanuman)神像。哈奴曼是罗摩衍那史诗中的猴神,而黑风洞出名猴子多,这或许就是猴神像被设立在这里的原因吧。

除了哈奴曼神像之外,游客也可前往参观毗湿奴第七化身罗摩之庙。庙内壁画描述着罗摩衍那生平事迹。进入罗摩衍那洞的门票为每人RM5。

Hanuman statue in front of Ramayana Cave

罗摩衍那洞前的猴神哈奴曼神像

 

黑风洞交通资讯

黑风洞位于吉隆坡市中心以北13公里。每年大宝森节举行期间,游客和信徒们可从吉隆坡中环车站乘搭特别增设的直通巴士前往黑风洞。游客也可以叫的士服务;或从中环车站乘搭KTM电动火车(黑风洞 – 芙蓉线)前往目的地,火车票单程每人RM2。

 

马来西亚印度美食

Banana Leaf Rice

香蕉叶饭

论及马来西亚美食肯定少不了印度风味美食。由于马来西亚印度人有百分之90来自淡米尔族,因此这里的印度食物也偏重于南印度风味,并形成了一种独特的“嘛嘛”(Mamak)美食。

印度美食一般上都少不了咖喱叶、丁香等香料、豆蔻、肉桂和新鲜椰浆等配料。比较广为人知的印度美食就包括了阿杂(accar)、阿榜糕(appam)、椰浆蔬菜(Avial)、香蕉叶饭(banana leaf)、印度香饭(nasi briyani)、印度煎饼(roti canai)、印度麦面饼(chapatti)及其它等。

Briyani Rice

印度香饭

Roti Canai

印度煎饼

如果您想要品尝正宗的印度美食,可以试试以下这几家餐馆:
Spice of India
地址:
Level 4 Suria KLCC, Suria KLCC
Jalan Ampang
50088 Kuala Lumpur
Malaysia
电话: +60 3-2164 9221
营业时间: 11:30AM–10PM
Chappati.com
地址:
9B-2, Jalan Kemajuan
Seksyen 13,
Petaling Jaya
46200 Selangor
Malaysia
电话:+60 3-7931 3106
营业时间:11:30AM–2:30PM, 5:30–10:30PM
Namaste Indian Restaurant
地址:
4, Jalan Datuk Sulaiman
Taman Tun Dr Ismail
60000 Kuala Lumpur
Malaysia
电话:+60 3-7724 1195
营业时间: 10AM–10PM
Sagar Restaurant Sdn. Bhd.
地址:
4, Lorong Maarof, Bangsar
59000 Kuala Lumpur
Malaysia
电话:+60 3-2284 2532
营业时间: 12–3PM, 6–10:30PM

 

知名大马印裔历史人物

在马来西亚漫长历史中,印度人对于这国家的贡献可说是功不可没。以下为大家介绍几位著名的印裔历史人物:

 

历史人物

An artist’s illustration of Tun Fatimah on a Malaysian stamp

印有敦法蒂玛肖像的马来西亚邮票

 

敦法蒂玛(Tun Fatimah)

敦法蒂玛是敦墨泰修家族被灭门后唯一存活的女儿。敦法蒂玛的第一任丈夫是敦阿里,在苏丹马末沙处决了敦墨太修全家(包括敦阿里)之后,她便嫁给了苏丹成为三太太。嫁给了苏丹的前几年,敦法蒂玛由于悲伤过度而几度流产。后来苏丹向她承诺,若生下儿子,便让她的儿子成为王位的推定继承人。尔后,敦法蒂玛相继诞下了二男二女。

Malay actress Maria Menado playing the role of Tun Fatimah.

马来女演员Maria Menado扮演敦法蒂玛

敦法蒂玛是一位魅力型的王后。在位期间,她让所有涉及杀害她全家——除了她的丈夫——的罪人得到应有的惩罚。在葡萄牙入侵马六甲后,她的两名儿子向外发展势力并建立了各自的苏丹国。她的大儿子拉惹罗登阿里(Raja Raden Ali)建立了霹雳苏丹国;二儿子苏丹阿拉乌丁(Alauddin Riayat Shah II)则建立了柔佛苏丹王朝。

 

敦阿里(Sri Nara Diraja Tun Ali),1445至1456年间在位

敦阿里是马六甲王朝第四任宰相,淡米尔族,也是马六甲王朝历史中的一个强悍角色。敦阿里在他的君主拉惹斯里拜里米苏(Raja Sri Parameswara Dewa Shah),又称苏丹阿布沙希德沙(Sultan Abu Syahid Shah)逝世后,推立自己的外甥拉惹卡西姆(Raja Kassim)为王,并封他为苏丹慕扎法沙(Sultan Muzaffar Shah),1445至1459年间在位。

 

敦墨太修(Tun Mutahir),1500至1510年间在位

敦墨太修是马六甲王朝第七任宰相。他有淡米尔血统,也是一位极具影响力的穆斯林领袖。敦墨太修当宰相期间,安插了好一些自己的亲戚在马六甲皇宫中担任重要职位,这样的裙带关系引起了时任港务大臣拉惹门德利亚(Raja Mudaliar)的不满,于是诬蔑敦墨太修想要谋朝篡位。当时的苏丹马末沙(Sultan Mahmud Shah)随后下令处决敦墨太修全家,除了敦墨太修的女儿敦法蒂玛。敦法蒂玛后来嫁给了苏丹。

 

Businessmen 企业家

 

东尼费南德斯(Tony Fernandes)

Tony Fernandez

东尼费南德斯

丹斯理安东尼弗朗西斯费南德斯(Tan Sri Anthony Francis Fernandez)也就是东尼费南德斯, 1964年4月30日出生于吉隆坡一个印裔家庭。东尼费南德斯最广为人知的事迹,就是他拯救了国有企业亚洲航空(AirAsia),把它从濒临破产的边缘转变成全球最赚钱的廉价航空公司之一。除了亚航之外,他也是Tune Hotels连锁经济型酒店的创办人兼股东,以及卡特汉姆(Caterham)一级方程式车队总长。

 

阿南达克里斯南(Ananda Krishnan)

Ananda Krishnan

阿南达克里斯南

阿南达生于1938年4月1 日,其祖先是来自斯里兰卡的淡米尔人。在获得墨尔本大学文学学士和哈佛大学工商管理学院硕士学位之后,阿南达开始创立一番自己的事业。他所涉足的领域非常广,在媒体方面,他拥有寰宇电视(Astro)和英国报章《翰斯顿报》(Johnston Press);在通讯卫星方面,他拥有东亚卫星(MEASAT)和SES;在石油和天然气方面,他拥有布米阿马达(Bumi Armada)和Pexco公司;在电信业方面,他所控制的公司就包括了明讯(Maxis)、印度电讯公司Aircel、印尼Axis电讯和斯里兰卡电讯(Sri Lanka Telecom)。2016福布斯杂志全球富豪排行榜中,阿南达排名第158,也是马来西亚第2大富豪。

