中国豆腐的饮食文化差异与融合

Dec 24, 2017 | Views: 946

Photo credit: Wikimedia Commons

摘要

近代科学使人们对黄豆的营养价值充分认识,中国发明的豆腐与其副产品在饮食界的地位迅速提升。品种、数量和烹调方式相应增加,如今豆腐在中国更是无分南北东西,贫富身份,早已冲出海外,传播到其他国家, 发扬光大其滋味。本文以五个部分浅谈中国饮食文化的对比,并以中国发明的豆腐为主轴,一是豆腐饮食文化、二是豆腐的名称和种类、三是豆腐 的发源与传播、四是豆腐的文化差异与融合,最后是结语,并尝试在本文中介绍豆腐在世界各地的饮食差异与文化融合。

 

一、 豆腐饮食文化

每个民族都有属于自己独特的饮食文化,世界上有数百中民族,理应有百花齐放的饮食文化,然而,被近代世界各国所接受的饮食文化,大致上只分为两大种类,即欧洲饮食文化和中国饮食文化。欧洲的饮食文化是在政治与经济的背景下走向世界, 反观之,中华饮食文化与政治权利毫无关系,纯碎是中华民族赞誉中国饮食的美味, 将其滋味带到他国去,中国餐馆才遍布于世界各地。

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孙中山先生在《建国方略》支持了这个观点,“我中国近代文明先进,事事皆落人之后,惟饮食一道之进步,至今尚为文明各国所不及。中国所发明之食物,固大胜于欧美;而中国烹调法之精良,又非欧美所可并驾……。中国烹调之术不独偏传于美洲, 而欧洲各国之大都会渐有中国菜馆矣。日本自维新以后,习尚多采西风,而独于烹调 一道嗜中国之味,东京中国菜馆亦林立焉。是知口之于味,人所同也。”

除了中国烹调之术和中餐馆遍布全世界,中国制作的食品也传遍世界各国,例如: 茶叶、饺子、油条、面条等等,尤其是中国发明的豆腐。中国发明的豆腐先是传到日本,接着是东南亚国家,如今更是受欧美国家欢迎,继茶叶之后又一个畅销到世界各地的中国食品。1981 年,美国的《经济展望》杂志曾预言,未来十年,最成功的而最有潜力的商品不是汽车,也不是电子产品,而是中国的豆腐。果然这预言成真了,中国发明的豆腐成为中西餐厅必备的食品,中国发明的豆腐副产品是家家户户必吃的食 品,中国发明的豆浆更是取代了欧美牛奶的地位。

 

二、 豆腐的名称与种类

“豆腐”这个词在广义上是各种黄豆食品的统称,在狭义上是指一般的豆腐,也 就是最普通,最为人知,最廉价的豆腐。中国的每个省份都有各自的豆腐名称与种类, 且相同种类的豆腐在不同省份也会冠上不同的名字与读音。如今这个食品广传到世界 各地,几乎每个民族都会用自己的语言给这食品取个音译名。

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中国普通话的豆腐,念作“dòu fǔ”;粤语的豆腐,念作“dowfu”;闽南话的 豆腐,发音成“tahu”;印尼语借用闽南话,豆腐也念着“tahu”;菲律宾人称之为 “tojo”或“tokua”;西方英语音译成“tofu”,或取名“Bean Curd”。由于西方厨房里并没有和豆腐对等的食品,因此他们用“Bean Curd”一词命名豆腐,形容这食品是“黄豆凝乳”或“黄豆乳酪”,甚至是“黄豆起司”。

豆腐问世后其家族成员不断壮大,相续衍生出豆浆、豆腐脑、豆腐皮、豆腐丝、水豆腐、豆腐干、南豆腐、臭豆腐、油豆腐、冻豆腐、豆腐乳等。清朝李调元还写了一首戏詠《豆腐》记载各种豆腐副食品:

家用为宜客非用,合家高会命相依。(豆浆)
石膏化后浓加酪,水沫挑成皱成衣。(豆腐皮)
剁作银条垂缕滑,划为玉段载脂肥。(豆腐丝)
近来腐价高于肉,只恐贫人不救饥。(水、干豆腐)
不须玉豆与金笾,味比佳肴尽可捐。(南豆腐)
逐臭有时入鲍肆,闻香无处辨龙涎。(臭豆腐)
市中白水常成醉,寺里清油不碑禅。(油豆腐)
最是广大寒彻骨,连筐称罢御卧寒。(冻豆腐)
才闻香气已先贪,白楮油封四小甔。(豆腐乳)
滑似油膏挑不起,可怜风味似淮南。(豆腐脑)

此清朝戏詠描述了十种较为人知的豆腐副产品,字字描述得十分显明,由此推断豆腐与其副产品在古时候属于庶民之食,而豆腐的饮食文化踪迹可追溯至更早时期的汉朝。

 

三、 豆腐的发源与传播

中国豆腐在饮食文化历史上存有不同的说法,广为人知的是“淮南王刘安版”。中国豆腐面世于西元前 164 年,由中国汉高祖刘邦之孙——淮南王刘邦所发明。据说淮南王对炼金术极为兴趣,有次他到八公山上烧药炼丹,无意将卤水或海水点入黄豆汁,进而发明了一块凝固块状的食品,亦是今日所食的中国豆腐。

中国豆腐面世一千年后才被宋朝的《清異录》记载,文中提及了淮南王发明豆腐之事。而详细的传统豆腐制作过程记载于明代李时珍的《本草纲目》谷部卷 25“豆 腐”:“凡黑豆、黄豆及白豆、泥豆、豌豆、绿豆之类,皆可为之。水浸,硙碎。滤 去渣,煎成。以卤汁或山矾叶或酸浆醋淀,就釜收之。”

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虽然中国豆腐的制作过程记载于明朝的《本草纲目》,可是这食品早在唐朝传入到日本去。据《和名抄》所载,唐朝中国长安及扬州的著名菜肴和糕点,随着中日饮食文化交流的开展,陆续传到日本,日本当地流行了唐式美食,其中包括豆腐。

中国豆腐也伴着中国扬州大明寺的鉴真和尚传入日本。早在公元 743 年,他受到日本佛教界朋友的邀请,远赴日本传授佛教,他不仅把佛教传入日本,也将中国豆腐 带到了日本的寺庙。有学者认为,早期中国和日本的豆腐制作场所设置于寺庙里,由寺庙的唐僧经营,信徒们在寺庙尝到豆腐后,向寺庙的唐僧请教豆腐做法,最后带到民间去开设自己的豆腐店,从此中国豆腐立足于日本民间。

欧洲人最早认识中国豆腐是在 1665 年,多明我会士闵明我(Domingo Fernández de Navarrete)写的《旅行记》中介绍了中国上子帝王下至平民所食用的食物,其中包括豆腐(teu fu),他也在文中提及了豆腐制作法,然而,中国豆腐正式面世于欧 洲于本世纪初,可说是才刚开始正式踏入欧洲。

根据新闻报导,数位中国人在法国开设了一间“豆腐公司”,生产豆腐、豆腐干、 油豆腐、豆腐乳、豆乳酱等豆腐副产品,并有幸让法国总统品尝中国豆腐后,并成为法国宫廷餐桌上的佳肴。从此,中国豆腐在法国的身价提高数倍,甚至广传到英国、意大利、葡萄牙、美国等。目前,美国已经有五十多间豆腐店店,豆腐与豆腐副产品 的需求不断提升,相信未来会开设更多间豆腐店。

中国饮食文化对东南亚的影响甚大,以马来西亚和印尼为例,早在十八世纪末生 活于中国南方的人迁移到南洋居住,亦是今日的“华裔”。他们从中国带来了水稻、 蔬果、茶叶、面条、豆腐等,这些食品与烹调技术在当地流传,同时开设了多家中国 餐饮店,逐渐深受当地人喜欢,中国菜肴成功融合到当地的饮食文化。

 

四、 豆腐的差异与融合

豆腐的文化不断开拓,日益创新,如今更被标记为世界性食品,犹如座桥梁搭建到世界各地传播饮食文化,共享文化资源。这块中国豆腐去到世界各地后是否保留其 风味和滋味,以下内容举例了一些豆腐传播到海外后的新面貌,并略谈其不同之处。

 

