Buddhist Influence on Chinese Religion

By | Jun 29, 2020 | Views: 1,162
A statue of the Buddha at Yungang Grottoes in in Datong city, Shanxi Province, China. This is just one of 51,000 Buddhist statues carved at the ancient cave site where Buddhist practice once flourished

A statue of the Buddha at Yungang Grottoes in Datong City, Shanxi Province, China. This is just one of 51,000 statues carved at the ancient cave site where Buddhist practice once flourished

 

Introduction

Since the time of the historical Buddha, the Sangha (ordained monastic community) have been sharing the Buddha’s teachings with many people from all walks of life. Over time, the Sangha travelled to many villages and cities, expanding their reach to different states in India, following various trade routes as recounted in many old Buddhist stories. This is how Buddhism spread within India and from India to many other countries.

During the Mauryan Empire (322-187 BCE), Buddhism spread north and north-west from its birthplace, from present day Bihar through the Kingdom of Kuru (present-day Uttar Predesh), up towards Gandhara (present-day north-west Pakistan and north-east Afghanistan) and Kashmir. It also spread south from Bihar to Maharashtra, and south-east to Andhra Pradesh and Sri Lanka.

It was after the era of the Mauryan Empire that Buddhism spread from Kashmir and Gandhara, along the ancient Silk Road through Central Asia and into China. Simultaneously, Buddhism also spread to China via sea through South-East Asia. Although Indian and Chinese cultures could not have been more different, Buddhism was adapted to suit Chinese perspectives. With the gradual spread of Buddhism throughout China in the 3rd Century CE, Indian Buddhist beliefs, literature, language and grammar had a major impact on early Chinese society and culture. These influences are still seen to this day.

A painting from the Ming Dynasty in China (1368-1644) depicting the most important figures of the three religions which helped to shape Chinese culture. Buddha Shakyamuni (left); Lao Tzu (centre); and Confucius (right).

A painting from the Ming Dynasty in China (1368-1644 CE) depicting the most important figures of the three religions which helped to shape Chinese culture. Buddha Shakyamuni (left); Lao Tzu (centre); and Confucius (right).

Today, the main Chinese religions include Confucianism, Daoism, Buddhism, and traditional beliefs related to or derived from these religions. According to Liu Mi, a late Song Dynasty Chinese elite,

“Buddhism is for the cultivation of mind, Daoism is for the training of the physical body and Confucianism is for the governance of society.”

This statement reflects the main functions of the three religions during the last 2,000 years in China. Confucianism, as the main belief that historical governance was based upon, was well-supported by both Buddhism and Daoism in China. These three religions did not and do not function as separate institutions within the Chinese context, but have also seen the spread of their individual practice lineages and traditions throughout various communities without discrimination.

Both Buddhism and the other Chinese philosophies encourage tolerance and open mindedness. Despite conflicts in Chinese history, the harmony and integration integral to these religions prevailed and were used to pacify conflict when necessary. Thus, scholars of Chinese religions agree that Buddhism played an important role in the formation and development of the country’s religious beliefs as a whole.

 

Buddhist Influence on Daoism

An example of early Buddhist art in China. Depictions of the Buddha and Buddhist figures took on distinctly Chinese artistic features.

An example of early Buddhist art in China. Depictions of the Buddha and Buddhist figures took on distinctly Chinese artistic features.

Buddhism entered China around the 2nd Century CE, with Buddhist monks and translators from India and Central Asia arriving in large numbers along the Silk Road and by sea. With their shaven heads, begging bowls and monastic robes, the monks had no homes or families, defying the already established Confucian tradition which emphasised producing heirs, having a family, and honouring the ancestors.

Buddhism arrived in China around the same time Christianity entered the Roman Empire from Palestine. Contrary to Christianity in Europe, Buddhism did not wipe out traditional Chinese religious beliefs and morals. In the beginning, Buddhism was simply viewed as another sect of Daoism, as stories circulated that Lao Zi, the founder of the Daoist religion, was reborn in the heavenly Buddhist Western Pure Land and became either the Buddha’s teacher or became a Buddha himself.

Daoism had not yet formed as a cohesive religion when Buddhism was introduced to China during the Han Dynasty. It was then simply a philosophy the Chinese learned and practised. From the 2nd to the 7th Centuries, Daoism developed dramatically. Many Daoist practices, texts and rituals were actually formed by absorbing both Confucianist and Buddhist teachings. During this period, Buddhism gradually took root in China as a large number of Buddhist scriptures from Central Asia and India were translated into Chinese. Daoism absorbed Buddhist ideology, practices, and organisational systems.

 

(1) Daoist Scripture and Schools

The full corpus of Daoist scripture is called the “Sandong”, and includes the following texts:

  1. Dongzhengbu
  2. Shangqing Jing
  3. Dongshengbu and many other ritual texts.

According to the findings of Chinese scholars, the term “Sandong” first appeared during the Eastern Jin Dynasty (317-420 CE) when Buddhism spread in China. Following the term used for the Buddhist canon “Sanzang” (‘Tripitaka’ in Sanskrit), the Daoists named their collection “Sandong”, referred to today as “Daozang”.

'Three Laughs at Tiger Brook', a litang style painting from the 12th Century Song Dynasty. It shows three men laughing by the river, representative of the harmony between China's three main religions: Confucianism, Buddhism and Daoism.

‘Three Laughs at Tiger Brook’, a litang style painting from the 12th Century Song Dynasty. It shows three men laughing by the river, representative of the harmony between China’s three main religions: Confucianism, Buddhism and Daoism.

The Daoist scholar Qing Xitai and many others also asserted that Daoists, especially those of the Lingbao School, borrowed many ideas and thoughts from Buddhist scripture when writing their own scripture. For example, a lot of the Daoist Lingbao Jing text was borrowed from the Buddhist Mahaparinirvana Sutra, which was translated into Chinese by the Indian monk Dharmaksema during the Northern Liang Dynasty (414-21 CE).

Qing Xitai also mentioned that the Zhongxuan Sect of the Daoist tradition was greatly influenced by the Buddhist Mahayana Prajnaparamita literature and Tiantai School, which was one of the leading Buddhist schools during the Sui Dynasty (581-618 CE). Zhongxuan literally translates as ’emphasis on metaphysics’ and was formed in the early Tang Dynasty (618-907 CE). It went on to become an important school of thought in Daoism.

 

(2) Ideas and Theories

The central deity in the Daoist Lingbao School, Yuanshi Tianzun, flanked by his two attendants

The central deity in the Daoist Lingbao School, Yuanshi Tianzun, flanked by his two attendants

The Buddhist teachings on karma and rebirth influenced Daoism, especially its description of heaven and hell. Daoists borrowed and incorporated many Buddhist terms into their teachings, and even mixed the Buddhist concept of karma and rebirth with the Daoist theory of Chengfu. This is the theory that future generations suffer from the consequences of the forefathers’ bad deeds, and was used to understand human misfortune in the world. They also adopted the Buddhist concept of Samsara or cyclic existence, which was not found in Chinese philosophy before the introduction of Buddhism.

The Lingbao School also worshiped a central deity, called Yuanshi Tianzun, combining the indigenous creator god Shangqing with the Buddha. The Daoists also reformed their cosmological model after the Buddhist system, asserting a total of 32 heavens, similar to the Buddhist concept of Trayastrimsa or the Heaven of the Thirty-Three.

 

(3) Monasticism

A rare photography of Chinese Buddhist monks during the Qing Dynasty (1644–1911 CE)

A rare photograph of Chinese Buddhist monks during the Qing Dynasty (1644–1911 CE)

Buddhism also influenced the establishment of the Daoist monastic system. Based on Qing Xitai’s findings, the historical figure Lu Xiujing (406–77 CE) reformed the Tianshi School of Daoism by incorporating various Buddhist ideas prevalent in the monastic system into the establishment of Daoist precepts. The well-known Daoist Tao Hongjing (456–536 CE) openly stated that the Buddha had prophesied him to be born as a bodhisattva, a being who can achieve complete liberation from suffering but delays doing so due to the compassionate motivation to help all other sentient beings out of their suffering as well. Tao Hongjing made vows to observe the Daoist Five Precepts (to refrain from 1. killing, 2. stealing, 3. sexual misconduct, 4. lying and 5. consuming intoxicants) in front of a Buddhist stupa built by the Indian Emperor Ashoka. In doing so, Daoists officially established their system of precepts and by extension monasticism based on the Buddhist one.