 

艺术与娱乐

 

V. Nagaraj

V. Nagaraj于1962年11月20日出生于一个淡米尔家庭,是马来西亚著名电影制作人兼导演。V. Nagaraj涉足马来西亚娱乐界超过30年,曾经执导多部马来电影,其中包括 “Gila-Gila Remaja”、“Mati Hidup Semula”、“Sepi Itu Indah”、“Keluarga 99” 等。他曾经以 “Ghazal Untuk Rabiah” 获得最有前途导演奖,也在印度金奈举行的马来西亚印度电影展中赢得了最佳导演奖。

 

社运参与者与社会工作者

 

安美嘉斯仁瓦山(Ambiga Sreenevasan)

Ambiga Sreenevasan

安美嘉斯仁瓦山

拿督安美嘉斯仁瓦山是一名律师,也是一名人权社运分子,1956年出生于一个印度家庭。拿督安美嘉是妇女援助组织(Women’s Aid Organisation, WAO)执行委员会成员,也是证券业纠纷调解中心(Securities Industry Dispute Resolution Centre)的董事部成员。在2007至2009年间,拿督安美嘉曾任马来西亚律师公会主席。

 

政治人物

 

敦马哈迪莫哈末

Mahathir Mohamad

敦马哈迪莫哈末

敦马哈迪莫哈末医生是马来西亚第四任首相(1981-2003),目前则是土著团结党(Malaysian United Indigenous Party)主席。敦马哈迪1925年7月10日出生在吉打州一个印度血统家庭,其父亲是一名校长,这也让他立志要把书读好。
敦马哈迪是马来西亚政坛上其中一个最重要的人物,曾经担任多项政府要职,包括国会下议院议员(1964-1969)、上议院议员(1972-1974)、第21任不结盟运动(Non-Aligned Movement)秘书长、教育部长(1974-1977)、贸易及工业部长(1978-1981)、国防部长(1981-1986)、内政部长(1986-1999)、财政部长(2001-2003)、马来西亚第四任副首相(1976-1981),以及马来西亚第四任首相(1981-2003)。

 

蒂凡那(Devan Nair Chengara Veetil, 1923 – 2005)

C.V. Devan Nair (1923 – 2005)]

蒂凡那

蒂凡那是新加坡第三任总统,于1923年8月5日出生于马六甲一个来自印度喀拉拉邦的家庭。他和家人在他10岁时移居新加坡。1954年,蒂凡那加入由李光耀(1959-1990年新加坡总理)所创立的人民行动党(People’s Action Party)。此后,他成了马新两地的著名政治人物。蒂凡那有生之年曾担任多项要职,包括马来西亚民主行动党(Democratic Action Party)秘书长(1965-1967)、马来西亚人民行动党秘书长(1965)、马来西亚雪兰莪州孟沙区国会议员(1964-1969)、新加坡安顺区国会议员(1979-1981),以及最后于1981年至1985年担任新加坡第三任总统。

 

敦善班丹(Tun V.T. Sambanthan Thevar, 1919-1979)

V. T. Sambanthan giving a garland of flowers to Tunku Abdul Rahman

敦善班丹为东姑阿都拉曼献上花环

敦善班丹全名Tun Thirunyanasambanthan s/o Veerasamy,也被称为T. Sampatang,1919年生于霹雳合丰。敦善班丹是马来西亚印度国大党(Malaysian Indian Congress, MIC)第五任(1955-1973)主席,也是争取马来亚独立的重要功臣。敦善班丹、东姑阿都拉曼和敦陈祯禄合作,领导人民争取马来亚独立建国,是公认的开国元勋。
资料来源:

  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malaysian_Indian
  • http://www.sabrizain.org/malaya/hindu2.htm
  • http://www.forbes.com/profile/ananda-krishnan/
  • http://www.worldometers.info/world-population/malaysia-population/
  • https://www.quora.com/What-are-some-of-the-achievements-of-Chola-dynasty-of-South-India
  • http://www.indexmundi.com/malaysia/demographics_profile.html
  • http://www.littleindia.com/nri/1781-indians-in-malaysia-an-alienated-community.html
  • http://www.indianhighcommission.com.my/index.html
  • http://www.malaysia.travel/en/places/states-of-malaysia/kuala-lumpur/little-india-brickfields
  • http://minorityrights.org/minorities/indians-2/
  • http://www.malaysiasite.nl/indians.htm
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tamil_place_names_in_Malaysia
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rajendra_Chola_I
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panchatantra
  • http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/thaipusam-festival-hindus-facial-body-piercings-make-pilgrimage-malaysias-batu-caves-1486368
  • http://www.wonderfulmalaysia.com/malaysia-thaipusam-hindu-festival.htm
  • http://www.timeanddate.com/holidays/malaysia/deepavali
  • http://www.wonderfulmalaysia.com/faq/deepavali.htm
  • http://www.rappler.com/life-and-style/travel/45536-kuala-lumpur-ten-places
  • http://www.malaysia-traveller.com/batu-caves.html
  • http://www.kuala-lumpur.ws/attractions/brickfields.htm
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Batu_Caves
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Onam
  • http://www.dgreetings.com/ugadi/ugadi.html
  • http://www.telugu-malaysia.com/2013/05/kuchipudi-dance-for-ugadi-celebration.html
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tun_Ali_of_Malacca
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tun_Fatimah#First_Marriage_To_Tun_Ali
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tony_Fernandes
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ananda_Krishnan
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/V._Nagaraj
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Devan_Nair
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ambiga_Sreenevasan
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/V._T._Sambanthan
  • https://asianinspirations.com.au/asian-culture/all-about-malaysian-indian-culture/
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malaysian_Indian_cuisine

更多精彩链接:

 

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One Response to 马来西亚的印度人

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  1. Alice Tay on Mar 21, 2017 at 11:40 pm

    马来西亚被公认为一个非常独特的国家。它是一个拥有多元种族、宗教和文化的国家。截至2016年7月,马来西亚共有大约31億人口,而其中印裔只占少数的6.7%,相等于约200万人。虽然如此,马来西亚各族人民依然可以和睦相处。从这篇博文,我们可以看到印度文化对马来西亚其他种族文化存有一定的影响,尤其是语文和美食方面。此外,马来西亚可称为一个民主国家,因此这里来自不同种族和宗教信仰的人民都可以各自举办庆典活动。