水豆腐

块状水豆腐

块状水豆腐--“水豆腐”也称作“嫩豆腐”,这种豆腐在中国并不普遍,因为这种豆腐非常柔 软,由稀释的豆浆制作而成,再被保存于水中。

中国有两种水豆腐,第一种的做法像日本的日式绢豆腐,成块出售;第二种是在大壶里凝结成形,质地非常柔软得用汤匙舀入客人的碗中,若淋上一些酱油或糖可直接食用。反观之第二种水豆腐是马来西亚常见的豆腐料理,几乎每个超市或菜市场都可见到水豆腐的踪影。

一般的中餐馆会在水豆腐上撒肉碎,淋上特调酱料,再蒸上几分钟, 皆以咸食为主,不曾出现甜味的水豆腐,且马来西亚食客不爱老豆腐,尤其是中国北方的老豆腐,放到舌尖立即皱眉头。

 

豆腐脑、豆腐花

桶装水豆腐

桶装水豆腐

中国的豆腐脑如同布丁,一般装置在木制的桶子里,顾客点了豆腐脑便一勺勺舀 入到碗中,淋上花生和红糖,或榨菜、虾米和酱油,再附上汤匙,甜咸二味供顾客选择,可围绕在推车旁吃。

豆腐脑的口感与水豆腐相似,但是质地再软一些,水豆腐属于餐桌上的菜肴,豆腐脑则属于路边摊子卖的甜品小吃。

东南亚卖的豆腐脑一般以甜味为主,白糖浆或红糖浆,绝不会出现肉沫榨菜酱油 的咸味版。而东南亚称豆腐脑为“豆腐花”,中国却认为“豆腐脑”和“豆腐花”不属于同类,前者是布丁形,后者如同汤里的蛋花。

中国咸味豆腐脑

中国咸味豆腐脑

左为中国豆腐花。右为马来西亚甜味豆腐脑

左为中国豆腐花。右为马来西亚甜味豆腐脑

 

豆干

“豆干”或“豆腐干”,中国的豆腐干一般是方块形状,四边约 7.5 公分,厚 2 公分,深棕色或橙黄色,印有朱红色的中国字是家里拜祭的贡品,而切成条状、丝或小丁的豆腐干与中式酱汁一块儿炒或砂锅方式烹调。

美国旧金山纽约也卖豆干,不过是“五香豆干”(Spiced Dry Tofu),西方人喜欢将豆干切成薄片像冷盘的肉类一样食用,或

者当成开胃小菜。他们也把五香豆干和新鲜蔬菜、坚果和沙拉酱一起凉拌。

左为中国条状豆干。右为五香豆干。

左为中国条状豆干。右为五香豆干。

 

油豆腐块

中国三角状油豆腐块

中国三角状油豆腐块。

“油豆腐块”,也称作“厚扬”,中国油豆腐块的传统做法是把整块传统豆腐经过挤压,再制作成三角形用油炸至金黄色出售。中国三角形金黄色油豆腐块多用于砂 锅,再加入酱汁和蔬菜一起烹调。

早期日本的油豆腐块和中国的油豆腐块相似,然而东京的豆腐师傅将之改成长方形,并切成四块,四边约 2.5 公分,重量约 150 克,体积变小了,再放入油锅炸直到 酥脆,最后用于锅料理与高汤和蔬菜燉煮。

西方人喜欢将油豆腐块当作牛排烧烤,放在小炭的炉子上慢慢慢烘烤,并在油豆腐块表面划几刀,淋上烧烤酱汁让其味道渗入油豆腐块里,最后粘上辣椒酱或番茄酱食用。

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日本关东煮西方状油豆腐块。

西方烧烤油豆腐块

西方烧烤油豆腐块。

 

油豆腐泡

日本的豆皮寿司

日本的豆皮寿司

“油豆腐泡”,一个小袋或泡状的油炸豆腐,有袋装、片状、及薄条状,可在里面填入蔬菜、肉碎或其他馅料,深受日式料理欢迎。据说油豆腐泡是日本发明的,因为 在旧时代的中国没发现其踪迹。油豆腐泡在不同国家有不同做法。在日本,日本寿司师傅喜欢用袋装的油豆腐泡塞入醋饭,变成豆皮寿司,日本妈妈还喜欢在油豆皮泡里加入谷类、面条和蔬菜,当作小孩的便当。

日本占领韩国期间,也把油炸豆腐带到韩国去了,像是各种大小的福袋,此福袋 可作豆皮寿司或束袋,里面打开可放馅料。

韩国的福袋油豆皮泡

韩国的福袋油豆皮泡

美国人也爱吃油豆腐泡,当地有种独特的油豆腐泡,名叫油豆腐泡芙(Age Puff),形状像一个小正方棒棍,油炸时随时会膨胀成一根长 11 公分、直径 5 公分的 金黄色香肠。有别于日本的油豆腐泡,美国的油豆腐泡冷却后依然是鼓胀的,也不像日式的油豆腐泡可塞入馅料在中间,美国的油豆腐泡芙得在旁边切开一道细缝。

 

豆腐乳

白豆腐乳

白豆腐乳

“豆腐乳”得普通话也称作“腐乳”或“乳腐”,粤语是“fuyu”或“funan”, 上海话是“sufu”或“dou-sufu”,意思是长了霉的牛奶。豆腐乳是一种黏稠度很高, 风味非常强烈的食品,人们切碎红辣椒调味,味道强烈且辛辣,一小口可吃许久。豆 腐乳一般不在传统豆腐店售卖,多数在中式酱菜店制作贩卖,也有不少家庭会自制, 因为低成本,还可长时间储存。中国人喜欢将豆腐乳当做粥的调味料,白饭的开胃小 菜或前菜,也有人喜欢在炒菜时加入豆腐乳调味。

红豆腐乳

红豆腐乳。

众多豆腐副产品唯有豆腐乳最具特色,因为豆腐乳不像日本所制的任何东西,也不是西方人所熟悉的食品,因此豆腐乳在西方享有“中国起司”的美誉,西方人对发酵的食品更是大为所爱。

西方常见的豆腐乳是白豆腐乳(Fermented Bean Curd)和红豆腐乳(Red Bean Curd),玫瑰豆腐乳是西方的牌子,包装如同番茄酱,西方人喜欢 这牌子的红腐乳与辣椒酱一起搅拌,并与锅里的肉类和海鲜粘上食用。

美国卖的罐头红豆腐乳

美国卖的罐头红豆腐乳。

 

豆浆

中国常见的豆浆

中国常见的豆浆

有豆腐,自然有豆浆,产自不同区域的豆浆自然有其独特之处。

中国的豆浆,也称作“中式豆浆”、“豆腐浆”“豆奶”或“豆乳”。豆浆在中 国的饮食地位甚高,食用的概率或许还比传统豆腐还要高,因为是中国的幼儿、儿童和成人的主要蛋白质来源,远远胜于其他国家。每天早上,许多中国人会带着容器到 传统豆腐店或专卖豆浆的小店购买一家人所需的豆浆,因此小区、学校、广场皆是豆 浆的踪影,其需求是众饮料中的榜首。

日本盒装浓豆浆。日本工厂贩售的盒装豆浆口味众多,原味、蜂蜜、麦芽、草莓或巧克力,日本以 外的国家都以原味豆浆为主,反观之日本的口味较为丰富。而厂商会将盒装豆浆贩售 到贩卖机,路上看见贩卖机可随时买一盒豆浆。

豆浆小贩常以一般的搅果汁机打豆浆,味道淡而只剩黄豆味,口感细薄,入喉后感到明显的渣儿,多数售卖原味,食客也可要求在豆浆里撒上少许的白糖,四季皆以热饮为主。若买不着新鲜豆浆,也可购买瓶装豆浆。如今工厂大量制成瓶装豆浆,食客可根据自己的需求或喜爱的品牌购买放置在家中。简言之,豆浆在中国家庭的地位 犹如西方的牛奶。

日式豆浆分为两大种类,传统豆腐店做的浓豆浆,或大公司所制作的盒包装豆浆。日本的传统豆腐店会售卖浓豆浆。这种浓豆浆是六种豆腐的原料,豆浆美味的秘诀在与其浓度,而豆浆的浓度是因店而异,豆浆除了当成饮料,也可用作制作绢豆腐。

日式浓豆浆在日本拥有个崇高的地位,深受日本妈妈和社区小孩推崇。原来,日本妈妈会购买浓豆浆喂食年纪太小无法食用豆腐的婴儿,或者她们想要孩子断奶便会以浓豆浆取代。如今厂商出产的灌装调配豆浆粉也为妈妈们提供了便利,方便妈妈们到药房或天然食品店购买。