 

(4) Ritual

An illustration of a Daoist ritual for the dead, from the Chinese novel The Plum in the Golden Vase, circa 1700 CE. Scanned from Taoism and the Arts of China by Stephen Little. (Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago. 2000. Page 192)

An illustration of a Daoist ritual for the dead, from the Chinese novel The Plum in the Golden Vase, circa 1700 CE. Scanned from Taoism and the Arts of China by Stephen Little. (Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago. 2000. Page 192)

Daoist ritual was also influenced by Buddhism. Tantra was introduced to China in the mid-Tang Dynasty (618-907 CE)  by Subhakarasimha (637-735 CE), Vajrabodhi (671-741 CE), and Amoghavajra (705-74 CE). They translated many Buddhist tantric texts and introduced complicated tantric rituals, including various mandalas and mudras (hand gestures). Many of the Daoist rituals created at that time incorporated these rituals without modification. Daoists also began praying to several new guardian gods and protectors based on the Buddhist concept of a Bodhisattva and incorporated them into their various rituals. On the other hand, Buddhism in China itself was also influenced by Daoism as many terms were incorporated into the translation of Buddhist scripture. It was after this exchange of ideas that Daoism became an institutionalised religion with all the necessary religious elements.

 

Buddhist Inspired Religious Movements in History

Another painting showing harmony between practitioners of China's three main religions: Confucianism, Buddhism and Daoism.

Another painting showing harmony between practitioners of China’s three main religions: Confucianism, Buddhism and Daoism.

As Buddhism gradually integrated into Chinese culture and was accepted, many popular religious movements were formed throughout history, such as the White Lotus Society and the White Cloud Society. These movements appeared during the Song Dynasty (960-1279 CE) and continued through the Ming (1368–1644 CE) and even Qing (1644 to 1912 CE) Dynasties.

The White Lotus Society was established by Mao Zhiyuan as a society devoted to the recitation of the name of the Buddha Amitabha and practices leading to the Buddhist Western Pure Land. Mao advocated vegetarianism and the society’s teachings focused on the purification of the mind, so that practitioners could be reborn in the Pure Land. Both the cultivation of the mind, and the practices associated with achieving entry to the Pure Land were to be engaged in concurrently.

The society spread so fast it caught the attention of the Song government. Its founder was caught and expelled from the country for three years but was then allowed back and conferred a title by Emperor Gaozong. It was then that the society once again flourished in the country.

During the Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368 CE), the White Lotus Society incorporated Chinese folk beliefs and spread rapidly, again attracting the government’s attention. According to the Yuan Shi or History of Yuan text, the society was banned in 1308, their monasteries destroyed and practitioners forced to return to lay life.

Later, Pudu, a Buddhist monk from Lushan, wrote the Lushan Lianzong Baojian text to explain the society’s doctrine. A few of the upper-classes supported his views, and so the society was once again allowed to spread among the people. It spread fast amongst the public, but its teachings morphed to instigate and stir up feelings against Yuan rule, leading to the fall of the Dynasty.

On the other hand, the White Cloud Society was originally a branch of the Buddhist Huayan School. Towards the end of the Song Dynasty, a monk from a White Cloud monastery, Kong Qingjue (1043-1121 CE), began to promote vegetarian meals to attract lay people. He considered the Huayanjing (Avatamsaka Sutra) an important Buddhist teaching, but he also advocated the syncretism of three religions, considering Confucianism the icon of loyalty and filial piety; Buddhism the icon of compassion; and Daoism the icon of a simple and quiet life without attachment.

kept in british library

Hand written Dunhuang version of the Avatamsaka Sutra currently kept in the British Library

The Society was considered heretical by the government as male and female practitioners practised together, so it was banished to the far south in 1116, but this banishment was later lifted. The Society diminished in 1202, when its practitioners were found to be practising at night, something which at the time was not considered a proper practice.

Daoan, the Buddhist abbot of Puning Monastery in Hongzhou, added work by the Society to an edition of the Tripitaka, called the Puning Edition, and revived the Society’s practices for a while until it was finally banned in 1320.

In addition to the two movements above, the Wuwei (Non-Action) Sect was founded by Luo Qing (1442-1527 CE). Luo was inspired by Buddhism, studied with various masters, and was particularly interested in Buddhist texts. His teachings were strongly influenced by Chan Buddhism, emphasising the discovery of one’s innate Buddha-nature (Sanskrit: Tathagatagarbha).

This tradition split into four sects after Luo Qing’s death. One of these developed into the popular I-Guan Dao (Consistent Way) that is very much active in Taiwan. Its practice of vegetarianism and worship of Guanyin are also heavily influenced by Buddhism. Apart from I-Guan Dao, the Sanyi Jiao (Three-in-One Teaching) School was founded by Lin Zhao’en (1517-98 CE). He combined the teachings of Buddhism, Confucianism, and Daoism, but emphasised the Confucianist and Daoist concepts of internal alchemy, known as Quanzhen (Complete Realization) as opposed to the Buddhist concept of enlightenment.

 

Buddhist Influence on Popular Belief

Many of the images and iconographic details of the Buddhas, Boddhisattvas and Arhats were introduced to China at the same time Buddhist texts were. Some of these Buddhas and Bodhisattvas became quite popular amongst the Chinese people, who incorporated them into popular culture, turning them into Chinese gods. For example, Guanyin, the Chinese version of Avalokiteshvara; Mile, the Chinese version of Maitreya; and Dizang, the Chinese version of Ksitigarbha.

 

Guanyin (Avalokitesvara)

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Guanyin, the Goddess of Mercy, is the most popular Buddhist Bodhisattva worshiped by Chinese people all around the world. Guanyin became popular in the Northern and Southern Dynasties (420-589 CE) and her popularity in China and East Asia continues to this day. Guanyin is also worshiped in Daoism as the True Man of Compassion or Great Person of Compassion. Within the Lingbao texts of the Daoist tradition, Guanyin was transformed into Jiuku Tianzun (Heavenly Venerable Saviour from Suffering).

 

Milefo (Maitreya)

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Milefo is the second most popular Buddhist Bodhisattva worshiped by the Chinese. He is also known as the Laughing Buddha; Mile with a Bag; Mile with a Big Belly; the Happy Buddha; the Peace Buddha; the Buddha of Good Fortune; and the Buddha of Wealth, etc.

According to Buddhist scripture, Maitreya currently resides in Tushita Heaven, where Lama Tsongkhapa also resides. Maitreya will appear on earth in the future to teach the Dharma again and bring us out of suffering when the world is dark and peoples’ delusions have worsened incredibly. He will become the next Buddha in our world. Iconographically, Maitreya sits upright and forward in full readiness to arrive and teach all beings, and his form resembles humans of this world. He will manifest in that way to help beings on earth to overcome their suffering.

Engaging in the practice of Maitreya now is said to assure practitioners the chance to become one of his foremost disciples when he teaches in the future. Many Buddhist practitioners, including the eminent Buddhist monk Daoan, vowed to be reborn in Tushita Heaven to be near Maitreya. Since the Northern and Southern Dynasties, many people have been inspired to use Maitreya’s image. From politicians and various cult leaders, people have used his future enlightenment to propagate their own versions of his arrival and to somehow legitimise any claims they made.

I-Guan Dao is one of the many popular Chinese religions that adopted Maitreya as their main deity and have asserted the reincarnations of their masters such as their 17th Patriarch Lu Zhongyi (1849-1925 CE), are in fact none other than Maitreya himself.

According to the Biography of Eminent Monks, during the late Five Dynasties (907–60 CE), there was a Buddhist monk, named Qici, who had a big belly. He often travelled around the Zhejiang province with a bag and begged for a living, so people called him Budai Heshang, which means the monk with a bag. Just before his death, Qici composed a stanza that reads: “Maitreya is a real Buddha, who manifests uncountable transformed bodies. Manifests constantly before living beings who are unable to recognize them.” Thus, people identified him as being Maitreya. According to Zhuang Chuo from the Song Dynasty, many made statues of Qici and worshiped him as Maitreya during that time.