    感谢仁波切分享这篇有趣的博文。

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  • Samfoonheei
    Sunday, Mar 26. 2017 04:15 PM
    Very clear explanation of what is Vajrayogini’s left foot stepping on. Each time when i have a look at the beautiful statue of Vajrayogini this question will comes back to me. i am glad came across these blog by chance, i saw and read to understand better.A clear explanation ..stampling left and right foot significant of desire ,hatred and ignorance that cause us to be in samsara and she she able to control.Vajrayogni’s practices is so powerful in heliping us and that is the reason Rinpoche always ask us to start now.
    Thank you Rinpoche for sharing these short explanation in the video and the interesting story of Mahadeva.
    http://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/buddhas-dharma/facebook-question-what-is-vajra-yoginis-left-foot-stepping-on.html
  • Stella Cheang
    Sunday, Mar 26. 2017 02:44 PM
    Rejoice to all the families who had setup a Buddhist altar at home and conducted a house blessing puja. There are diverse benefits of conducting the house blessing puja, which ranges from bringing well-being on all levels – in one’s health, relationships, business, and family – to purifying the home. The puja ceremonies will purify the environment which helps the people who live there and people who are visiting there to experience general well-being. The puja can be personalised based on the request or need of the individual. Thank you for sharing with us the many photos of the beautiful altar of these families, it is very heartwarming to know that they will always be blessed by the Three Jewels.

    http://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/buddhas-dharma/10-amazing-house-blessings-by-kechara-pastors.html
  • Stella Cheang
    Sunday, Mar 26. 2017 02:24 PM
    Thank you for sharing this mindfully planned itinerary for everyone who is interested in visiting Kechara Forest Retreat. Kechara Forest Retreat has different facets that showcase different elements of spirituality and Tibetan Buddhism in this wholesale venue. One can enjoy the flora and fauna of Mother Nature, or embrace the contemporary architectures that feature many magnificent Buddha statues and authentic Himalayan decorations. Not forgetting to mention, in Kechara Forest Retreat sits the largest Dorje Shugden statue in the world! This is a holy place we must never miss to pay homage for blessings from the Three Jewels.

    http://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/kechara-13-depts/go-bentong.html
  • Pastor Shin Tan
    Sunday, Mar 26. 2017 01:07 PM
    金泽“财王”护法殿

    在禅修林的入口处的左边有一间小佛堂,是全天候二十四小时开放给大众的。这间佛堂的一砖一瓦都是由不同善心人士捐增的。也因为他们过后发了一笔小财,所以在大马文东,金泽护法一般被简称为“财王“。

    根据佛陀教诲,五蕴是组成众生的五个方面,分别是色、受、想、行、识。证悟者如多杰雄登能将五蕴分别化现成不同的本尊。金泽是多杰雄登“受”蕴的化现,作用是协助我们增长世俗和修行上的财富。“受”蕴是我们对愉悦或不悦感受的认知。我们执着于愉悦,避免不悦,而这正是导致我们受困和造下各种业,继而产生痛苦的因(此段原文: http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_6d7edf5f0102x1n6.html)

    来到这里,我们首先要上香。做生意的朋友可要趁此机会拜拜,供养一个大的莲花蜡烛,上三根大香,祈求今年一帆风顺哦。

    摘自“GO BENTONG!与菩萨有约”
    http://www.tsemrinpoche.com/?p=120808
  • Lin Mun
    Saturday, Mar 25. 2017 11:02 PM
    Can’t imagine that a priest actually stabbed Pope John Paul. How can he do this when he as a priest is suppose to be compassion and love everyone but kill the religion leader. he should remember that he carries the name priest and hence must show good example and behaviour to others but instead took another person’s life.

    I respected Pope John who continued his trip even though he was injured. That shows the determination he had to teach so it can benefit others. Always put others first more than our own needs.

    Thank you Rinpoche for sharing this article.

    http://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/current-affairs/pope-john-paul-stabbed-by-priest.html
  • Stella Cheang
    Saturday, Mar 25. 2017 08:13 PM
    It is admirable for Sine Lindholm & Mads Ulrik Husum to place their design as open source for everyone to download and copy to manufacture. This shows how farsighted they are in propelling self-sustainability. The first step is always the hardest, and I believe what Sine and Mads had done is towards the right direction. In this way, people from all the around the world who genuinely are passionate and interested in growing own vegetables will be able to start on their own. Without needing to rely on middleman or manufacturer who might end up making the brilliant idea a commercial white elephant. Thank you, Rinpoche for this sharing.

    http://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/animals-vegetarianism/build-your-own-growroom.html
  • Alice Tay
    Friday, Mar 24. 2017 10:05 PM
    Many companies especially in overseas are very considerate and allow their employees to bring their dogs to work. I personally think that this is a very good practice where the employees no longer have to worry about leaving pets at home alone. The work environments that cultivate loving kindness, caring and compassion create a much more positive and productive place to work. Besides, it may influence everyone especially those who do not have pet to be more kind to the animals.

    Nevertheless, the employer and employees may have to work together to maintain the safe and cleanliness work place such as reduce odour, provide clean air and many others.

    Thank you for this interesting article as a reminder to us to love and be kind to animals no matter where we are.

    http://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/animals-vegetarianism/inside-the-worlds-most-dog-friendly-office.html
  • Lin Mun
    Friday, Mar 24. 2017 07:06 PM
    Superb idea and very creative. Home farming in the cities ! Appreciate all the hardwork and ideas to produce Growroom. It’s just like putting a big puzzle and making the whole process so much easier to plant in cities where we always have limited spaces.

    We should support more people to come up with such ideas so we can eat our own food and cultivate self sustainability.

    http://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/animals-vegetarianism/build-your-own-growroom.html
  • Pastor Shin Tan
    Friday, Mar 24. 2017 01:40 PM
    When on the hospital bed nearing our last breath, nothing matters except for the practice and transformation we have done in dharma in our lifetime.

    Our money, wishes, houses, clothes, jewelry, reputation, spouses, desires, dreams, greed, anger, possessions, explanations will be of no use at all. It will in fact even be a hindrance scratching at our mind’s energy to let go and we cannot.