马来西亚的冰豆水

马来西亚的冰豆水

豆浆亦是马来西亚常见的饮品,但不称作豆浆,而是“豆水”,顾名思义是黄豆 制作的水,口感如一般的水,没有渣儿的口感,多数小贩也不用搅果汁机打黄豆,坚 持在厨房以机器打黄豆,再以人工搅拌直到口感顺滑。

马来西亚式的豆水会加上白糖浆, 或黄糖浆,以冷饮冰爽为主,还会添加豆腐脑,增加多层次的口感。

豆浆在其他国家地域也是有饮品的概念,例如印度和非洲,豆浆厂商为了将此饮料大众化,加入了当地人喜欢的口味,像是麦芽、柳橙、咖啡、肉桂和香草,而且价钱也定价在牛奶的四分之一。

 

韩式豆腐

韩式豆腐

韩式豆腐。传统韩式豆腐,名为“tubu”,比日式豆腐晒微结实,有没有中式木棉豆腐般结实。

韩国到处可见贩卖豆腐的店,也有农家会在家自制豆腐。由于豆腐有减缓辛辣的作用,因此韩式料理有道非常著名的菜叫“豆腐锅”,这是一道辛辣的汤料理,里面的豆腐就起到了作用,而一般的“泡菜锅”也会加入豆腐淡化强烈的泡菜味。

豆腐渣、 豆浆和凝乳都出现在韩式料理,绢豆腐、烤豆腐、豆皮和豆腐乳几乎没出现在韩国。

韩式豆腐汤锅

韩式豆腐汤锅。由于豆腐有减缓辛辣的作用,因此韩式料理有道非常著名的菜叫“豆腐锅”,这是一道辛辣的汤料理,里面的豆腐就起到了作用,而一般的“泡菜锅”也会加入豆腐淡化强烈的泡菜味。

 

五、结语

纵观所述,豆腐间的差异比较可探讨得更深入仔细,从制作过程,烹调方法,食材配搭,售卖形式,食用习惯等等。而一番比较后会更认识这块中国豆腐在世界上扮演的饮食文化角色。

若将豆腐作为代表中国饮食文化的代表象征,也许有点不够称职,毕竟论排位身份其他的食品同样具有浓厚的特色。不过,中国食品当中似乎很少有像豆腐般,广泛 受到世界各地不同国家民族的认同,全世界对豆腐的认知,已经超出了“形”与 “味”,并达到了“意”的境界。

一块白白实实的中国豆腐已不是单纯地食品。尝一口豆腐,吃出中国人的饮食智 慧;烹调一道豆腐料理,感受到人们对自身健康的认知与追求;做一桌豆腐宴,品出全世界的饮食文化差异与融合。

 

走遍中国吃豆腐

 

八公山豆腐——中国安徽

推荐菜:刘安点丹
餐厅:淮上豆府
地址:安徽省淮南市国庆东路与水厂路交叉口(老店)、安徽省合肥市怀宁路天鹅湖万达内街三楼(新店)
电话: 0554-3311116、0551-65990958
时间:9:30-13:30 16:30-21:00

Picture2

简介:豆腐起源于安徽的淮南地区,距已有两千多年的历史。豆腐中质量最好的数淮南八公山一带,叫做“八公山豆腐”。这种豆腐采用纯黄豆作原料,加八公山的泉水精制而成。当地农民制作豆腐的技艺世代相传,很多人都掌握了一套好手艺,做出的豆腐细、白、鲜、嫩,深受群众欢迎。如今,安徽当地有家专设“豆腐宴”的餐厅,名为“淮上豆府”,该餐厅的行政总厨也叫着刘安呢!

Picture1

特色:“刘安点丹”是“淮上豆府”餐厅为了纪念淮南刘安而设计的一道豆腐创意菜。厨师会在托盘上摆设了6个装有小菜的碟子,其中有数个空白的瓷碗,而碗底散了一些白色的粉末。之后,厨师会拎起小茶壶,将豆浆一点点导入白瓷碗内,约两分钟,碗内的豆浆开始凝固,成为鲜嫩的豆花,最后加些调料增加风味。

 

剑门豆腐——中国四川

推荐菜:剑门怀胎豆腐
餐厅:剑门关六娃子豆腐店
地址:四川广元市剑阁县剑门场镇
电话:0839-6750036

pic4

简介 :“不吃剑门豆腐,枉游天下雄关”,剑门豆腐,相传始于三国。当时姜维被魏军所困,人马疲惫,令驻扎各营及当地百姓磨豆浆做豆腐,豆渣喂军马,制作豆腐的习俗沿袭下来。此外,剑门山砾岩沙石坡土种植黄豆的品质优良,剑门泉水清澈甘甜,加上独特的制作工艺,因此剑门以豆腐白嫩、清香、有韧性著称。

pic3

特色:凡到剑门关景区的旅客都有机会在附近品尝著名的剑门豆腐,若是一群人想到餐馆里享受一顿豆腐宴不妨考虑“剑门关六娃子豆腐店”。2012年四川省旅游协会主办了“剑门关豆腐烹饪大赛”,剑门关六娃子豆腐店荣获“剑门豆腐”名店第一名,而剑门怀胎豆腐则是该餐厅的特色餐。

 

高碑店豆腐丝——中国河北

推荐菜:高碑店豆腐丝
餐厅:家兴快捷酒店
地址:高碑店市北大街1号(近高碑店市火车站)
电话:0312-2839866

pic5

简介:高碑店是个地名,位于中国河北,豆腐丝又名豆腐筋,源自当地姓贾和姓王的两家,现在仍从事豆腐丝加工的贾、王两家传人,已是第七代。高碑豆腐盛行于清朝,相传清朝在易州修建了西陵后,皇帝王侯来这里祭祀,曾食用高碑店的豆腐丝,故此成为一道名贵的菜肴,并在清代宫廷里供应帝王公侯食用。

pic6

特色:高碑店五香豆腐丝采用成熟饱满的大豆作原料,经过筛选、浸泡、磨浆、煮沸、除渣、凝固、压片、切丝、卤煮、捆把等十几道工序,才卤制成具有独特风味的五香豆腐丝。色泽乳白,束丝状,味道咸香,老幼皆宜,还有“素食之首”的美誉。

 

豆腐箱——中国山东

地点:延庆豆腐宴,北京北苑2号院
推荐菜:箱箱豆腐

pic7

简介:山东豆腐箱又名齐国豆腐箱,是山东省汉族传统名菜,属于鲁菜系。预想品尝豆腐箱不必专程到山东去,北京郊外的北苑家园设有豆腐宴,其中的“箱箱豆腐”大受好评。箱箱豆腐也称得上一道功夫菜,虽然味道和北京人家里做的夹板豆腐很像似,但是厨师把豆腐切成箱子形状,再挖出里面的心儿,放入搅拌好的肉馅,再把豆腐盖好,从外边看就是一块完整的豆腐。

 

葱烧豆腐

地点:57度湘,广州新港中路354号珠影星光城1楼
推荐菜:葱烧豆腐

pic8

简介:葱烧豆腐是道家常菜,做法简单,味道可口,十分下饭。然而,如此简单的一道菜竟然是57度湘的人气佳肴,再普通的一道菜,也不再普通。57度湘以铁板烧闻名,白嫩豆腐经由铁板烧后,外表煎得香香辣辣,却保住里面豆腐最纯真的味道,成功荣获了“最高人气北京葱烧豆腐”这名誉啊!

 

臭豆腐——中国苏州

地点:谷兰臭豆腐,苏州观前街宫巷81号
推荐菜:香辣臭豆腐

pic9

简介:臭豆腐,又名臭干子,其名虽俗气,却外陋内秀,平中见奇,源远流长,是一种极具特色的汉族传统小吃。古老而传统,一经品味,常令人欲罢不能。谷兰臭豆腐是苏州区的臭豆腐之王,来到观前街的人都会专程来到这个小档口排队,一边看着黑色方块在油锅里翻滚,一边闻着阵阵的臭味。最后将炸好的黑豆腐块浸在汤汁里,撒上香菜,再来个香辣酱调味,酥脆的外皮,满满的汤汁,简直是香啊!