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This tradition was adopted into Chinese Buddhism. We often see the Laughing Buddha being placed in the first shrine room as we enter a Chinese Buddhist monastery or temple. In 1098, the Song Dynasty Emperor Zhezong gave Maitreya an official title, the Great Master Dingying, which completely transformed the image of Maitreya into the Laughing Buddha.

The belief in Milefo continued to grow and became much more popular. Many texts were produced as a result, including Mile Sanhui Ji (Record of Maitreya’s Three Meetings), Longhua Huiji (Record of Longhua Meeting), Mile Sung (Praises of Maitreya), Milefoshuo Dizang Shiwang Baojuan (Treasure Scroll of Dizang and the Ten Kings preached by Maitreya Buddha), Dasheng Mile Huadu Baojuan (Treasure Scroll of the Great Saint Maitreya’s Conversion), Milefo Chuxi Baojuan (Treasure Scroll of Maitreya’s Appearance in the West), Budai Jing (Scripture of Budai), Mile Gufojiao Pian (The Ancient Buddha Maitreya’s Teaching), etc.

Today, Milefo or Maitreya is usually depicted in Chinese art as a laughing monk with a big belly to symbolise the spirit of open-mindedness and tolerance. The Chinese believe it represents the humanistic, practical, and happy attitude of life with a spirit to promote peace and prosperity in society.

 

Amitofo (Amitabha Buddha)

The Buddha Amitabha (centre) in his Western Pure Land, with his attendants.

The Buddha Amitabha (centre) in his Western Pure Land, with his attendants.

Amitofo is the most prominent deity in Pure Land Buddhism. According to the Wuliangshou Jing (Sukhavativyuha Sutra), there was a king who met Guan Zizaiwang Rulai (Tathagata Lokesvararaja), and renounced the world after learning the Buddha’s teaching. He became a monk, called Dharmakara, and made forty-eight vows to save people by creating a Pure Land. His 18th vow reads: 

“If, when I attain Buddhahood, sentient beings in the lands of the ten quarters who sincerely and joyfully entrust themselves to me, desire to be born in my land, and call my name, even ten times, should not be born there, may I not attain perfect enlightenment. Excluded, however, are those who commit the five gravest offences and abuse the right Dharma.”

After he attained enlightenment, he was named Amita or Amitabha, which means “infinite light”, and the Pure Land he created is called the Sukhavati (in Sanskrit), which means the Western Paradise. Those who follow the Pure Land tradition recite the name of Amitabha Buddha, wishing to be born in his Pure Land according to his 18th vow.

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The two Bodhisattvas assistants of Amitabha Buddha are Guanyin (Avalokitesvara) and Dashizhi (Mahasthamaprapta). Together, with Amitabha, they are called the Three Saints of the West. The popularity of Amitabha in Chinese society is evident by the popular saying: “There are Amitabhas and Avalokitesvaras enshrined by each and every family”.

The practice of Amitabha is extremely important in Chinese religion and culture. When a person is close to death or has already passed on, often times family members, friends and even other volunteers chant the name of Amitabha and dedicated the merits to the dying person. This is done because they have the wish for him or her to be born in the Western Paradise. Family members also visit Buddhist monasteries to ask monks to perform rituals for the dead, including chanting of the name of Amitabha and the recitation of the short version of the Amitabha Sutra.

 

Belief in the Hells and its Ten Kings

The Bodhisattva Ksitigarba and his two attendants, flanked by the Ten Kings of Hell.

The Bodhisattva Ksitigarba and his two attendants, flanked by the Ten Kings of Hell.

According to Tang Yijian, a Chinese scholar, there was no belief in future lives in indigenous Chinese thought (Tang 1999, 164). The ancient Chinese believed that we go to hell when we die, but their idea of hell was quite vague. They believed in what was known as Taishan or Fengdu. According to the Shanguo Zhi text (History of the Three Kingdoms), Taishan was a place reserved for the governing of ghosts, not human beings (Chen 1964, 826). According to the ancient Book of Bowuzhi, Taishan was personified as the grandson of Heaven, and was in charge of all ghosts. Similarly, belief in Fengdu as the realm of ghosts can be found in Daoist books such as Ge Hong’s (284–363 CE) Zhenzhongshu and Tao Hongjing’s (456– 536 CE) Zhenlin Weiye Tu. Both of these figures were eminent Daoists in Chinese history.

However, one distinguishing feature compared to other belief systems is that hell is situated in the same realm as human beings. There was also a belief that there were many beings or deities in charge of the ‘departments’ or ‘offices’ for the different ‘districts’ of existence. This included hell, which was simply another ‘department’.

The introduction of hell as a separate realm came about through the introduction of Buddhism, and the various descriptions found in its scriptures. For example, the Dirga Agama text, translated into Chinese by Zhu Fonian in 413 CE includes a full description of hell. The popular belief in the 18 hells, however, was introduced to China during the 2nd Century, when An Shigao translated the Niraya Sutra, with its detailed description of the realm. The belief became popular during the Northen and Southern Dynasties, as the term ‘Eighteen Hells’ was mentioned in a story about Liu Sahe, recorded down in the Liang History Book.

Due to both the influence of indigenous beliefs and the introduction of Buddhism, a unique concept of the hells formed within Chinese culture. As Daoshi described it in his book Fayuan Zhulin (Forest of Gems in the Garden of the Dharma) compiled in 668 CE, there are 18 hells, with Yama (the God of Death) as their king, who commands 18 ministers that govern the realms. Therefore, today the belief in 18 hells is a combination of both Buddhist and Daoist tradition.

According to indigenous Chinese belief, the King of Eastern Mountain is the chieftain who governs hell. But in the Buddhist texts, Yama is described as the King of the Hells. This belief was originally found in the ancient Indian Hindu text known as the Yajur Veda. In it, he is known as Yamaraja, and Buddhism absorbed belief in this deity into their own cosmological system. The belief in Yama became widespread only during the Southern and Northern Dynasties. As the Biography of Han Qinhu in the Sui History text recounts, General Han Qinhu of the Northern Zhou Dynasty even made vows to be reborn as Yama, the King of the Hells.

A full description of the 10 Kings of Hell can be found in two versions of the apocryphal Scripture on the Ten Kings, which were written by a Buddhist monk, name Zangchuan. These were known as the Dizang Pusa Faxin Yingyuan Shiwang Jing (Scripture of the Ten Kings about the Causes of Kitigarbha Bodhisattva’s Taking of Vows) and Yanlouwang Shouji Linsizhong Nixiu Sheng Qizhai Gongde Wangsheng Jingtu Jing (Sutra of Yama’s Prediction that Allows the Fourfold Assembly to Practice the Seven Types of Rituals in Reverse to be Reborn in a Pure Land) which were both found in Dunhuang.

The Bodhisattva Ksitigarba with his two assistants, with the Ten Kings of Hell in attendance.

The Bodhisattva Ksitigarba with his two assistants, with the Ten Kings of Hell in attendance.

According to Stephen Teiser, the apocryphal Scripture on the Ten Kings came into being during the late 10th Century. After belief in them became stronger, they were considered to be subjects of the King of Eastern Mountain. Daoism however, assimilated the Buddhist idea of Yama and the 18 hells, and this view became popular during the Tang Dynasty. It is believed that there are 10 courts in the hell realms, each with its own king to pass judgement. The names of these kings are a fascinating blend of names of historical figures and those from Buddhist scriptures. They are (1) Qinguang, (2) Chujiang, (3) Songdi, (4) Wuguan, (5) Yanluo, (6) Biancheng, (7) Taishan, (8) Pingzheng, (9) Dushi, and (10) Zhuanlun. However, some lists enumerate them differently.

According to the scholar Zhiru, medieval sources indicate that by the end of the 8th Century, the worship of Dizang or the Buddhist Bodhisattva Ksitigarba, was incorporated into cults surrounding death and the afterlife. This was especially true in areas such as Dunhuang and Sichuan, where the Bodhisattva shows up frequently in portrayals of judgement in the afterlife. (Zhiru 2007, 198).

This Bodhisattva is well-known for his great vow to save beings suffering in the hells realms as recounted in the Sutra on the Original Vows of Bodhisattva Ksitigarbha, which is fundamentally a teaching concerning karmic retribution. It graphically describes the consequences of committing undesirable actions. His heroic vow reads: “Not until the hells are emptied will I become a Buddha.”