    Since they are no use at that momentous event, we should continue that thought now and understand what we should truly cultivate now. This thought must translate into action not just scholastic thoughts and meanderings of the mind for self deception or imitation spiritual satisfaction. This is what I think daily and everyday as part of my meditations on death and impermanence according to first chapter of Lam Rim.
    ~H.E. Tsem Tulku Rinpoche

    Learn more here: http://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/buddhas-dharma/the-dying-process.html
  • Samfoonheei
    Friday, Mar 24. 2017 12:11 PM
    Amazing and very creative architecture designed space for our home grown foods.It is a good idea for those living in the cities.The Growroom is beautifully produced made it convenience which enables people to connect with nature surrounding with plants. The smell of herbs and plants makes cities dwellers to live in happiness and healthy.
    Its takes alot of effort and determination for anyone to build a growroom.Well they can do it,if they have the will power….hoping someday KFR will have one too.
    Thank you Rinpoche for sharing.
    http://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/animals-vegetarianism/build-your-own-growroom.html
  • nut
    Friday, Mar 24. 2017 01:39 AM
    Lazynnes ,negative karma!and mends samajas …ITS very very , inderdependent motivations lewwels of awareness Teacher’Quality &sangha quantity ,first when samajas ARE pure Empowerment full blessings later?so give less Empowerment ITS OK.ccTR IS Wise.
    [no sender]
  • nut
    Friday, Mar 24. 2017 01:32 AM
    http://www.aikidosydneycity.com/interview-with-takeda-shihan-by-aikikai-hombu-dojo/ yes yes sumikiri!i m sure HE practice martial arts in many previous lives AS well AS have family’karma conected with ai!ki flow,,,so NEUTRAL his re:for attacks ARE.,above normal fighter skills!___and i m skull in maya astro,fine and wanth share:#####paranormalTSEMsection on:::: antarctica aliens& JFK ,Peru as egg skulls.________________have a good day&nice PRactICE.____THE LIGHT be?or just show options that can be used.
    [no sender]
  • nut
    Friday, Mar 24. 2017 01:23 AM
    For example B_LOCK can be neutral karma ,butRE_PLAY reactions can make diferent results in second person?
    [no sender]
  • nut
    Friday, Mar 24. 2017 01:22 AM
    NEUTRAL karma not make good ,not bad result!but ITS STill karma so IS not done from lewwels of acomplishment where IS NO NEW karma acumulations.
    [no sender]
  • nut
    Friday, Mar 24. 2017 01:16 AM

1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · »

CREDITS

Concept: Tsem Rinpoche
Technical: Lew Kwan Leng, Justin Ripley, Yong Swee Keong
Design: Justin Ripley, Cynthia Lee
Content: Tsem Rinpoche, Justin Ripley, Pastor Shin Tan, Sarah Yap
Writer: Pastor Loh Seng Piow
Admin: Pastor Loh Seng Piow, Beng Kooi

I must thank my dharma blog team who are great assets to me, Kechara and growth of dharma in this wonderful region. I am honoured and thrilled to work with them. I really am. Maybe I don't say it enough to them, but I am saying it now. I APPRECIATE THESE GUYS VERY MUCH!

Tsem Rinpoche

What Am I Writing Now

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  Bigfoot, Yeti, Sasquatch

The Unknown

The Known and unknown are both feared,
Known is being comfortable and stagnant,
The unknown may be growth and opportunities,
One shall never know if one fears the unknown more than the known.
Who says the unknown would be worse than the known?
But then again, the unknown is sometimes worse than the known. In the end nothing is known unless we endeavour,
So go pursue all the way with the unknown,
because all unknown with familiarity becomes the known.
~Tsem Rinpoche

Photos On The Go

Click on the images to view the bigger version. And scroll down and click on "View All Photos" to view more images.
March 2017-Coaxing my little Mumu boy to eat his meal. He was not well and therefore not hungry. Tsem Rinpoche
21 seconds ago
March 2017-Coaxing my little Mumu boy to eat his meal. He was not well and therefore not hungry. Tsem Rinpoche
Click on picture to enlarge and see what Milarepa says. Profound.
7 days ago
Click on picture to enlarge and see what Milarepa says. Profound.
We are always trying to get somewhere, try something new, find some friends, get some entertainment and in the end we end up in the same place. Time to really practice Dharma seriously and stop wasting time we don\'t have. ~Tsem Rinpoche
7 days ago
We are always trying to get somewhere, try something new, find some friends, get some entertainment and in the end we end up in the same place. Time to really practice Dharma seriously and stop wasting time we don't have. ~Tsem Rinpoche
March 20, 2017-Mumu is just so adorable with his bright eyes.
1 week ago
March 20, 2017-Mumu is just so adorable with his bright eyes.
More and more people inviting Lord Dorje Shugden home to connect with on their shrines. I am so happy to see this as it will benefit them and their families so much. That is the purpose to be alive which is to benefit others as much as possible. Tsem Rinpoche
1 week ago
More and more people inviting Lord Dorje Shugden home to connect with on their shrines. I am so happy to see this as it will benefit them and their families so much. That is the purpose to be alive which is to benefit others as much as possible. Tsem Rinpoche
His Eminence Tsem Rinpoche is a good sport watching his students do Halloween drag costumes for a charity show. Funny!
1 week ago
His Eminence Tsem Rinpoche is a good sport watching his students do Halloween drag costumes for a charity show. Funny!
His Eminence Tsem Rinpoche is a good sport watching his students do Halloween drag costumes for a charity show. Funny!
1 week ago
His Eminence Tsem Rinpoche is a good sport watching his students do Halloween drag costumes for a charity show. Funny!
The Japanese are very innovative. Tsem Rinpoche
1 week ago
The Japanese are very innovative. Tsem Rinpoche
Read this as it will be interesting
1 week ago
Read this as it will be interesting
Recite this before any meal or drinks for blessings of abundance. Tsem Rinpoche
1 week ago
Recite this before any meal or drinks for blessings of abundance. Tsem Rinpoche
This sacred statue of Buddha is in Nepal brought originally from Tibet and has spoken on many occasions. Very blessed to see this holy image and keep a picture...bless you always. Tsem Rinpoche
1 week ago
This sacred statue of Buddha is in Nepal brought originally from Tibet and has spoken on many occasions. Very blessed to see this holy image and keep a picture...bless you always. Tsem Rinpoche
I love Mumu boy tremendously. We went through so much together for so many years. You are a great being to be with. Tsem Rinpoche
1 week ago
I love Mumu boy tremendously. We went through so much together for so many years. You are a great being to be with. Tsem Rinpoche
Dear everyone, I am sharing this beautiful and modern altar to Dorje Shugden in Malaysia. I am glad to see more and more people creating sacred spaces. Tsem Rinpoche
1 week ago
Dear everyone, I am sharing this beautiful and modern altar to Dorje Shugden in Malaysia. I am glad to see more and more people creating sacred spaces. Tsem Rinpoche
Lhamo Karmo, a female buddha form visualized above the crown of one\'s head at the time of death, to encourage consciousness to leave the body via the crown aperture. From my book \"The Female Buddhas.\"- Glenn Mullin
2 weeks ago
Lhamo Karmo, a female buddha form visualized above the crown of one's head at the time of death, to encourage consciousness to leave the body via the crown aperture. From my book "The Female Buddhas."- Glenn Mullin
The Tibetan female tulku Dorje Pakmo, from a fresco on the wall of the Dorje Pakmo monastery (Samding) in Tibet, near the Turquoise Lake. In Tibet the Dorje Pakmo was ranked with the Dalai Lama, Panchen Lama and Sakya Trizin as the four highest lamas in the country.-from Glenn Mullin
2 weeks ago
The Tibetan female tulku Dorje Pakmo, from a fresco on the wall of the Dorje Pakmo monastery (Samding) in Tibet, near the Turquoise Lake. In Tibet the Dorje Pakmo was ranked with the Dalai Lama, Panchen Lama and Sakya Trizin as the four highest lamas in the country.-from Glenn Mullin
Dharma boy, Mumu boy and Oser girl checking out the scene..cute
4 weeks ago
Dharma boy, Mumu boy and Oser girl checking out the scene..cute
My Dharma boy has such a cute expression here. He is a good boy!
4 weeks ago
My Dharma boy has such a cute expression here. He is a good boy!
February 9,2017-My Mumu boy and Oser girl are just relaxing together..super cute
2 months ago
February 9,2017-My Mumu boy and Oser girl are just relaxing together..super cute
Click on the picture to enlarge and see what Suzy from Hawaii commented on the Dorje Shugden issue after much research. She is very candid and honest. Refreshing. Original is posted here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vl-4lIwxph4
2 months ago
Click on the picture to enlarge and see what Suzy from Hawaii commented on the Dorje Shugden issue after much research. She is very candid and honest. Refreshing. Original is posted here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vl-4lIwxph4
This is a good one to read
2 months ago
This is a good one to read
Mumu is silly and cute and funny
2 months ago
Mumu is silly and cute and funny
Mumu\'s hair is messy and he looks funny
2 months ago
Mumu's hair is messy and he looks funny
I am in the process of creating beautiful Dorje Shugden and Kechara Forest Retreat watches at this time. So we can take precious protector and Kechara Forest Retreat wherever we go and be blessed everytime we see what time it is. 
I am perfecting the designs with a great team and will update when done but these are just some samples that arrived. 
Feast your eyes! 