 

麻婆豆腐——中国四川

pic10

地点:成都明婷饭店,外曹家巷26号附6号
推荐菜:脑花豆腐

简介:“明婷饭店”的独创之作——脑花豆腐。豆腐鲜,脑花嫩,新鲜的豆腐和新鲜的豆腐脑完美结合,豆瓣酱和多种佐料炒在一块儿,麻辣中不失咸香味,恰好来碗白米饭,味道像极了四川麻婆豆腐。

pic11

 

参考文献

[1]青柳昭子、威廉·夏利夫.豆腐之书本[M].台北柿子文化事业有限公司,2005.

[2]徐海荣.中国饮食文化在世界上的深远影响,第七届中国饮食文化学术研讨会论文集 [J].财团法人中国饮食文化基金会,2002.

[3]赵荣光.中国古代庶民饮食生活[M].北京商务印书馆国际有限公司,1997. [4]中央电视台记录频道.舌尖上的中国[M].北京光明日报出版社,2012
 

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4 Responses to 中国豆腐的饮食文化差异与融合

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  1. Wylfred Ng on Jan 14, 2018 at 2:23 pm

    很有趣的文章。 没想到我们日常食用的豆腐尽然有如此大的学问。

    在马来西亚这里黄豆制品处处可见, 也是其中一个蛋白质来源, 尤其是对素食者更是重要。

    谢谢

  2. Stella Cheang on Jan 5, 2018 at 12:32 pm

    As a vegetarian, tofu (beancurd) forms one of my staple diet along, not just because it is tasty but also because it is so versatile. Tofu can be a main dish, a side dish or even be made into sauce. Due to the naturally bland taste, tofu goes with and accentuates the flavour of the dish. And more importantly, it is suitable for any cooking method, and also taste good when chilled or raw! Lovely tofu. Thank you for this wonderful article that let me find out so much about the tofu dishes in China.

  3. Samfoonheei on Jan 3, 2018 at 10:56 am

    Tofu, also known as bean curd, is a food cultivated by coagulating soy milk. And then pressing the resulting curds into soft white blocks. It’s a process which I enjoyed looking at during my childhood days when my neighbour was in tofu business. Tofu is a component in East Asian and Southeast Asian cuisines. Tofu can be soft, firm, or extra firm which has a subtle flavour which I truly loved it and can be used in savory and sweet dishes. To fu has gained popularity over the years especially as a vegetarian- and vegan-approved source of protein. Tofu is a useful source of protein, iron, calcium, and antioxidants. It may have various health benefits, and is a useful meat substitute. High in protein, low in cost, and easy to work with and its one of my favourite food. I love soya milk and tofu pudding as a drink which is rich in nutrients.
    Its wonderful to know of the history of diet culture of tofu. So its originated from China which I did not know about it till I read this article.
    Thank you Rinpoche for sharing this insight tofu knowledge

  4. Alice Tay on Dec 30, 2017 at 12:47 am

    豆腐被视为素食者常吃用的食材之一。豆腐对素食者来说是蛋白质的主要来源之一,而其中的石膏用来制作豆腐皮,是素食者优良的钙质來源。

    谢谢仁波切在此给大家分享有关豆腐的的信息。

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    After reading this article, I understood that, what we have in mind is not true. We will be able to do Dharma work if we really want to do it. It does not matter where we are. The people who work away quietly and unassumingly are the ones who really create real benefits for themselves and others.
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    It is not just about learning the meaning of being kind and compassion but to apply it to our daily life and towards everyone. Rinpoche gave us the clear example to practise kindness and compassion. These values should not have any differentiation on anyone due to their background, race, language and etc. Everyone should be treated the same. Thank you Pastor Jean Ai for sharing this article.

    https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/one-minute-story/growing-up-with-rinpoche-making-kindness-an-attitude
  • S.Prathap
    Tuesday, Jan 28. 2020 04:29 PM
    It is so beautiful that someone can spend their life building such holy image to bless the people around, to plant seed of Buddha to others.To build such huge statue, it need a lot of patience and determination to complete it.
    This statue of Buddha in Hyderabad,India is just so breath taking and wonderful. It is amazing how amazing and wonderful this Buddha especially the picture when the sun is setting .Thank you very much for sharing this beautiful article.

    https://bit.ly/2O8hCd4
  • Samfoonheei
    Thursday, Jan 23. 2020 08:31 PM
    Rejoice to those able to witness such an auspicious trance in Wisdom Hall at Kechara Forest Retreat, Bentong . A privilege for many fortunate ones, to witness to our Dharma Protector Dorje Shugden and Karcho Marpo, via the Panglung oracle in full trance, which is very rare. The very first time opened to public and is a tremendous blessing and great merits for all. Panglung Kuten (oracle) was the most famous oracle of Kache Marpo and Dorje Shugden before 1959 in Tibet. Tibet has an ancient and popular tradition of oracles which involves Dharma Protector to descend into a human oracle. Panglung kuten is a very well-known oracle of over 7 great Dharma protectors, who are able to enter him, take full control of his body and speech. Many people from Tibet, Nepal , India and over the world came to seek accurate prophecies, advise and healing from this well- known oracle. For me been able to watch the video is a blessing and pictures tells me a thousand words as I only came to know Kechara in 2016.
    Thank you Rinpoche for this sharing.

    https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/dorje-shugden/700-meet-a-buddha.html
  • Samfoonheei
    Thursday, Jan 23. 2020 08:15 PM
    Many Dharma practitioners rely on Dharma protectors when they seek protection . Dharma protectors play various roles in different aspects of Buddhism . The practice of Dharma protectors has evolved through a long history in India and Tibet. In all traditions of Tibetan Buddhism history, various forceful spirits were tamed by great figures like Guru Rinpoche to become protectors of Buddhism. The purpose of this Dharma Protector practice is to remove obstacles and gather all favourable conditions for their spiritual practice. Within the Nyingma tradition they have Rahula as one of Dharma protectors, Ekajati as the main protector of the Dzogchen teachings while Dorje Shugden is Gelupa Dharma protector and there so many others dharma protectors been practice. Each of the wrathful forms of each protectors varies , depicting their believed willingness to defend and guard practitioners from dangers and enemies. Dharma protectors has benefited countless of sentient beings , granting protection wisdom, material needs and so forth.
    Thank you Rinpoche and Pastor Niral for this knowledgeable post.

    https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/buddhas-dharma/dharma-protectors-of-tibetan-buddhism.html
  • Samfoonheei
    Thursday, Jan 23. 2020 08:12 PM
    Begtse Chen is one of the main protectors of the Geluk School of Tibetan Buddhism and especially revered in Mongolia. The origin of Begtse Chen can be traced to a pre-Buddhist deity in 16th century . Begtse Chen is the main protector associated with the Hayagriva cycle of Tantric Deity meditation practice.
    In Tibetan Buddhism Begtse is believed to have originated in India. The practice entered Tibet with Nyen Lotsawa in the 11th century. As a protector deity that does battle with the forces of evil and the wicked and guards the righteous and faithful . His terrifying, monstrous face it appearance serves only to frighten demons and dark spirits away and serves as a beacon of justice as well as a guardian of wisdom to all who see and revere him. Their wrathful forms depicting their believed willingness to defend and guard everyone from dangers and enemies. Interesting read to understand better of this Dharma Protector.
    Thank you for this sharing.

    https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/buddhas-dharma/the-dharma-protector-begtse-chen.html
  • S.Prathap
    Thursday, Jan 23. 2020 04:33 PM
    This story is very inspiring.Plants are very important nowadays as we, humans, require oxygen to live. The confidence level in the man has influenced him to change the barren land to a place filled with thousand of various plants.
    Youngsters should take this man as a role model not only for planting trees but for the confidence in him. Not only confidence, but even loaded of courage in him.Thank you very much for the good and inspiring article.

    https://bit.ly/2TOHbmZ


  • S.Prathap
    Wednesday, Jan 22. 2020 04:38 PM
    As we can see in the video these people can help others through these powers , such abilities can also be developed through reciting mantras consistently on a daily basis.It is really interesting of to understand the existing of psychic, which may come from birth or by disaster like lightning.
    Always fascinated by people who have psychic powers. Wonder how it feels like to be able to know and see things the way they do. Personally I don’t know anyone with this ability.Thank you very much for this interesting and educational article.