The Bodhisattva Ksitigarba

The Bodhisattva Ksitigarba

Dizang normally appears in hell as an intercessor; a ray of mercy and redemption in the afterlife’s judiciary process over which the Ten Kings preside. People believe that his worship during the Ghost Festival can save the suffering of their relatives in the afterlife because Dizang even has the capability of opening the doors to the hells, allowing the relatives respite or to receive offerings made for them.

In Daoist theology, the role of Dizang as Bodhisattva of the underworld was assumed by the deity Jiuku Tianzun. The cults of Dizang and Jiuku Tianzun offered people solace as they gave hope that the net of karma could be avoided through contrition, repentance, and faith in the power of a compassionate saviour.

 

The Mother Delivering Children

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There is another belief that influenced Chinese religion, and that is the belief in the mother of a child ghost. This came about from Buddhist tradition which speaks of a female ghost or ogress known as Hariti. She had five hundred children of her own, but used to eat other people’s children. Upon hearing this, Buddha Shakyamuni appeared and hid her youngest child. She could not find him anywhere and distraught asked Shakyamuni for help. He taught her to compare herself with other women who also have children. She realised her wrong deeds and instead became a powerful protector of children. She is worshiped in China by those who are childless and want offspring. She is appeased in the form of a mother who delivers children; middle-aged with many children around her, and at least one child in her arms.

 

Jigong, the Living Buddha

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Jigong is the honourable name for the Buddhist monk Jidian. His lay name was Li Xiuyuan and he lived during the Song Dynasty. Because of his good deeds helping people, he was named the Living Buddha Jigong after he died. He was a descendant of a military marshal, Lee Wenhe, from the Tiantai area. When he was 18 years old, he became a monk at Lingyin Monastery in Hangzhou, under his master, Huiyuan. Even though he was a monk, he did not follow the discipline of the monastery. He drank wine and eat meat; his speech was crude and his behaviour crazy. Other monks did not like him and thought to expel him from the monastery. However, his kind master kept him near until the master died. After that Jigong was expelled from Lingyin Monastery and moved to Jingci monastery, where he remained until his death in 1209.

According to legend, he had magical powers that he used to help people by curing their illnesses or predicting accidents, etc. As a result, people loved him and thought he was the incarnation of a Buddhist arhat, who had tamed a dragon. Thus, belief in Jigong became popular, and there are many folk stories about his life and legend. By the beginning of the Ming Dynasty, many storytellers propagated Jigong’s thaumaturgical stories. All the material enriched Jigong’s original history. Today, Jigong’s story is portrayed in TV shows popular in Taiwan, Mainland China, and the Tibetan Autonomous Region.

Jigong is an important figure in popular religion, as many sects regard him as a deity. For example, when people ‘Call Upon the Gods’ or hold the ‘Flying Phoenix Ritual’, Jigong is one of the major deities who possesses the mediums present. In I-Guan Dao, the disciples call Jigong ‘Lao Shi’, the ‘master’ or ‘teacher’, and they believe I-Guan Dao’s founder, Zhang Tianran, was the incarnation of Jigong. Another famous sect, Ci Hui Tang, incorporates the belief in mediums who are possessed by Jigong. In popular religion, although Jigong is not the highest god, he is a benevolent messenger who helps people.

 

Festivals Influenced by Buddhism

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Many festivals in China are influenced by Buddhist teachings, such as the Buddha’s birthday, which falls on the 8th day of the fourth month in the Chinese lunar calendar. Of course, it is mainly celebrated in Buddhist monasteries throughout China, but ordinary people, who are not particularly Buddhist, also attend the celebrations.

The second is the Yulanpen Festival, popularly known as the Ghost Festival, which is celebrated on the 15th day of the seventh month in the Chinese lunar calendar. The name Yulanpen is a Buddhist term from the Yulanpen Jing or Ullambana Sutra, which tells a story of how Maudgalyayana, a disciple of the Buddha, saved his mother from hell. It is a text that teaches filial piety. This festival became quite popular in the Tang Dynasty. Daoism also has its own festival, called Zhongyuan, celebrated on the same day with the same purpose – to save all souls from hell. Today, this festival is celebrated by all Chinese people, regardless of whether they are religious or not, because it is considered a form of ancestor worship.

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The third is the Laba Festival, which falls on the 8th day of the twelfth month in the Chinese lunar calendar. La means the end of the year, when the ancient Chinese made offerings to gods and ancestors for good fortune and blessings. Eight gods were worshipped during this time, such as the God of Harvest and the Insect God. After the introduction of Buddhism, it was made known that Buddha Shakyamuni attained enlightenment on the 8th day of the twelfth month, by meditating under a bodhi tree after eating congee (or the Indian equivalent; rice pudding) offered to him by a young lady. This took place after six long and futile years of mistaken ascetic practices. In commemoration of the event, Chinese monasteries began offering congee every year on this day. Thus, it became a tradition for people to enjoy bowls of congee for good luck and happiness. The Laba Festival therefore, has both indigenous and Buddhist characteristics.

 

Funerary Practices

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A central practice amongst the Chinese is to bury the dead in a thick coffin, as it is believed to be a filial act towards their deceased family member, as explained in the classic Chinese text Xiaojing. However, the practice of cremation was gradually accepted as Buddhism became an integral part of Chinese culture.

Buddhism, however, does not specify if a body should be cremated or buried as either a way to reach heaven, ensure a good rebirth, or as a crucial ritual act in treating the dead. Buddhist liberation has nothing to do with how a corpse is handled because the Buddhist attitude to the physical body is that it has only instrumental value. That being said, as Buddhists practiced cremation in India and they brought the tradition to China, it became widespread.

Beginning in the 10th Century, many people willingly gave up the long-established custom of burying bodies in coffins to follow the practice of cremating bodies and scattering the ashes over water, storing them in urns above ground, or burying the urn in a small grave. Throughout the Song Dynasty and its successor, the Yuan Dynasty founded by Mongol conquerors, cremation flourished, despite strong objections by the state and the educated Confucian elite. (Ebrey 1990, 406)

A Song Dynasty Chinese elite, Hong Mai (1123–1202 CE), stated in his work titled Rongzhai Suibi:

Once the Buddhist theory of transformation by fire arose, everywhere, there have been people who burn the corpse after death. When the weather is hot, out of dread of the foul secretions, they invariably lay out [the body] before the day is over and burn it before the flesh is cold. (Ebrey 1990, 410)

Of course, cremation was only an alternative. Many people still preferred to bury the dead. Cremation was preferred due to economic reasons, as there was a shortage of land for burial available to poor city dwellers, but others followed which ever custom they liked. According to a study by Ebrey, Buddhism provided the institutions necessary for the spread of cremation, as all the recorded crematoria were run by Buddhist temples. Some Buddhist temples even provided storage for the ash remains, and others had pools of water where they could be scattered. However, the practice of cremation declined from the Ming Dynasty due to criticism by the Confucians and government intervention.

The Confucians from the Song Dynasty argued cremation was a foreign custom introduced with Buddhism, and it was cruel, a desecration of the corpse, barbaric, and not filial. The well-known Neo-Confucian philosopher, Cheng Yi (1033–1107 CE), argued cremation was a severe way to handle a corpse: “Today if a fool or drunkard accidentally hits the coffin of a person’s ancestor, he will take great offense and want revenge. Yet, he may personally drag his parents and toss them into the flames, finding nothing odd in it”. Another Neo-Confucian, Zhu Xi (1130–1200 CE), also rejected cremation as an unacceptable practice. It was perhaps motivated by the Confucians that the Song government issued codes to prohibit cremation, but it was difficult to enforce. During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the government’s codes became severe, and social control became more pervasive, so cremation declined rapidly. The practice of cremation continued, but it was confined to special circumstances, such as amongst Buddhist monks and nuns; and dead lepers, who were burnt to prevent disease.

Over time, however, cremation became a major practice as people became more aware that the physical body is just a natural product of their parents, and cremation is more environmentally friendly than other means of disposing the dead.