Tsem Rinpoche
2 months ago
I am in the process of creating beautiful Dorje Shugden and Kechara Forest Retreat watches at this time. So we can take precious protector and Kechara Forest Retreat wherever we go and be blessed everytime we see what time it is. I am perfecting the designs with a great team and will update when done but these are just some samples that arrived. Feast your eyes! Tsem Rinpoche
                        Pick the practice, devotion and precepts of Vajra Yogini\'s path over everything and anything in samsara. Samsara has nothing of value and nothing lasting to offer. You are born in suffering, live in suffering, die in suffering and enter bardo and future lives expecting more sufferings. This is not a negative way of looking at things but the truth. If the truth is negative, so it is the truth. Devote oneself to the guru, dharma work, dharma practice and bringing dharma to others compassionately. Choose to practice Vajra Yogini now with the preliminaries. You can start right now: http://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/inspiration-worthy-words/starting-on-vajra-yogini-now.html  Much care, Tsem Rinpoche
3 months ago
Pick the practice, devotion and precepts of Vajra Yogini's path over everything and anything in samsara. Samsara has nothing of value and nothing lasting to offer. You are born in suffering, live in suffering, die in suffering and enter bardo and future lives expecting more sufferings. This is not a negative way of looking at things but the truth. If the truth is negative, so it is the truth. Devote oneself to the guru, dharma work, dharma practice and bringing dharma to others compassionately. Choose to practice Vajra Yogini now with the preliminaries. You can start right now: http://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/inspiration-worthy-words/starting-on-vajra-yogini-now.html Much care, Tsem Rinpoche
Message to Tibetans in English
3 months ago
Message to Tibetans in English
Message to the Tibetans
3 months ago
Message to the Tibetans
Left to right: Kensur Jampa Yeshe Rinpoche, Sharpa Choeje Jetsun Lobsang Nyima, Kyabje Zemey Rinpoche, Kyabje Lati Rinpoche, 101st Gaden Tripa Jetsun Lungrik Namgyal. Great lamas of Gaden Shartse Monastery
3 months ago
Left to right: Kensur Jampa Yeshe Rinpoche, Sharpa Choeje Jetsun Lobsang Nyima, Kyabje Zemey Rinpoche, Kyabje Lati Rinpoche, 101st Gaden Tripa Jetsun Lungrik Namgyal. Great lamas of Gaden Shartse Monastery
A beautiful Indian rendition of Gyenze Dorje Shugden manifesting in wealth form
3 months ago
A beautiful Indian rendition of Gyenze Dorje Shugden manifesting in wealth form
This is my thoughts and determination to share with you. Please open and read. Thank you for your time. Tsem Rinpoche
3 months ago
This is my thoughts and determination to share with you. Please open and read. Thank you for your time. Tsem Rinpoche
Nepalese King Birendra receives His Holiness Panchen Rinpoche in Nepal
3 months ago
Nepalese King Birendra receives His Holiness Panchen Rinpoche in Nepal
Guess what Zava Damdin Rinpoche did in Mongolia recently with 7,800 people??? Very interesting and it is a must read:  http://www.tsemrinpoche.com/?p=116206
3 months ago
Guess what Zava Damdin Rinpoche did in Mongolia recently with 7,800 people??? Very interesting and it is a must read:  http://www.tsemrinpoche.com/?p=116206
This huge Buddha in Korea is magnificent
4 months ago
This huge Buddha in Korea is magnificent
The very first oracle of Dorje Shugden in trance statue. I have commissioned this.
4 months ago
The very first oracle of Dorje Shugden in trance statue. I have commissioned this.
Such a old and ancient thangka painting of Dorje Shugden. He has been around in Tibet practiced for hundreds of years.
4 months ago
Such a old and ancient thangka painting of Dorje Shugden. He has been around in Tibet practiced for hundreds of years.
One of the "Four Exalted Brothers" Avalokiteshvara statues, Phagpa Wati of Kyirong, which is now with H.H. the Dalai Lama in Dharamsala.
4 months ago
One of the "Four Exalted Brothers" Avalokiteshvara statues, Phagpa Wati of Kyirong, which is now with H.H. the Dalai Lama in Dharamsala.
Kyabje Zemey, Kyabje Zong Rinpoche and Kyabje Pabongka Choktrul Rinpoche
4 months ago
Kyabje Zemey, Kyabje Zong Rinpoche and Kyabje Pabongka Choktrul Rinpoche
My Oser girl and Mumu boy are so adorable
4 months ago
My Oser girl and Mumu boy are so adorable
Wow this meditator in his cave in front of a painting of Yamantaka draped with a white khata of respect. He sits among bones to remind him of impermanence and our future. The bones inspire him strongly to let go of all attachments in this life and focus on dharma, meditation and liberation and he is doing so. Very beautiful and inspirational. Tsem Rinpoche
4 months ago
Wow this meditator in his cave in front of a painting of Yamantaka draped with a white khata of respect. He sits among bones to remind him of impermanence and our future. The bones inspire him strongly to let go of all attachments in this life and focus on dharma, meditation and liberation and he is doing so. Very beautiful and inspirational. Tsem Rinpoche
Tenzing Norgay found this in Nepal. Guess what it is?
5 months ago
Tenzing Norgay found this in Nepal. Guess what it is?
Sir Edmund Hillary
5 months ago
Sir Edmund Hillary
Halloween is my favorite holiday. Wild natural plants and flowers are my favorite offering. Buddha\'s teachings on meditation and Yidam practice bring the ultimate results and happiness. ~Tsem Rinpoche
5 months ago
Halloween is my favorite holiday. Wild natural plants and flowers are my favorite offering. Buddha's teachings on meditation and Yidam practice bring the ultimate results and happiness. ~Tsem Rinpoche
Previous lives do resemble current lives especially if they are a recognized incarnation. If notice how similar the previous and current Trijang Rinpoche looks. The eyes, bone structure, expression, long neck, thin and overall look. Beautiful. I\'ve seen this phenomena over and over in many Rinpoche incarnations. Especially when you compare them with pictures of previous and current lives at around the same ages. Something powerfully karmic about this. Tsem Rinpoche
6 months ago
Previous lives do resemble current lives especially if they are a recognized incarnation. If notice how similar the previous and current Trijang Rinpoche looks. The eyes, bone structure, expression, long neck, thin and overall look. Beautiful. I've seen this phenomena over and over in many Rinpoche incarnations. Especially when you compare them with pictures of previous and current lives at around the same ages. Something powerfully karmic about this. Tsem Rinpoche
It\'s nice to have monks visitors and resident monks in Kechara
6 months ago
It's nice to have monks visitors and resident monks in Kechara
                         Taken in Lake Champlain in Canada. A huge water monster...neat...
6 months ago
Taken in Lake Champlain in Canada. A huge water monster...neat...
Beautiful! His Holiness Kyabje Trijang Dorje Chang has always been good friends with His Holiness Karmapa. No wonder H.H. Karmapa never spoke against Dorje Shugden. Two reasons perhaps: One is he knows the qualities of Trijang Rinpoche who is a attained being. And Karmapa himself has clairvoyance to perceive the true nature of Dorje Shugden directly. I love to see great beings like this manifesting closeness. When I see, I just want to prostrate to them and thank them for sharing such good examples to someone like me. Praise to the ego-less mind! Tsem Rinpoche
6 months ago
Beautiful! His Holiness Kyabje Trijang Dorje Chang has always been good friends with His Holiness Karmapa. No wonder H.H. Karmapa never spoke against Dorje Shugden. Two reasons perhaps: One is he knows the qualities of Trijang Rinpoche who is a attained being. And Karmapa himself has clairvoyance to perceive the true nature of Dorje Shugden directly. I love to see great beings like this manifesting closeness. When I see, I just want to prostrate to them and thank them for sharing such good examples to someone like me. Praise to the ego-less mind! Tsem Rinpoche
Serkong Dorje Chang on the left and his son Serkong Tsenshab Rinpoche on the right.
6 months ago
Serkong Dorje Chang on the left and his son Serkong Tsenshab Rinpoche on the right.
High lamas in France September 2016
6 months ago
High lamas in France September 2016
༧གོང་ས་ཆེན་པོ་སྐུ་འཕྲེང་བཅུ་བཞི་པ་མཆོག་དང་རྡོ་རྗེ་ཤུགས་ལྡན། - Interesting relationship between 14th Dalai Lama and Dorje Shugden:   http://www.tsemrinpoche.com/?p=109757
6 months ago
༧གོང་ས་ཆེན་པོ་སྐུ་འཕྲེང་བཅུ་བཞི་པ་མཆོག་དང་རྡོ་རྗེ་ཤུགས་ལྡན། - Interesting relationship between 14th Dalai Lama and Dorje Shugden: http://www.tsemrinpoche.com/?p=109757
Click on "View All Photos" above to view more images