    https://bit.ly/37jKFBR


  • Samfoonheei
    Monday, Jan 20. 2020 04:09 PM
    Thank you Pastor David for sharing all the wonderful encounters of shopping with Rinpoche. As we know Rinpoche rarely goes shopping for himself but as gifts for various students. Reading this post simply have me thinking, one must be observant to develop knowledge, and to apply what we read from the Lamrim topics into our lives. Being observant of our surroundings and practicing situational awareness at all times.

    https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/one-minute-story/tales-with-my-lama-the-shopping-experience-with-rinpoche
  • Samfoonheei
    Monday, Jan 20. 2020 04:08 PM
    nteresting ….in Tibetan culture wild mushrooms spotted is a symbol of good luck. At Kechara Forest Retreat ,H.E. Tsem Rinpoche’s private garden, mushrooms been spotted which is considered a good omen something good or arrival of good news , very auspicious symbol. Associated with nature and the beauty of the forest, having mushrooms popping up on one garden is rare and is very auspicious in Tibetan Buddhism, which will represent the Dharma will flourish in the near future. It’s indeed an auspicious sign.
    Thank you for this sharing.

    https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/one-minute-story/an-auspicious-omen-in-kechara-forest-retreat

1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · »

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I must thank my dharma blog team who are great assets to me, Kechara and growth of dharma in this wonderful region. I am honoured and thrilled to work with them. I really am. Maybe I don't say it enough to them, but I am saying it now. I APPRECIATE THESE GUYS VERY MUCH!

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The Unknown

The Known and unknown are both feared,
Known is being comfortable and stagnant,
The unknown may be growth and opportunities,
One shall never know if one fears the unknown more than the known.
Who says the unknown would be worse than the known?
But then again, the unknown is sometimes worse than the known. In the end nothing is known unless we endeavour,
So go pursue all the way with the unknown,
because all unknown with familiarity becomes the known.
~Tsem Rinpoche

Photos On The Go

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108 candles and sang (incense) offered at our Wish-Fulfilling Grotto, invoking Dorje Shugden\'s blessings for friends, sponsors and supporters, wonderful!
4 days ago
108 candles and sang (incense) offered at our Wish-Fulfilling Grotto, invoking Dorje Shugden's blessings for friends, sponsors and supporters, wonderful!
Dharmapalas are not exclusive to Tibetan culture and their practice is widespread throughout the Buddhist world - https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/?p=193645
4 days ago
Dharmapalas are not exclusive to Tibetan culture and their practice is widespread throughout the Buddhist world - https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/?p=193645
One of our adorable Kechara Forest Retreat\'s doggies, Tara, happy and safe, and enjoying herself in front of Wisdom Hall which has been decorated for Chinese New Year
1 week ago
One of our adorable Kechara Forest Retreat's doggies, Tara, happy and safe, and enjoying herself in front of Wisdom Hall which has been decorated for Chinese New Year
Fragrant organic Thai basil harvested from our very own Kechara Forest Retreat farm!
1 week ago
Fragrant organic Thai basil harvested from our very own Kechara Forest Retreat farm!
On behalf of our Puja House team, Pastor Tat Ming receives food and drinks from Rinpoche. Rinpoche wanted to make sure the hardworking Puja House team are always taken care of.
2 weeks ago
On behalf of our Puja House team, Pastor Tat Ming receives food and drinks from Rinpoche. Rinpoche wanted to make sure the hardworking Puja House team are always taken care of.
By the time I heard about Luang Phor Thong, he was already very old, in his late 80s. When I heard about him, I immediately wanted to go and pay my respects to him. - http://bit.ly/LuangPhorThong
2 weeks ago
By the time I heard about Luang Phor Thong, he was already very old, in his late 80s. When I heard about him, I immediately wanted to go and pay my respects to him. - http://bit.ly/LuangPhorThong
It\'s very nice to see volunteers helping maintain holy sites in Kechara Forest Retreat, it\'s very good for them. Cleaning Buddha statues is a very powerful and effective way of purifying body karma.
2 weeks ago
It's very nice to see volunteers helping maintain holy sites in Kechara Forest Retreat, it's very good for them. Cleaning Buddha statues is a very powerful and effective way of purifying body karma.
Kechara Forest Retreat is preparing for the upcoming Chinese New Year celebrations. This is our holy Vajra Yogini stupa which is now surrounded by beautiful lanterns organised by our students.
2 weeks ago
Kechara Forest Retreat is preparing for the upcoming Chinese New Year celebrations. This is our holy Vajra Yogini stupa which is now surrounded by beautiful lanterns organised by our students.
One of the most recent harvests from our Kechara Forest Retreat land. It was grown free of chemicals and pesticides, wonderful!
2 weeks ago
One of the most recent harvests from our Kechara Forest Retreat land. It was grown free of chemicals and pesticides, wonderful!
Third picture-Standing Manjushri Statue at Chowar, Kirtipur, Nepal.
Height: 33ft (10m)
6 months ago
Third picture-Standing Manjushri Statue at Chowar, Kirtipur, Nepal. Height: 33ft (10m)
Second picture-Standing Manjushri Statue at Chowar, Kirtipur, Nepal.
Height: 33ft (10m)
6 months ago
Second picture-Standing Manjushri Statue at Chowar, Kirtipur, Nepal. Height: 33ft (10m)
First picture-Standing Manjushri Statue at Chowar, Kirtipur, Nepal.
Height: 33ft (10m)
6 months ago
First picture-Standing Manjushri Statue at Chowar, Kirtipur, Nepal. Height: 33ft (10m)
The first title published by Kechara Comics is Karuna Finds A Way. It tells the tale of high-school sweethearts Karuna and Adam who had what some would call the dream life. Everything was going great for them until one day when reality came knocking on their door. Caught in a surprise swindle, this loving family who never harmed anyone found themselves out of luck and down on their fortune. Determined to save her family, Karuna goes all out to find a solution. See what she does- https://bit.ly/2LSKuWo
7 months ago
The first title published by Kechara Comics is Karuna Finds A Way. It tells the tale of high-school sweethearts Karuna and Adam who had what some would call the dream life. Everything was going great for them until one day when reality came knocking on their door. Caught in a surprise swindle, this loving family who never harmed anyone found themselves out of luck and down on their fortune. Determined to save her family, Karuna goes all out to find a solution. See what she does- https://bit.ly/2LSKuWo
Very powerful story! Tibetan Resistance group Chushi Gangdruk reveals how Dalai Lama escaped in 1959- https://bit.ly/2S9VMGX
7 months ago
Very powerful story! Tibetan Resistance group Chushi Gangdruk reveals how Dalai Lama escaped in 1959- https://bit.ly/2S9VMGX
At Kechara Forest Retreat land we have nice fresh spinach growing free of chemicals and pesticides. Yes!
7 months ago
At Kechara Forest Retreat land we have nice fresh spinach growing free of chemicals and pesticides. Yes!
See beautiful pictures of Manjushri Guest House here- https://bit.ly/2WGo0ti
8 months ago
See beautiful pictures of Manjushri Guest House here- https://bit.ly/2WGo0ti
Beginner’s Introduction to Dorje Shugden~Very good overview https://bit.ly/2QQNfYv
8 months ago
Beginner’s Introduction to Dorje Shugden~Very good overview https://bit.ly/2QQNfYv
Fresh eggplants grown on Kechara Forest Retreat\'s land here in Malaysia
8 months ago
Fresh eggplants grown on Kechara Forest Retreat's land here in Malaysia
Most Venerable Uppalavanna – The Chief Female Disciple of Buddha Shakyamuni - She exhibited many supernatural abilities gained from meditation and proved to the world females and males are equal in spirituality- https://bit.ly/31d9Rat
8 months ago
Most Venerable Uppalavanna – The Chief Female Disciple of Buddha Shakyamuni - She exhibited many supernatural abilities gained from meditation and proved to the world females and males are equal in spirituality- https://bit.ly/31d9Rat
Thailand’s ‘Renegade’ Yet Powerful Buddhist Nuns~ https://bit.ly/2Z1C02m
8 months ago
Thailand’s ‘Renegade’ Yet Powerful Buddhist Nuns~ https://bit.ly/2Z1C02m
Mahapajapati Gotami – the first Buddhist nun ordained by Lord Buddha- https://bit.ly/2IjD8ru
8 months ago
Mahapajapati Gotami – the first Buddhist nun ordained by Lord Buddha- https://bit.ly/2IjD8ru
The Largest Buddha Shakyamuni in Russia | 俄罗斯最大的释迦牟尼佛画像- https://bit.ly/2Wpclni
8 months ago
The Largest Buddha Shakyamuni in Russia | 俄罗斯最大的释迦牟尼佛画像- https://bit.ly/2Wpclni
Sacred Vajra Yogini
8 months ago
Sacred Vajra Yogini
Dorje Shugden works & archives - a labour of commitment - https://bit.ly/30Tp2p8
8 months ago
Dorje Shugden works & archives - a labour of commitment - https://bit.ly/30Tp2p8
Mahapajapati Gotami, who was the first nun ordained by Lord Buddha.
8 months ago
Mahapajapati Gotami, who was the first nun ordained by Lord Buddha.
Mahapajapati Gotami, who was the first nun ordained by Lord Buddha. She was his step-mother and aunt. Buddha\'s mother had passed away at his birth so he was raised by Gotami.
8 months ago
Mahapajapati Gotami, who was the first nun ordained by Lord Buddha. She was his step-mother and aunt. Buddha's mother had passed away at his birth so he was raised by Gotami.
Another nun disciple of Lord Buddha\'s. She had achieved great spiritual abilities and high attainments. She would be a proper object of refuge. This image of the eminent bhikkhuni (nun) disciple of the Buddha, Uppalavanna Theri.
8 months ago
Another nun disciple of Lord Buddha's. She had achieved great spiritual abilities and high attainments. She would be a proper object of refuge. This image of the eminent bhikkhuni (nun) disciple of the Buddha, Uppalavanna Theri.
Wandering Ascetic Painting by Nirdesha Munasinghe
8 months ago
Wandering Ascetic Painting by Nirdesha Munasinghe
High Sri Lankan monks visit Kechara to bless our land, temple, Buddha and Dorje Shugden images. They were very kind-see pictures- https://bit.ly/2HQie2M
8 months ago
High Sri Lankan monks visit Kechara to bless our land, temple, Buddha and Dorje Shugden images. They were very kind-see pictures- https://bit.ly/2HQie2M
This is pretty amazing!