 

Conclusion

BICR026

The Buddhist influence on popular Chinese belief, especially amongst Daoist practitioners is very strong. Many Buddhist ideas and practices; and images of the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas were incorporated into popular religious practices in China. Today, these Buddhist elements are seen in many areas of religious practice, however few people recognise them as such, though they have played a major role in Chinese religious traditions throughout the course of Buddhist history in China.

 
Sources:

  • https://www.quora.com/How-did-Buddhism-spread
  • http://factsanddetails.com/china/cat3/sub11/item94.html
  • https://classroom.synonym.com/how-did-buddhist-beliefs-impact-chinese-thoughts-12087528.html
  • https://classroom.synonym.com/cultural-diffusion-silk-route-ancient-china-6945.html
  • https://www.travelchinaguide.com/intro/religion/
  • https://www.chinahighlights.com/travelguide/buddhism.htm
  • https://www.ancient.eu/article/891/religion-in-ancient-china/
  • https://mediadiversified.org/2013/11/14/photo-gallery-taiwan-through-the-lens-of-the-people/11-prayers-and-incense-offered-at-longshan-temple-both-buddhist-and-taoist-by-benedict-young/
  • http://taoisttalisman.blogspot.rs/2006/
  • http://www.goodorient.com/blog/?p=481
  • https://www.thoughtco.com/the-three-purities-of-taoism-3182932

 
For more interesting information:

 

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Adeline Woon is a Buddhist Pastor and a Sangha-to-be in Kechara who enjoys learning and sharing the Dharma with others. Due to her deep interest in Buddhism from a young age, Adeline enrolled herself into the Dharma Drum University in Taiwan, where she graduated with a Master in Religious Studies in 2012.
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4 Responses to Buddhist Influence on Chinese Religion

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  1. Jacinta Goh on Feb 14, 2021 at 11:59 pm

    Up to this day, I am still having trouble differentiating between Confusion and Daoism. Thank Buddha I have a clearer understanding of Buddhism, especially Tibetan Buddhism. I’m glad that this article being discussed just now in the blog chat. Although I am still having difficulty in recognizing them, at least I learned some of their histories, their similarities with Buddhism as well as their differentiation. Thank you Rinpoche and Pastor Adeline.

  2. Moon Chan on Jan 5, 2021 at 7:07 pm

    “Buddhism is for the cultivation of mind, Daoism is for the training of the physical body and Confucianism is for the governance of society.”

    Long time ago, I was told to defer Daoism between Buddhism, Daoism worship “human” figures, nor Buddhism is not. Therefore most of the time we see Buddha statue represents Buddhism, but Daoism has many different human form deities.

    There are many folktale in Daoism which are very interesting, I know Amitabha from a Daoism TV show during childhood. He was with many other deities in his heaven, now I realise it was the Pure Land he created, a place people longing to go after death. My experience of Chinese culture, its true I would say “Amitabha” when I see other beings are in suffer or death.

    The Daoists also asserting a total of 32 heavens, similar to the Buddhist concept of Trayastrimsa or the Heaven of the Thirty-Three. There are so many heaven up there, different heaven has different count in life time too. Interesting! So many history to discover, before this I thought only one heaven. In Tibetan Buddhism, Mandala is where the deities stay.

  3. Andrea Lai on Oct 8, 2020 at 1:10 am

    I’m used to be a Daoism practitioner because since young I was brought up in this way. Needless, I know not much until I growing up meeting friends and got know little better. Then when my mom converted into Buddhism, I only received very basic knowledge of Buddhism.
    Ever since I joined in Tibetan Buddhism, I found the teachings from Rinpoche have broadened up my horizon. In my opinion, Buddhism is not a religion it’s a philosophy of life, because we can apply it into our daily lives and it’s a cultural practice for all. Very informative info, thank you PAW. 🙏

  4. Samfoonheei on Jul 4, 2020 at 1:20 pm

    Buddhism started as a Hindu influenced religion in India. Buddhism has had a long history in China and has been instrumental in shaping Chinese culture and tradition. Over time Buddhism became a popular force in the lives of the Chinese and many others. Buddhists believe in a combination of Taoism and Mahayana Buddhism, the latter of which teaches that enlightenment can be achieved in a single lifetime. It was able to gain acceptance among the Chinese as it emphasis on non-violence and the sanctity of animal life. China hosts the world’s largest Buddhist population. Interesting read . At the time of commenting , I still have plenty to understand.
    Thank you Pastor Adeline for this sharing.

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  • Samfoonheei
    Tuesday, Nov 29. 2022 02:41 PM
    Watching the videos of once upon a time with Rinpoche by Pastor David had me understand more of Rinpoche . Truly a unique perspective of Rinpoche through the eyes of Pastor . Interesting indeed to know how Pastor came to meet Rinpoche to learning and many more. Coming to know Kechara had me changed to where I am now….learning, practicing Dharma. At the time of commenting this blog I am half way through watching the videos. Will watch all the interesting episodes from A to Z.
    Thank you Pastor David for this sharing.

    https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/me/once-upon-a-time-with-rinpoche.html
  • Samfoonheei
    Tuesday, Nov 29. 2022 02:40 PM
    Everyone has the right to freedom of expression and freedom of speech. This right shall include freedom to hold opinions and to receive and impart information and ideas without interference by public authority and regardless of frontiers. Thanks to Mr Matthew Sinclair for speaking up clearly with logic. Our world is diverse, acceptance and understanding are the keys to peace and harmony. We choose what we want to practice, no one can interfere with our choice of religion and beliefs. Mr. Matthew, for being open minded and wrote such a good letter that promote religion freedom and human rights. Everyone deserves a well respect on their religion. We should not simply condemn others because of their practice, their choice is theirs. Using the profession to influence and make false accusation rather statement on Dorje Shugden practitioners. Thank you Rinpoche ‘s sharing on Mr. Matthew Sinclair letter.

    https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/guest-contributors/are-we-all-obliged-to-listen-to-the-dalai-lama.html
  • Samfoonheei
    Tuesday, Nov 29. 2022 02:37 PM
    Thank You Rinpoche for this précised teachings. Take responsibility of what we are doing in our life. Everyone of us go through difficult situations in life. But always think and behave in a more positive and optimistic way . Taking responsibility for our attitude, change our attitude, and the way we look at things that will change our life. Nobody’s perfect, we learned from mistakes , everybody’s got regrets. We say wrong things and we do wrong things and fall. We have to accept failure ,we learn from there and grow. Doing Dharma work and take whatever responsibility to improve ourselves. Doing Dharma work is to transform our minds , we are trapped in samsara through one life after another until we find awakening through enlightenment. We all have different strengths and weaknesses, so it’s important to embrace our imperfections and work on improving ourselves, helping and benefit others.

    https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/inspiration-worthy-words/why-do-they-do-dharma-work-like-that.html
  • Samfoonheei
    Thursday, Nov 24. 2022 03:34 PM
    NASA’s planet-hunting Kepler spacecraft has confirmed the discovery of its first alien world. We are not alone on earth afterall. Researchers discovered detectable sign of extra-terrestrial life in the atmosphere of a rocky planet . Wow It’s so exciting to imagine the possibilities, of potential habitability and may be suitable for life. Even with that discovery Earth remains a standout, and is still the only planet known to host life. Scientists concluded that the possibility of the existence of alien life forms. I am sure in future scientists will discover more new discoveries of planet in the habitable zone.
    Thank you Rinpoche for this sharing

    https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/current-affairs/guess-what-was-found.html
  • Samfoonheei
    Thursday, Nov 24. 2022 03:32 PM
    Wow… living a house with waterfall, greens, forests, clean air is everyone wish. Waterfalls are wonders of nature that humans have adored since ancient times. The sight, sound, and feel of waterfall have a positive impart on our mind. The beauty of waterfalls everywhere has been immense sources of inspiration for many such as thinkers, writers, philosophers, travel lovers and so forth. Sitting beside a waterfall and listening to the sound of waterfalls makes us happy.
    Well truly a masterpiece by Frank Lloyd Wright in terms of architecture and this designed Fallingwater has been called the best all-time work of American architecture. He believed in designing in harmony with humanity and the environment, and he truly appreciate their abundant beauty. Great work Frank Lloyd Wright.
    Thank you Rinpoche for this sharing.