Videos On The Go

Please click on the images to watch video
  • Please watch this video, it's heartbreaking to see how people have to suffer.
    1 week ago
    Please watch this video, it's heartbreaking to see how people have to suffer.
  • Lady saves puppy from potential abuser
    1 week ago
    Lady saves puppy from potential abuser
  • Mr. Denzel Washington is a very intelligent man. Tsem Rinpoche
    2 weeks ago
    Mr. Denzel Washington is a very intelligent man. Tsem Rinpoche
  • Dear friends, please see this educational video on suffering for the sake of others.
    2 weeks ago
    Dear friends, please see this educational video on suffering for the sake of others.
  • A very neat footage of Bigfoot captured by Patterson-Gimlin.
    3 weeks ago
    A very neat footage of Bigfoot captured by Patterson-Gimlin.
  • [11/02/2017] Mumu darling is a very good boy.
    1 month ago
    [11/02/2017] Mumu darling is a very good boy.
  • [11/02/2017] Mumu wants to go bye bye!
    1 month ago
    [11/02/2017] Mumu wants to go bye bye!
  • [11/02/2017] I love you mumu boy
    1 month ago
    [11/02/2017] I love you mumu boy
  • [11/02/2017] Mumu and Oser eating together.
    1 month ago
    [11/02/2017] Mumu and Oser eating together.
  • Great spiritual rock carving in Tibet
    2 months ago
    Great spiritual rock carving in Tibet
  • You will Never be Ready
    3 months ago
    You will Never be Ready
    Dear friends, watch this video and ready, if we keep waiting till we are ready, that day will never come. Tsem Rinpoche
  • Stop asking for Easy
    3 months ago
    Stop asking for Easy
    This video is powerful because it's the truth. It applies to anything. It applies to our dharma practice. Watch the video and share it. Tsem Rinpoche
  • Must Watch this Video!
    4 months ago
    Must Watch this Video!
  • Sacred Tibetan Incense - Nyimo County, Lhasa, Tibet
    5 months ago
    Sacred Tibetan Incense - Nyimo County, Lhasa, Tibet
  • Kyabje Denma Gonsa Rinpoche on Samaya
    5 months ago
    Kyabje Denma Gonsa Rinpoche on Samaya
    ཁྱེད་ཀྱི་བཀའ་སློབ་དོན་སྙིང་དེ།།གང་གི་རྣ་བར་བདུད་རྩི་མོད།།འོན་ཀྱང་འགའ་ཡི་རྣ་ལམ་དུ།། བྲག་ཆ་བཞིན་དུ་འགྱུར་སྲིད་མོད།། ཚང་མས་ཚར་རེ་གཟིགས་རོགས།། Kyabje Denma Gonsa Rinpoche telling people that it is important to have guru samaya. It use to be that way in the great monasteries. We should not create problems and schisms. If we want to practice a protector, then do so, if not it's okay, but don't make trouble. One should just practice the Buddha Dharma well. To do good practice. If you have faith in Dorje Shugden and trust all the way, he will definitely help you. But most important is to practice the dharma. This is his advice in short here. It's good to let more Tibetans hear this holy speech and appeal by this very senior Rinpoche. TR

ASK A PASTOR


Ask the Pastors

A section for you to clarify your Dharma questions with Kechara’s esteemed pastors.