First Sri Lankan Buddhist temple opened in Dubai!!!
8 months ago
This is pretty amazing! First Sri Lankan Buddhist temple opened in Dubai!!!
My Dharma boy (left) and Oser girl loves to laze around on the veranda in the mornings. They enjoy all the trees, grass and relaxing under the hot sun. Sunbathing is a favorite daily activity. I care about these two doggies of mine very much and I enjoy seeing them happy. They are with me always. Tsem Rinpoche

Always be kind to animals and eat vegetarian- https://bit.ly/2Psp8h2
8 months ago
My Dharma boy (left) and Oser girl loves to laze around on the veranda in the mornings. They enjoy all the trees, grass and relaxing under the hot sun. Sunbathing is a favorite daily activity. I care about these two doggies of mine very much and I enjoy seeing them happy. They are with me always. Tsem Rinpoche Always be kind to animals and eat vegetarian- https://bit.ly/2Psp8h2
After you left me Mumu, I was alone. I have no family or kin. You were my family. I can\'t stop thinking of you and I can\'t forget you. My bond and connection with you is so strong. I wish you were by my side. Tsem Rinpoche
8 months ago
After you left me Mumu, I was alone. I have no family or kin. You were my family. I can't stop thinking of you and I can't forget you. My bond and connection with you is so strong. I wish you were by my side. Tsem Rinpoche
This story is a life-changer. Learn about the incredible Forest Man of India | 印度“森林之子”- https://bit.ly/2Eh4vRS
8 months ago
This story is a life-changer. Learn about the incredible Forest Man of India | 印度“森林之子”- https://bit.ly/2Eh4vRS
Part 2-Beautiful billboard in Malaysia of a powerful Tibetan hero whose life serves as a great inspiration- https://bit.ly/2UltNE4
8 months ago
Part 2-Beautiful billboard in Malaysia of a powerful Tibetan hero whose life serves as a great inspiration- https://bit.ly/2UltNE4
Part 1-Beautiful billboard in Malaysia of a powerful Tibetan hero whose life serves as a great inspiration- https://bit.ly/2UltNE4
8 months ago
Part 1-Beautiful billboard in Malaysia of a powerful Tibetan hero whose life serves as a great inspiration- https://bit.ly/2UltNE4
The great Protector Manjushri Dorje Shugden depicted in the beautiful Mongolian style. To download a high resolution file: https://bit.ly/2Nt3FHz
8 months ago
The great Protector Manjushri Dorje Shugden depicted in the beautiful Mongolian style. To download a high resolution file: https://bit.ly/2Nt3FHz
The Mystical land of Shambhala is finally ready for everyone to feast their eyes and be blessed. A beautiful post with information, art work, history, spirituality and a beautiful book composed by His Holiness the 6th Panchen Rinpoche. ~ https://bit.ly/309MHBi
9 months ago
The Mystical land of Shambhala is finally ready for everyone to feast their eyes and be blessed. A beautiful post with information, art work, history, spirituality and a beautiful book composed by His Holiness the 6th Panchen Rinpoche. ~ https://bit.ly/309MHBi
Beautiful pictures of the huge Buddha in Longkou Nanshan- https://bit.ly/2LsBxVb
9 months ago
Beautiful pictures of the huge Buddha in Longkou Nanshan- https://bit.ly/2LsBxVb
The reason-Very interesting thought- https://bit.ly/2V7VT5r
9 months ago
The reason-Very interesting thought- https://bit.ly/2V7VT5r
NEW Bigfoot cafe in Malaysia! Food is delicious!- https://bit.ly/2VxdGau
9 months ago
NEW Bigfoot cafe in Malaysia! Food is delicious!- https://bit.ly/2VxdGau
DON\'T MISS THIS!~How brave Bonnie survived by living with a herd of deer~ https://bit.ly/2Lre2eY
9 months ago
DON'T MISS THIS!~How brave Bonnie survived by living with a herd of deer~ https://bit.ly/2Lre2eY
Global Superpower China Will Cut Meat Consumption by 50%! Very interesting, find out more- https://bit.ly/2V1sJFh
9 months ago
Global Superpower China Will Cut Meat Consumption by 50%! Very interesting, find out more- https://bit.ly/2V1sJFh
You can download this beautiful Egyptian style Dorje Shugden Free- https://bit.ly/2Nt3FHz
9 months ago
You can download this beautiful Egyptian style Dorje Shugden Free- https://bit.ly/2Nt3FHz
Beautiful high file for print of Lord Manjushri. May you be blessed- https://bit.ly/2V8mwZe
9 months ago
Beautiful high file for print of Lord Manjushri. May you be blessed- https://bit.ly/2V8mwZe
Mongolian (Oymiakon) Shaman in Siberia, Russia. That is his real outfit he wears. Very unique. TR
9 months ago
Mongolian (Oymiakon) Shaman in Siberia, Russia. That is his real outfit he wears. Very unique. TR
Find one of the most beautiful temples in the world in Nara, Japan. It is the 1,267 year old Todai-ji temple that houses a 15 meter Buddha Vairocana statue who is a cosmic and timeless Buddha. Emperor Shomu who sponsored this beautiful temple eventually abdicated and ordained as a Buddhist monk. Very interesting history and story. One of the places everyone should visit- https://bit.ly/2VgsHhK
9 months ago
Find one of the most beautiful temples in the world in Nara, Japan. It is the 1,267 year old Todai-ji temple that houses a 15 meter Buddha Vairocana statue who is a cosmic and timeless Buddha. Emperor Shomu who sponsored this beautiful temple eventually abdicated and ordained as a Buddhist monk. Very interesting history and story. One of the places everyone should visit- https://bit.ly/2VgsHhK
Manjusri Kumara (bodhisattva of wisdom), India, Pala dynesty, 9th century, stone, Honolulu Academy of Arts
9 months ago
Manjusri Kumara (bodhisattva of wisdom), India, Pala dynesty, 9th century, stone, Honolulu Academy of Arts
Silver Manjusri figure from Ngemplak Semongan (Indonesia). Apparently during the Shailendra Dynasty, Mahayana Buddhism was very strong in Indonesia. This Dynasty promoted Mahayana Buddhism and Manjushri was a principal Buddha of worship.
9 months ago
Silver Manjusri figure from Ngemplak Semongan (Indonesia). Apparently during the Shailendra Dynasty, Mahayana Buddhism was very strong in Indonesia. This Dynasty promoted Mahayana Buddhism and Manjushri was a principal Buddha of worship.
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Videos On The Go