    https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/art-architecture/fallingwater-house-at-pennsylvania.html
  • Samfoonheei
    Thursday, Nov 24. 2022 03:30 PM
    HuffPost is an American liberal news portal, with localized and international editions. Well this portal offers news, blogs, and also covers politics, business, entertainment, environment etc . It cannot be wrong when mentioned about the Dorje Shugden controversy. It is a practice that the greatest Gelugpa and Sakya masters have hailed as all-important, and they have preserved and passed the lineage from one generation to another for 400 years. HuffPost’s professionalism and integrity says all. Those articles on the Shugden controversy is truly a testament.
    The H H 14th Dalai Lama, Tibet’s exiled spiritual leader, has for decades travelled the globe with a message of peace, love and compassion. Yet these Dorje Shugden controversy happened due to some having their own agenda. Shugden practitioners have been relying on Dorje Shugdn for more than 350 years. Why now??? It had cause more sufferings, misunderstanding , families divided and so on. May all this be over soon for the sake of Tibetans . Interesting read……hopefully more people will read this blog to understand the situation better.
    Thank you Rinpoche for this sharing.

    https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/dorje-shugden/huffington-post-three-times-as-many-buddhists-as-communists-in-china-dalai-lamas-tibet-wish-may-require-rapprochement-with-former-adversaries.html
  • Samfoonheei
    Wednesday, Nov 16. 2022 03:52 PM
    History is full of weird events that no one can explain , well that’s a fact. We are fortunate historians of the past have documented many of them for us to understand. Yet many unexplained mysteries remain unexplained even to this day. For some reason, we as humans tend to concentrate on the mysterious things more than the undeniable facts. World’s greatest unsolved mysteries always interest me. Mysteries of any topic is truly interesting to read the story. Death is a mystery to all of us, and so is reincarnation. When science cannot explain something it is often referred to as a belief. There are many mysterious stories in the world now where people claim to be reincarnated and they remember their past life. One such intriguing story was of Shanti Devi recalling her past life in modern times. Shanti Devi’s story is amazing at the age of four years old, she began telling her parents specific details about her old life.
    Interesting and weird mysterious stories in this blog, some of them are truly spooky.
    Thank you Rinpoche for this sharing.

    https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/science-mysteries/10-creepy-mysteries-you-havent-heard-of.html
  • Samfoonheei
    Wednesday, Nov 16. 2022 03:50 PM
    Even though it a old post yet reading it had me feeling sorry for such cute doggie. Due to some mortgage problems the owners left Sue the doggie without someone to look after. Sue was lucky somehow someone from Shelter Friend adopted her. Thank you to those who made it happen
    Thank you Rinpoche for this sharing.

    https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/animals-vegetarianism/dog-in-danger-please-help-sue.html
  • Samfoonheei
    Wednesday, Nov 16. 2022 03:48 PM
    nteresting read …..after reading this blog had me realised animals do reincarnate after all. Animals can become human again and vice versa after death. Just like humans, animals reincarnate as part of our soul family groups. This means the animals in our life now, have very likely been in our life before, as an animal. The true life story of a Thai boy with a snake past life tells all . The Thai boy Dalawong as a wonder spirit recognizes the cobra’s attacker is a very good life evidence of the existence of reincarnation.
    Reading the topic of telepathy had me understand slightly better . According to researchers, telepathy is a non-verbal way to communicate with others. With telepathy, people communicate entirely in the mind without saying anything. Interesting. Do hope I could telepathy with my doggie.
    Thank you Rinpoche for sharing this interesting blog.

    https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/science-mysteries/do-animals-reincarnate-back-as-humans.html
  • Samfoonheei
    Monday, Nov 14. 2022 03:59 PM
    Thanks for sharing all this creative special thoughts for readers to share with everyone . Simple thoughts yet easy understandable , meaningful tells us a thousand words of reality. Many will surly benefits it , reading those thoughts. Everyone has the right to practice his or her own religion, or rather no religion at all. Everyone should be supportive of religious freedom because religion is uniquely valuable to society. No one should ever suffer, be humiliated, assaulted, be segregated all because of their faith.
    Thank you Rinpoche and Pastor Seng Piow again with folded hands.

    https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/inspiration-worthy-words/very-special-thoughts-to-share.html
  • Samfoonheei
    Monday, Nov 14. 2022 03:56 PM
    As the sun rose over the ancient town, Dharmakaya Ceitiya, Thailand, a sea of saffron and maroon-robed monks assembled in an area the size of a football field. Could not have imagined 30,000 ordained as monks in one go that’s rejoicing. Thailand is the Land of Dharma where the Buddhism has been established since thousands years ago. Buddha Dharma teachings have been infiltrated in the daily life of Thai people. The Thai Buddhist cultures are unique and beautiful and their country are known as “the Land of Smile”. Theravada Buddhism is the official religion of Thailand and plays a key role in many aspects of Thai culture. For many Thai people, Buddhism is considered a philosophy for how to live one’s life and numerous Buddhist principles. Buddhism is a key component to the identities of many Thais. Many beautiful Buddhist temples and golden statues could be a common sights all over. Thai Buddhism has influenced society for a long time that has contributed to Thai people being generally known as kind, and compassionate.
    Thank you Rinpoche for this wonderful sharing. Looking at those rare pictures tells all…..simple amazing able to see it.

    https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/buddhas-dharma/30000-people-ordained-as-monks.html
  • Samfoonheei
    Monday, Nov 14. 2022 03:53 PM
    To live in the mountains was always Tsem Rinpoche’s dream. A quiet place called home with greenery surrounding. Mountains are the beginning and end of all natural scenery.The mountains give us time to take a moment to be in awe of the natural beauty of the world. It’s wonderful for everyone dream to those who love escaping the rush and pollution of modern life and altering our perspective. The mountains are an extraordinary environment of biological diversity, cultural diversity and linguistic diversity. But its exception for Rinpoche as in this blog somewhere in Thailand Rinpoche was there. Living on raft house surrounding by water watching sunrise and sunset . A beautiful , calm, solitude, quiet environment indeed. I would love these environment as well as mother nature is intoxicating.
    Rinpoche somehow founded an extraordinary environment of biological diversity, cultural diversity and linguistic diversity. A place call home to many of us that’s Kechara Forest retreat at Bentong. A unique examples of beauty, peace, austerity, spirituality, eco-yoga and creativity. A must visit to those who loves mother nature.
    Thank you Rinpoche .

    https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/me/an-exception.html
  • Samfoonheei
    Friday, Nov 11. 2022 03:19 PM
    Reading these inspiring quotes again to refresh myself of the Buddha teachings. If we understand, it will change our life in long run. Change is never painful, only resistance to change ourselves is painful. By refusing to accept this change, we make it worse because we’re fighting against it, against the flow of life. One moment can change a day, one day can change a life. We should be open to change and embrace changes. By accepting the fact that nothing in the universe is permanent . We learn and practice makes improvement in our life and be thankful always.
    Thank you Rinpoche for this sharing.

    https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/inspiration-worthy-words/25-quotes-from-buddha-that-will-change-your-life.html
  • Samfoonheei
    Friday, Nov 11. 2022 03:16 PM
    PURE DEMOCRACY is democracy in which the power is exercised directly by the people rather than through representatives. Its much different in this case. Reading this article and all comments tells us a clear pictures what had actually happened in this Dorje Shugden controversy. In democratic countries, the government does not interfere with religion.People have the freedom to practise any religion they want. Dorje Shugden’s practice has been around for 400 years and it will continue as practitioners could see and understand the benefits of relying on the practice. Everyone of us should given the freedom of religious belief. Peace and harmony can only be maintain through understanding and interaction or maybe a dialogue between parties involved . I am sure Dorje Shugden practitioners and everyone in the communities can live in harmony. Be to fair the right to freedom of belief , interviews on both sides instead just listening one sided. No one should ever suffer, be segregated, assaulted, hurt, degraded, hated and biased for their religious beliefs. Once for all these controversy should be solved for the sake of peace and harmony. Thanks Justin Whitaker for speaking up and standing up for what you believe in for readers to have a better understanding rather then reading what Reuters had published.
    Thank you Rinpoche for this sharing.