Just post your name and your question below and one of our pastors will provide you with an answer.

Scroll down and click on "View All Questions" to view archived questions.

  • March 27, 2017 04:19
    Dongho asked: I have been reading on the tunes of certain sects and would like to ask on this. From what I've read, there are certain tunes to each sect and school of certain chants. Exactly where can I find the sheet music for these percussion and horns with the chants, such as to the one for invoking Kache Marpo or Dorje Shugden? Would it be possible to use school instruments for this?
    No reply yet
  • March 26, 2017 02:14
    Kunga asked: Does the Gelug have Begtse a protector? If so, could you please provide a sadhana for him here?
    pastor answered: Dear Kunga, Yes the Dharma protector Begtse exists within the Gelug tradition. He is also known as Chamsing. Begtse’s practice stems from India and was introduced to Tibet and therefore Tibetan Buddhism by the translator Nyen Lotsawa. Marpa Lotsawa also practiced Begtse, and so the practice exists in the Kagyu traditions. This practice was eventually transmitted to Sachen Kunga Nyingpo, the first of the five patriarchs of the Sakya tradition, who were the founding fathers of that tradition. Over time the practice of Begtse was incorporated into the Gelug tradition, founded by Lama Tsongkhapa, and was notably practiced by the 1st and 2nd Dalai Lamas. Over time the practice gained popularity within the lineage, especially when it spread to Mongolia. There the practice became an important one within the lineage as upheld there. Begtse is also affectionately known as the Dharma protector of Mongolia, because his practice is so popular there. If I am not mistaken, there is an oracle of Begtse in Mongolia as well. There is a mistaken account that the practice originated around the time of the 3rd Dalai Lama, with the subjugation of a Mongolian war god, but Begtse was definitely practiced before that time in the Gelug, Kagyu and Sakya traditions. While the practice of Begtse is very effective, I have not come across the practice of Begtse in my personal practice, therefore I do not have access to the Begtse sadhana to provide to you. Instead Begtse is propitiated in prayers that incorporate many other Dharma protectors, and Begtse is also considered one of the nine protectors of the Hayagriva (Tamdrin) cycle of tantric teachings. Therefore Begtse is included in the Dharma protector sections of the Hayagriva tantras. Surrounding Begtse are his sister, Sing Ma, and his main minister, Le Khan Mar Po. His inner retinue comprises of eight butchers who wield copper swords in their right hands and skull-cups full of blood in their left hands. They are portrayed as naked and are very ugly. His outer retinue comprises a further twenty-one butchers, who hold copper swords in their right hands, and this time, the entrails of butchered enemies. They wear the skins humans and oxen as clothes, with ornaments made from human bone. While this may seem violent, Begtse is actually a very powerful and beneficial protector, who helps practitioners clear their obstacles and create conducive conditions for their spiritual evolution. I hope this helps. Thank you.
  • March 24, 2017 20:12
    Azair asked: Venerable Rinpoche, I am doing a study in Kalachakra Tantra and I've heard from most of the lama's too that if you practice the Kalachakra Tantra, you'll be able to take control of your next rebirth. Ofcourse, it has been said that we will get our rebirth according to our Karma and desires but whether those dreams will get fulfilled will depend upon the actions that we take in this life. Thus, practicing the Kalachakra(till the end) after initiation will give you the opportunity to take rebirth anywhere you desire regardless of your Karma. My question is that, is there some truth in this statement.? Does this statement hold true for other tantra practices, such as Vajrayogini Tantra, Ghuyasamaja Tantra, Heruka Tantra, etc. I would really really like to know. Thankyou in anticipation, regards, Azair
    pastor answered: Dear Azair, Thank you for your question. Yes there is truth to this statement, both from a scriptural perspective and also by example, as the great masters have shown us. This is a unique feature of all Anuttarayoga Tantras or Highest Yoga Tantras, which Kalachakra, Vajrayogini, Guhyasama and Heruka are all examples of. This category of tantric practice can actually lead a practitioner to full enlightenment in this very lifetime. Even if enlightenment is not reached, very high levels of attainment can be reached nonetheless. This includes the ability to take control over your next rebirth. This is primarily engaged in so that the practitioner is born in an environment where they can eventually pick up their practice and further their spiritual path to enlightenment, or in order to be born in a place where they can benefit sentient beings the most, as part of the spiritual journey over many lifetimes. One of the reasons such an ability is very necessary on the spiritual path, is that usual death and rebirth occurs at the mercy of ones karma, specifically what is known as the ‘throwing karma’ or the karma that dictates what sort of rebirth a person is going to take. This opens up at the time of ordinary death, which most people have no control over. During the death process, many of our disturbing emotions will arise. Whichever of these is the strongest at the point of death triggers open a latent karmic potential, which becomes the ‘throwing karma’ and dictates where we are going to take rebirth and if that life will generally be full of suffering or not. Within Anuttarayoga Tantra, one of the key points of practice is to prepare for one’s death. This is done by simulating the dying process during one’s meditations, so that one becomes familiar with it. At the most pivotal part of this process, one practices achieving either the rainbow body or great bliss (in the case of the father tantras); or clear light (in the case of mother tantras). The tantras themselves are not defined in terms of the gender of the central deity, but by the method used to gain enlightenment. This is either the rainbow body/great bliss (classified as male, therefore labelled ‘father’) or clear light (classified as female, therefore labelled ‘mother’). Non-dual tantras such as the Kalachakra tantra can employ either of the two methods, a mixture of both, or alternate methods. In the case of superior practitioners, due to the power of their practice, they can achieve either of these two methods in their current body. Since they have familiarised themselves with the dying process, and a particular method of practice, they can also achieve enlightenment during their physical death. The great Lama Tsongkhapa is said to have achieved enlightenment at the moment of physical death, using the second of these. For other practitioners, they may not be able to achieve this either in their meditations while they are alive, or during the death process. However because they have familiarised themselves with the dying process, they remain in complete concentration at the time of death, not allowing any disturbing emotions to arise. Due to this level of concentration, meditation and awareness during the dying process, they are able to control where they next take rebirth. This is evident in the tantric scriptures themselves, and the life stories of many masters, who can state exactly where, when and to whom they will take their next rebirth, as they are in full control of the dying and rebirth process. There is a type of meditation called ‘thukdam’ which has been translated into ‘death meditation’. This is a final meditation some masters choose to engage in. During this meditation, the master themselves consciously begin the physical dying process themselves, engage in the meditation of dissolving the winds into the heart centre and remain in the most pivotal part of the death process, the mind of clear light of death. During this point they engage in meditations, either the methods of the father or mother tantras as mentioned previously, and or consciously choose where they are to next take rebirth. They can remain in this death meditation for long periods of time, days at an end, in which their consciousness has not yet left their body, although for all intents and purposes they are dead according to medical science, e.g. they have no heartbeat. At the end of their meditation, a drop of blood will be emitted from their nostril, and their head will slump over a little. Masters who engage in this meditation usually sit in full meditation posture, and their body remain supple and soft even though they have passed away from a medical point of view. I hope this brief explanation helps. Thank you.