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  • Pig puts his toys away
    2 weeks ago
    Pig puts his toys away
    Animals are so intelligent. They can feel happiness, joy, pain, sorrow, just like humans. Always show kindness to them. Always show kindness to everyone.
  • Always be kind to animals-They deserve to live just like us.
    6 months ago
    Always be kind to animals-They deserve to live just like us.
    Whales and dolphins playing with each other in the Pacific sea. Nature is truly incredible!
  • Bodha stupa July 2019-
    6 months ago
    Bodha stupa July 2019-
    Rainy period
  • Cute Tara girl having a snack. She is one of Kechara Forest Retreat’s resident doggies.
    7 months ago
    Cute Tara girl having a snack. She is one of Kechara Forest Retreat’s resident doggies.
  • Your Next Meal!
    8 months ago
    Your Next Meal!
    Yummy? Tasty? Behind the scenes of the meat on your plates. Meat is a killing industry.
  • This is Daw
    8 months ago
    This is Daw
    This is what they do to get meat on tables, and to produce belts and jackets. Think twice before your next purchase.
  • Don’t Take My Mummy Away!
    8 months ago
    Don’t Take My Mummy Away!
    Look at the poor baby chasing after the mother. Why do we do that to them? It's time to seriously think about our choices in life and how they affect others. Be kind. Don't break up families.
  • They do this every day!
    8 months ago
    They do this every day!
    This is how they are being treated every day of their lives. Please do something to stop the brutality. Listen to their cries for help!
  • What happened at Fair Oaks Farm?
    8 months ago
    What happened at Fair Oaks Farm?
    The largest undercover dairy investigation of all time. See what they found out at Fair Oaks Farm.
  • She’s going to spend her whole life here without being able to move correctly. Like a machine. They are the slaves of the people and are viewed as a product. It’s immoral. Billions of terrestrial animals die annually. Billions. You can’t even imagine it. And all that because people don’t want to give up meat, even though there are so many alternatives. ~ Gabriel Azimov
    8 months ago
    She’s going to spend her whole life here without being able to move correctly. Like a machine. They are the slaves of the people and are viewed as a product. It’s immoral. Billions of terrestrial animals die annually. Billions. You can’t even imagine it. And all that because people don’t want to give up meat, even though there are so many alternatives. ~ Gabriel Azimov
  • Our Malaysian Prime Minister Dr. Mahathir speaks so well, logically and regarding our country’s collaboration with China for growth. It is refreshing to listen to Dr. Mahathir’s thoughts. He said our country can look to China for many more things such as technology and so on. Tsem Rinpoche
    9 months ago
    Our Malaysian Prime Minister Dr. Mahathir speaks so well, logically and regarding our country’s collaboration with China for growth. It is refreshing to listen to Dr. Mahathir’s thoughts. He said our country can look to China for many more things such as technology and so on. Tsem Rinpoche
  • This is the first time His Holiness Dalai Lama mentions he had some very serious illness. Very worrying. This video is captured April 2019.
    9 months ago
    This is the first time His Holiness Dalai Lama mentions he had some very serious illness. Very worrying. This video is captured April 2019.
  • Beautiful Monastery in Hong Kong
    10 months ago
    Beautiful Monastery in Hong Kong
  • This dog thanks his hero in such a touching way. Tsem Rinpoche
    10 months ago
    This dog thanks his hero in such a touching way. Tsem Rinpoche
  • Join Tsem Rinpoche in prayer for H.H. Dalai Lama’s long life~ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gYy7JcveikU&feature=youtu.be
    10 months ago
    Join Tsem Rinpoche in prayer for H.H. Dalai Lama’s long life~ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gYy7JcveikU&feature=youtu.be
  • These people going on pilgrimage to a holy mountain and prostrating out of devotion and for pilgrimage in Tibet. Such determination for spiritual practice. Tsem Rinpoche
    10 months ago
    These people going on pilgrimage to a holy mountain and prostrating out of devotion and for pilgrimage in Tibet. Such determination for spiritual practice. Tsem Rinpoche
  • Beautiful new casing in Kechara for Vajra Yogini. Tsem Rinpoche
    10 months ago
    Beautiful new casing in Kechara for Vajra Yogini. Tsem Rinpoche
  • Get ready to laugh real hard. This is Kechara’s version of “Whatever Happened to Baby Jane!” We have some real talents in this video clip.
    10 months ago
    Get ready to laugh real hard. This is Kechara’s version of “Whatever Happened to Baby Jane!” We have some real talents in this video clip.
  • Recitation of Dorje Dermo‘s mantra or the Dharani of Glorious Vajra Claws. This powerful mantra is meant to destroy all obstacles that come in our way. Beneficial to play this mantra in our environments.
    10 months ago
    Recitation of Dorje Dermo‘s mantra or the Dharani of Glorious Vajra Claws. This powerful mantra is meant to destroy all obstacles that come in our way. Beneficial to play this mantra in our environments.
  • Beautiful
    10 months ago
    Beautiful
    Beautiful sacred Severed Head Vajra Yogini from Tsem Rinpoche's personal shrine.
  • My little monster cute babies Dharma and Oser. Take a look and get a cute attack for the day! Tsem Rinpoche
    11 months ago
    My little monster cute babies Dharma and Oser. Take a look and get a cute attack for the day! Tsem Rinpoche
  • Plse watch this short video and see how all sentient beings are capable of tenderness and love. We should never hurt animals nor should we eat them. Tsem Rinpoche
    11 months ago
    Plse watch this short video and see how all sentient beings are capable of tenderness and love. We should never hurt animals nor should we eat them. Tsem Rinpoche
  • Cruelty of some people have no limits and it’s heartbreaking. Being kind cost nothing. Tsem Rinpoche
    11 months ago
    Cruelty of some people have no limits and it’s heartbreaking. Being kind cost nothing. Tsem Rinpoche
  • SUPER ADORABLE and must see
    1 years ago
    SUPER ADORABLE and must see
    Tsem Rinpoche's dog Oser girl enjoying her snack in her play pen.
  • Cute!
    1 years ago
    Cute!
    Oser girl loves the balcony so much. - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RTcoWpKJm2c
  • Uncle Wong
    1 years ago
    Uncle Wong
    We were told by Uncle Wong he is very faithful toward Dorje Shugden. Dorje Shugden has extended help to him on several occasions and now Uncle Wong comes daily to make incense offerings to Dorje Shugden. He is grateful towards the help he was given.
  • Tsem Rinpoche’s Schnauzer Dharma boy fights Robot sphere from Arkonide!
    1 years ago
    Tsem Rinpoche’s Schnauzer Dharma boy fights Robot sphere from Arkonide!
  • Cute baby owl found and rescued
    1 years ago
    Cute baby owl found and rescued
    We rescued a lost baby owl in Kechara Forest Retreat.
  • Nice cups from Kechara!!
    1 years ago
    Nice cups from Kechara!!
    Dorje Shugden people's lives matter!
  • Enjoy a peaceful morning at Kechara Forest Retreat
    1 years ago
    Enjoy a peaceful morning at Kechara Forest Retreat
    Chirping birds and other forest animals create a joyful melody at the Vajrayogini stupa in Kechara Forest Retreat (Bentong, Malaysia).
  • This topic is so hot in many circles right now.
    2 yearss ago
    This topic is so hot in many circles right now.
    This video is thought-provoking and very interesting. Watch! Thanks so much to our friends at LIVEKINDLY.
  • Chiropractic CHANGES LIFE for teenager with acute PAIN & DEAD LEG.
    2 yearss ago
    Chiropractic CHANGES LIFE for teenager with acute PAIN & DEAD LEG.
  • BEAUTIFUL PLACE IN NEW YORK STATE-AMAZING.
    2 yearss ago
    BEAUTIFUL PLACE IN NEW YORK STATE-AMAZING.
  • Leonardo DiCaprio takes on the meat Industry with real action.
    2 yearss ago
    Leonardo DiCaprio takes on the meat Industry with real action.
  • Do psychic mediums have messages from beyond?
    2 yearss ago
    Do psychic mediums have messages from beyond?
  • Lovely gift for my 52nd Birthday. Tsem Rinpoche
    2 yearss ago
    Lovely gift for my 52nd Birthday. Tsem Rinpoche
  • This 59-year-old chimpanzee was refusing food and ready to die until...
    2 yearss ago
    This 59-year-old chimpanzee was refusing food and ready to die until...
    she received “one last visit from an old friend” 💔💔
  • Bigfoot sighted again and made it to the news.
    2 yearss ago
    Bigfoot sighted again and made it to the news.
  • Casper is such a cute and adorable. I like him.
    2 yearss ago
    Casper is such a cute and adorable. I like him.
  • Dorje Shugden Monastery Amarbayasgalant  Mongolia's Ancient Hidden Gem
    2 yearss ago
    Dorje Shugden Monastery Amarbayasgalant Mongolia's Ancient Hidden Gem
  • Don't you love Hamburgers? See how 'delicious' it is here!
    2 yearss ago
    Don't you love Hamburgers? See how 'delicious' it is here!
  • Such a beautiful and powerful message from a person who knows the meaning of life. Tsem Rinpoche
    2 yearss ago
    Such a beautiful and powerful message from a person who knows the meaning of life. Tsem Rinpoche
  • What the meat industry figured out is that you don't need healthy animals to make a profit.
    2 yearss ago
    What the meat industry figured out is that you don't need healthy animals to make a profit.
    Sick animals are more profitable... farms calculate how close to death they can keep animals without killing them. That's the business model. How quickly they can be made to grow, how tightly they can be packed, how much or how little can they eat, how sick they can get without dying... We live in a world in which it's conventional to treat an animal like a block of wood. ~ Jonathan Safran Foer
  • This video went viral and it's a must watch!!
    2 yearss ago
    This video went viral and it's a must watch!!
  • SEE HOW THIS ANIMAL SERIAL KILLER HAS NO ISSUE BLUDGEONING THIS DEFENSELESS BEING.
    2 yearss ago
    SEE HOW THIS ANIMAL SERIAL KILLER HAS NO ISSUE BLUDGEONING THIS DEFENSELESS BEING.
    This happens daily in slaughterhouse so you can get your pork and Bak ku teh. Stop eating meat.