    https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/dorje-shugden/reuters-investigation-on-dorje-shugden-inaccurate.html
  • Samfoonheei
    Tuesday, Nov 8. 2022 01:09 PM
    Its sad how those Dorje Shugden practitioners had suffered and life is tough for them. Could’nt imagine not allow to enter premises such as hospitals for treatment, schools for education , securing a government job and so forth. Our very own Kecharian had even denied hotel rooms just because we practice it. This controversy had been going on for too long , hopefully it will dissolve soon with H h Dalai Lama saying we can practice it . All can live happily, no discrimination, with peace and harmony then. Interesting read.
    Thank you Rinpoche and Pastor David. Of course a hand of applauds to those kecharian who have been working hard to collect all the evidence of the ban against Dorje Shugden.

    https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/buddhas-dharma/why-cant-the-dalai-lama-bind-dorje-shugden.html

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The Unknown

The Known and unknown are both feared,
Known is being comfortable and stagnant,
The unknown may be growth and opportunities,
One shall never know if one fears the unknown more than the known.
Who says the unknown would be worse than the known?
But then again, the unknown is sometimes worse than the known. In the end nothing is known unless we endeavour,
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According to legend, Shambhala is a place where wisdom and love reign, and there is no crime. Doesn't this sound like the kind of place all of us would love to live in? https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/?p=204874
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Dharmapalas are not exclusive to Tibetan culture and their practice is widespread throughout the Buddhist world - https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/?p=193645
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By the time I heard about Luang Phor Thong, he was already very old, in his late 80s. When I heard about him, I immediately wanted to go and pay my respects to him. - http://bit.ly/LuangPhorThong
3 years ago
By the time I heard about Luang Phor Thong, he was already very old, in his late 80s. When I heard about him, I immediately wanted to go and pay my respects to him. - http://bit.ly/LuangPhorThong
It\'s very nice to see volunteers helping maintain holy sites in Kechara Forest Retreat, it\'s very good for them. Cleaning Buddha statues is a very powerful and effective way of purifying body karma.
3 years ago
It's very nice to see volunteers helping maintain holy sites in Kechara Forest Retreat, it's very good for them. Cleaning Buddha statues is a very powerful and effective way of purifying body karma.
Kechara Forest Retreat is preparing for the upcoming Chinese New Year celebrations. This is our holy Vajra Yogini stupa which is now surrounded by beautiful lanterns organised by our students.
3 years ago
Kechara Forest Retreat is preparing for the upcoming Chinese New Year celebrations. This is our holy Vajra Yogini stupa which is now surrounded by beautiful lanterns organised by our students.
One of the most recent harvests from our Kechara Forest Retreat land. It was grown free of chemicals and pesticides, wonderful!
3 years ago
One of the most recent harvests from our Kechara Forest Retreat land. It was grown free of chemicals and pesticides, wonderful!
Third picture-Standing Manjushri Statue at Chowar, Kirtipur, Nepal.
Height: 33ft (10m)
3 years ago
Third picture-Standing Manjushri Statue at Chowar, Kirtipur, Nepal. Height: 33ft (10m)
Second picture-Standing Manjushri Statue at Chowar, Kirtipur, Nepal.
Height: 33ft (10m)
3 years ago
Second picture-Standing Manjushri Statue at Chowar, Kirtipur, Nepal. Height: 33ft (10m)
First picture-Standing Manjushri Statue at Chowar, Kirtipur, Nepal.
Height: 33ft (10m)
3 years ago
First picture-Standing Manjushri Statue at Chowar, Kirtipur, Nepal. Height: 33ft (10m)
The first title published by Kechara Comics is Karuna Finds A Way. It tells the tale of high-school sweethearts Karuna and Adam who had what some would call the dream life. Everything was going great for them until one day when reality came knocking on their door. Caught in a surprise swindle, this loving family who never harmed anyone found themselves out of luck and down on their fortune. Determined to save her family, Karuna goes all out to find a solution. See what she does- https://bit.ly/2LSKuWo
3 years ago
The first title published by Kechara Comics is Karuna Finds A Way. It tells the tale of high-school sweethearts Karuna and Adam who had what some would call the dream life. Everything was going great for them until one day when reality came knocking on their door. Caught in a surprise swindle, this loving family who never harmed anyone found themselves out of luck and down on their fortune. Determined to save her family, Karuna goes all out to find a solution. See what she does- https://bit.ly/2LSKuWo
Very powerful story! Tibetan Resistance group Chushi Gangdruk reveals how Dalai Lama escaped in 1959- https://bit.ly/2S9VMGX
3 years ago
Very powerful story! Tibetan Resistance group Chushi Gangdruk reveals how Dalai Lama escaped in 1959- https://bit.ly/2S9VMGX
At Kechara Forest Retreat land we have nice fresh spinach growing free of chemicals and pesticides. Yes!
3 years ago
At Kechara Forest Retreat land we have nice fresh spinach growing free of chemicals and pesticides. Yes!
See beautiful pictures of Manjushri Guest House here- https://bit.ly/2WGo0ti
3 years ago
See beautiful pictures of Manjushri Guest House here- https://bit.ly/2WGo0ti
Beginner’s Introduction to Dorje Shugden~Very good overview https://bit.ly/2QQNfYv
3 years ago
Beginner’s Introduction to Dorje Shugden~Very good overview https://bit.ly/2QQNfYv
Fresh eggplants grown on Kechara Forest Retreat\'s land here in Malaysia
3 years ago
Fresh eggplants grown on Kechara Forest Retreat's land here in Malaysia
Most Venerable Uppalavanna – The Chief Female Disciple of Buddha Shakyamuni - She exhibited many supernatural abilities gained from meditation and proved to the world females and males are equal in spirituality- https://bit.ly/31d9Rat
3 years ago
Most Venerable Uppalavanna – The Chief Female Disciple of Buddha Shakyamuni - She exhibited many supernatural abilities gained from meditation and proved to the world females and males are equal in spirituality- https://bit.ly/31d9Rat
Thailand’s ‘Renegade’ Yet Powerful Buddhist Nuns~ https://bit.ly/2Z1C02m
3 years ago
Thailand’s ‘Renegade’ Yet Powerful Buddhist Nuns~ https://bit.ly/2Z1C02m
Mahapajapati Gotami – the first Buddhist nun ordained by Lord Buddha- https://bit.ly/2IjD8ru
3 years ago
Mahapajapati Gotami – the first Buddhist nun ordained by Lord Buddha- https://bit.ly/2IjD8ru
The Largest Buddha Shakyamuni in Russia | 俄罗斯最大的释迦牟尼佛画像- https://bit.ly/2Wpclni
3 years ago
The Largest Buddha Shakyamuni in Russia | 俄罗斯最大的释迦牟尼佛画像- https://bit.ly/2Wpclni
Sacred Vajra Yogini
3 years ago
Sacred Vajra Yogini
Dorje Shugden works & archives - a labour of commitment - https://bit.ly/30Tp2p8
4 years ago
Dorje Shugden works & archives - a labour of commitment - https://bit.ly/30Tp2p8
Mahapajapati Gotami, who was the first nun ordained by Lord Buddha.
4 years ago
Mahapajapati Gotami, who was the first nun ordained by Lord Buddha.
Mahapajapati Gotami, who was the first nun ordained by Lord Buddha. She was his step-mother and aunt. Buddha\'s mother had passed away at his birth so he was raised by Gotami.
4 years ago
Mahapajapati Gotami, who was the first nun ordained by Lord Buddha. She was his step-mother and aunt. Buddha's mother had passed away at his birth so he was raised by Gotami.
Another nun disciple of Lord Buddha\'s. She had achieved great spiritual abilities and high attainments. She would be a proper object of refuge. This image of the eminent bhikkhuni (nun) disciple of the Buddha, Uppalavanna Theri.
4 years ago
Another nun disciple of Lord Buddha's. She had achieved great spiritual abilities and high attainments. She would be a proper object of refuge. This image of the eminent bhikkhuni (nun) disciple of the Buddha, Uppalavanna Theri.
Wandering Ascetic Painting by Nirdesha Munasinghe
4 years ago
Wandering Ascetic Painting by Nirdesha Munasinghe
High Sri Lankan monks visit Kechara to bless our land, temple, Buddha and Dorje Shugden images. They were very kind-see pictures- https://bit.ly/2HQie2M
4 years ago
High Sri Lankan monks visit Kechara to bless our land, temple, Buddha and Dorje Shugden images. They were very kind-see pictures- https://bit.ly/2HQie2M
This is pretty amazing!