  • March 23, 2017 23:01
    Brad asked: What is the significance of offering the Seven precious emblems of royalty to the Buddhas and enlightened Dharma Protectors? What are we symbolically offering up?
    pastor answered: Dear Brad, Thank you for your question. The ‘saptaratna’ or seven precious emblems represent on the one hand the ultimate state of temporal power, and on the other hand the ultimate spiritual attainments that we can achieve. By offering these to the Buddhas, we are actually creating the causes to achieve what they represent. Therefore it is good to know the meaning of each, so we can understand what we are creating the causes for by offering them up: Please see below for an explanation of the seven royal emblems: 1. The Precious Wheel: a thousand spoked wheel, representing the universal power of the Buddhas, as well as the teachings of the thousand Buddhas of our aeon. It is represented by the Dharmachakra, symbolising the ‘turning of the wheel’ or teaching of the Noble Eightfold Path. It is a symbol of a universal emperor’s spiritual and temporal power. It is also represents one of the factors of enlightenment, which is perfect mindfulness, especially that of our own mind, thoughts, delusions and afflictions. 2. The Precious Jewel: an eight sided wish-granting gem, which fulfils all the needs of a universal emperor. This jewel has eight special qualities: it illuminates the night sky for hundreds of leagues; it is cooling when the temperature is hot and warming when the temperature is cold; it makes manifest whatever the holder wants; when thirsty it causes a fresh-water spring to appear; it has the ability to control the nagas, and other supernatural beings, as well as preventing natural disasters such as storms, floods, etc.; it gives off multi-coloured lighted which heals the various mental and emotional afflictions; it cures all illnesses; and it ensures that one dies a natural death, not an untimely one. It is a symbol of a universal emperor’s spiritual and temporal power. It is also represents one of the factors of enlightenment, which is perfect mindfulness, or perfect discrimination, so one knows what to abandon and what to keep in the mindstream during the spiritual journey to enlightenment. 3. The Precious Queen: the most beautiful and virtuous of all women. She is described as a goddess who is the epitome of someone: with devotion; without jealousy; who is the embodiment of fertility; who works for the welfare of all beings; who possess feminine wisdom; speaks the truth; not attract to sensual pleasures or material possessions; and does not have false views. She is adored by all. She also represents one of the factors of enlightenment, which is perfect effort. This is necessary to keep meditating until one gains spiritual attainments. 4. The Precious Minister: who has sharp intelligence, patience, and the ability to give wise counsel to the emperor. He is so attuned to the emperor that even before the emperor has spoken, the minister is already carrying out his command. He only wishes to support the Dharma, help sentient beings, and is an excellent strategist. He also represents one of the factors of enlightenment, which is perfect joy. This is also akin to the attainment of the first bodhisattva level, because you have come to an understanding of your own mind, which is like pouring ice-cold water into boiling water. The water stops boiling, as does the thoughts, projections, and delusions in the mind. He represents the path of the bodhisattva. 5. The Precious Elephant: who has the strength of a thousand normal elephants. He is white, with the perfect features that an elephant could have. He is majestic, graceful, and gentle, but in battle is fearsome, fearless and unyielding. He communicates with the emperor through a telepathic link. He represents one of the factors of enlightenment, which is perfect adaptability. This is important, as one needs to be able to adapt to the various mental afflictions as they arise, and suitably counter them. 6. The Precious Horse: who has all the marks of a celestial horse. Known as wind-horse, he is able to travel extremely fast, and can circumambulate the entire universe three time in just a single day. He is never fearful or startled, never makes a sound when galloping, and has extremely soft hairs on his body. He represents one of the factors of enlightenment, which is single-pointed concentration. This is important because without this form of concentration, once cannot engage in the analytical meditations that lead to an understanding of emptiness, and therefore enlightenment. 7. The Precious General: who has mastered the arts of war and always wins in battle. He wears battle armour and holds many different weapons. He tries to avoid battle, but when necessary fights, and never gives up until he has won. He is fearless, and courageous in carrying out the emperors commands and ensures the emperors army carries out their duties. He represents one of the factors of enlightenment, which is perfect equanimity. This is because he overcomes all warfare, which is akin to the battle between things were are attached to and things we have an aversion for in our minds. In short, what you are offering up is the highest of all temporal treasures and abilities, as well as the entire path of the Dharma. Doing so creates the causes for you to receive all of this on your spiritual journey towards enlightenment. I hope this helps. Thank you.
  • March 20, 2017 10:16
    Grigoris asked: Excuse me, but I would like to ask, what does the prayer to Shangmo Dorje Putri say exactly? I can't read Tibetan, but would like to see the description that the prayer gives. I am not planning to say the prayer or make interaction(as it would be very dangerous), but would like to see what it actually says from the Tibetan text. Here's the link: http://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/buddhas-dharma/shangmo-dorje-putri-the-bamo-of-sakya.html
    pastor answered: Dear Grigoris, Thank you for your question. Shangmo Dorje Putri is indeed a fascinating unenlightened Dharma protector. Unfortunately at the moment, we do not have a translated copy of the text in English that we can provide. The usual format for such texts, would include an invocation, making offerings to appease them, and then exhortations for them to perform their activities, possibly followed by thanking them for their help. One thing is for certain, due to the nature of Shangmo Dorje Putri her prayer is sure to include violent imagery, just like many other Dharma protectors, such as Achi Chokyi Drolma (who even though has a peaceful appearance, has a lot of violent imagery in her prayers). The reason behind the violent imagery is explained in the post about Achi Chokyi Drolma here: http://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/buddhas-dharma/achi-chokyi-drolma-chief-protectress-of-the-drikung-kagyu.html
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Visitors have the opportunity to pay respect to this holy statue, in Kechara Forest Retreat, Wisdom Hall!
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