ASK A PASTOR


Ask the Pastors

A section for you to clarify your Dharma questions with Kechara’s esteemed pastors.

Just post your name and your question below and one of our pastors will provide you with an answer.

Scroll down and click on "View All Questions" to view archived questions.

View All Questions

CHAT PICTURES

yesterday
Beautiful red lanterns around Vajrayogini Stupa at Kechara Forest Retreat. shared by Pastor Antoinette
2 days ago
Beautiful red lanterns around Vajrayogini Stupa at Kechara Forest Retreat. shared by Pastor Antoinette
Thank you very much for the beautiful calligraphy artwork. shared by Pastor Antoinette
2 days ago
Thank you very much for the beautiful calligraphy artwork. shared by Pastor Antoinette
Thank you very much for the beautiful calligraphy artwork. shared by Pastor Antoinette
2 days ago
Thank you very much for the beautiful calligraphy artwork. shared by Pastor Antoinette
The rain may have doused the fires but the embers of pain still linger in our hearts. Sending Australia our love & prayers. Let's continue to #PrayForAustralia. ❤️ shared by Pastor Antoinette
2 days ago
The rain may have doused the fires but the embers of pain still linger in our hearts. Sending Australia our love & prayers. Let's continue to #PrayForAustralia. ❤️ shared by Pastor Antoinette
Auspicious red decorations at Tsongkhapa shrine. Kechara Forest Retreat, Bentong. shared by Pastor Antoinette
2 days ago
Auspicious red decorations at Tsongkhapa shrine. Kechara Forest Retreat, Bentong. shared by Pastor Antoinette
Gong Xi Fa Cai! Here's to new beginnings and better endings with this Year of the Metal Rat! shared by Pastor Antoinette
2 days ago
Gong Xi Fa Cai! Here's to new beginnings and better endings with this Year of the Metal Rat! shared by Pastor Antoinette
Throwback KSDS Graduation - All kids were so excited with to perform. Lin Mun KSDS
1 week ago
Throwback KSDS Graduation - All kids were so excited with to perform. Lin Mun KSDS
Throwback WOAH camp 2016 - DIY soap. So interesting. Lin Mun KSDS
1 week ago
Throwback WOAH camp 2016 - DIY soap. So interesting. Lin Mun KSDS
Children learning the method to make water offering to Buddha. Lin Mun KSDS
1 week ago
Children learning the method to make water offering to Buddha. Lin Mun KSDS
Monthly animal liberation in Kechara House. KSDS have opportunity to participate in the meritorious activity every mth. Lin Mun KSDS
1 week ago
Monthly animal liberation in Kechara House. KSDS have opportunity to participate in the meritorious activity every mth. Lin Mun KSDS
Throwback Kids camp 2019 - Wonderful volunteers. Lin Mun KSDS
1 week ago
Throwback Kids camp 2019 - Wonderful volunteers. Lin Mun KSDS
Throwback Kids camp 2019 - The nature of KFR is expressed on this drawing. Lin Mun KSDS
1 week ago
Throwback Kids camp 2019 - The nature of KFR is expressed on this drawing. Lin Mun KSDS
Special thanks to Hue, one of our dedicated members in Kechara Penang Study Group. Thanks for helping out during our bird liberation. ~Jacinta
2 weeks ago
Special thanks to Hue, one of our dedicated members in Kechara Penang Study Group. Thanks for helping out during our bird liberation. ~Jacinta
Animal Liberation is one of the great ways to show empathy, kindness and compassion to kids. Start them early! ~Jacinta, Kechara Penang Study Group
2 weeks ago
Animal Liberation is one of the great ways to show empathy, kindness and compassion to kids. Start them early! ~Jacinta, Kechara Penang Study Group
The merits from life liberation are varied and boundless ~Jacinta, Kechara Penang Study Group
2 weeks ago
The merits from life liberation are varied and boundless ~Jacinta, Kechara Penang Study Group
It is essential for us to properly 'Taking Refuge' before we start any event. “Taking refuge” is where one seeks guidance and to turns to the Triple Gem for liberation and salvation from suffering. We hope these birds will be liberated from sufferings soon. ~Jacinta
2 weeks ago
It is essential for us to properly 'Taking Refuge' before we start any event. “Taking refuge” is where one seeks guidance and to turns to the Triple Gem for liberation and salvation from suffering. We hope these birds will be liberated from sufferings soon. ~Jacinta
Recitation of Medicine Buddha mantras during Bird Liberation by Kechara Penang Study Group ~Jacinta
2 weeks ago
Recitation of Medicine Buddha mantras during Bird Liberation by Kechara Penang Study Group ~Jacinta
Paying homage to Lama Tsongkhapa, Dorje Shugden and The Three Jewels by Ms. Leow. So Kin Hoe (KISG)
2 weeks ago
Paying homage to Lama Tsongkhapa, Dorje Shugden and The Three Jewels by Ms. Leow. So Kin Hoe (KISG)
Mr. Lim offered Serkym to Dorje Shugden on behalf of KISG. So Kin Hoe (KISG)
2 weeks ago
Mr. Lim offered Serkym to Dorje Shugden on behalf of KISG. So Kin Hoe (KISG)
Ms. Leow offered lights & incense to Lama Tsongkhapa, Dorje Shugden and all Buddhas prior to the puja. So Kin Hoe (KISG)
2 weeks ago
Ms. Leow offered lights & incense to Lama Tsongkhapa, Dorje Shugden and all Buddhas prior to the puja. So Kin Hoe (KISG)
Kechara Ipoh Study Group has carried out weekly Dorje Shugden puja in Ipoh. So Kin Hoe (KISG)
2 weeks ago
Kechara Ipoh Study Group has carried out weekly Dorje Shugden puja in Ipoh. So Kin Hoe (KISG)
KISG started our 2020 first weekend with Mother Tara prayer recitations in Ipoh. So Kin Hoe (KISG)
3 weeks ago
KISG started our 2020 first weekend with Mother Tara prayer recitations in Ipoh. So Kin Hoe (KISG)
Kids camp 2019 - Exciting stack up game. The kids enjoyed it very much. Lin Mun KSDS
1 month ago
Kids camp 2019 - Exciting stack up game. The kids enjoyed it very much. Lin Mun KSDS
Kids camp 2019 - Super delicious fried rice and decorated with heart. Lin Mun KSDS
1 month ago
Kids camp 2019 - Super delicious fried rice and decorated with heart. Lin Mun KSDS
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