First Sri Lankan Buddhist temple opened in Dubai!!!
4 years ago
This is pretty amazing! First Sri Lankan Buddhist temple opened in Dubai!!!
My Dharma boy (left) and Oser girl loves to laze around on the veranda in the mornings. They enjoy all the trees, grass and relaxing under the hot sun. Sunbathing is a favorite daily activity. I care about these two doggies of mine very much and I enjoy seeing them happy. They are with me always. Tsem Rinpoche

Always be kind to animals and eat vegetarian- https://bit.ly/2Psp8h2
4 years ago
My Dharma boy (left) and Oser girl loves to laze around on the veranda in the mornings. They enjoy all the trees, grass and relaxing under the hot sun. Sunbathing is a favorite daily activity. I care about these two doggies of mine very much and I enjoy seeing them happy. They are with me always. Tsem Rinpoche Always be kind to animals and eat vegetarian- https://bit.ly/2Psp8h2
After you left me Mumu, I was alone. I have no family or kin. You were my family. I can\'t stop thinking of you and I can\'t forget you. My bond and connection with you is so strong. I wish you were by my side. Tsem Rinpoche
4 years ago
After you left me Mumu, I was alone. I have no family or kin. You were my family. I can't stop thinking of you and I can't forget you. My bond and connection with you is so strong. I wish you were by my side. Tsem Rinpoche
This story is a life-changer. Learn about the incredible Forest Man of India | 印度“森林之子”- https://bit.ly/2Eh4vRS
4 years ago
This story is a life-changer. Learn about the incredible Forest Man of India | 印度“森林之子”- https://bit.ly/2Eh4vRS
Part 2-Beautiful billboard in Malaysia of a powerful Tibetan hero whose life serves as a great inspiration- https://bit.ly/2UltNE4
4 years ago
Part 2-Beautiful billboard in Malaysia of a powerful Tibetan hero whose life serves as a great inspiration- https://bit.ly/2UltNE4
Part 1-Beautiful billboard in Malaysia of a powerful Tibetan hero whose life serves as a great inspiration- https://bit.ly/2UltNE4
4 years ago
Part 1-Beautiful billboard in Malaysia of a powerful Tibetan hero whose life serves as a great inspiration- https://bit.ly/2UltNE4
The great Protector Manjushri Dorje Shugden depicted in the beautiful Mongolian style. To download a high resolution file: https://bit.ly/2Nt3FHz
4 years ago
The great Protector Manjushri Dorje Shugden depicted in the beautiful Mongolian style. To download a high resolution file: https://bit.ly/2Nt3FHz
The Mystical land of Shambhala is finally ready for everyone to feast their eyes and be blessed. A beautiful post with information, art work, history, spirituality and a beautiful book composed by His Holiness the 6th Panchen Rinpoche. ~ https://bit.ly/309MHBi
4 years ago
The Mystical land of Shambhala is finally ready for everyone to feast their eyes and be blessed. A beautiful post with information, art work, history, spirituality and a beautiful book composed by His Holiness the 6th Panchen Rinpoche. ~ https://bit.ly/309MHBi
Beautiful pictures of the huge Buddha in Longkou Nanshan- https://bit.ly/2LsBxVb
4 years ago
Beautiful pictures of the huge Buddha in Longkou Nanshan- https://bit.ly/2LsBxVb
The reason-Very interesting thought- https://bit.ly/2V7VT5r
4 years ago
The reason-Very interesting thought- https://bit.ly/2V7VT5r
NEW Bigfoot cafe in Malaysia! Food is delicious!- https://bit.ly/2VxdGau
4 years ago
NEW Bigfoot cafe in Malaysia! Food is delicious!- https://bit.ly/2VxdGau
DON\'T MISS THIS!~How brave Bonnie survived by living with a herd of deer~ https://bit.ly/2Lre2eY
4 years ago
DON'T MISS THIS!~How brave Bonnie survived by living with a herd of deer~ https://bit.ly/2Lre2eY
Global Superpower China Will Cut Meat Consumption by 50%! Very interesting, find out more- https://bit.ly/2V1sJFh
4 years ago
Global Superpower China Will Cut Meat Consumption by 50%! Very interesting, find out more- https://bit.ly/2V1sJFh
You can download this beautiful Egyptian style Dorje Shugden Free- https://bit.ly/2Nt3FHz
4 years ago
You can download this beautiful Egyptian style Dorje Shugden Free- https://bit.ly/2Nt3FHz
Beautiful high file for print of Lord Manjushri. May you be blessed- https://bit.ly/2V8mwZe
4 years ago
Beautiful high file for print of Lord Manjushri. May you be blessed- https://bit.ly/2V8mwZe
Mongolian (Oymiakon) Shaman in Siberia, Russia. That is his real outfit he wears. Very unique. TR
4 years ago
Mongolian (Oymiakon) Shaman in Siberia, Russia. That is his real outfit he wears. Very unique. TR
Find one of the most beautiful temples in the world in Nara, Japan. It is the 1,267 year old Todai-ji temple that houses a 15 meter Buddha Vairocana statue who is a cosmic and timeless Buddha. Emperor Shomu who sponsored this beautiful temple eventually abdicated and ordained as a Buddhist monk. Very interesting history and story. One of the places everyone should visit- https://bit.ly/2VgsHhK
4 years ago
Find one of the most beautiful temples in the world in Nara, Japan. It is the 1,267 year old Todai-ji temple that houses a 15 meter Buddha Vairocana statue who is a cosmic and timeless Buddha. Emperor Shomu who sponsored this beautiful temple eventually abdicated and ordained as a Buddhist monk. Very interesting history and story. One of the places everyone should visit- https://bit.ly/2VgsHhK
Manjusri Kumara (bodhisattva of wisdom), India, Pala dynesty, 9th century, stone, Honolulu Academy of Arts
4 years ago
Manjusri Kumara (bodhisattva of wisdom), India, Pala dynesty, 9th century, stone, Honolulu Academy of Arts
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  • Our Malaysian Prime Minister Dr. Mahathir speaks so well, logically and regarding our country’s collaboration with China for growth. It is refreshing to listen to Dr. Mahathir’s thoughts. He said our country can look to China for many more things such as technology and so on. Tsem Rinpoche
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  • This is the first time His Holiness Dalai Lama mentions he had some very serious illness. Very worrying. This video is captured April 2019.
    4 years ago
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    4 years ago
    This dog thanks his hero in such a touching way. Tsem Rinpoche
  • Join Tsem Rinpoche in prayer for H.H. Dalai Lama’s long life~ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gYy7JcveikU&feature=youtu.be
    4 years ago
    Join Tsem Rinpoche in prayer for H.H. Dalai Lama’s long life~ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gYy7JcveikU&feature=youtu.be
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    4 years ago
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  • Get ready to laugh real hard. This is Kechara’s version of “Whatever Happened to Baby Jane!” We have some real talents in this video clip.
    4 years ago
    Get ready to laugh real hard. This is Kechara’s version of “Whatever Happened to Baby Jane!” We have some real talents in this video clip.
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    Plse watch this short video and see how all sentient beings are capable of tenderness and love. We should never hurt animals nor should we eat them. Tsem Rinpoche
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CHAT PICTURES

Renew your antivirus quickly an call
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KEP 13/11/2022-caroline
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KEP 13/11/2022-caroline
Look here, Smile! 1, 2, 3.... chik chak. Thank you everyone. That's our picture for the Dorje Shugden puja and see you all next Saturday @ 3pm. Kechara Penang Study Group ~by Jacinta.
4 weeks ago
Look here, Smile! 1, 2, 3.... chik chak. Thank you everyone. That's our picture for the Dorje Shugden puja and see you all next Saturday @ 3pm. Kechara Penang Study Group ~by Jacinta.
Week after week, Penang members come together to do the Dorje Shugden puja - without fail. Come to get your blessings and obstacles cleared by joining us at Penang Chapel, every Saturday, 3 pm at Jalan Seang Tek, Penang.
1 month ago
Week after week, Penang members come together to do the Dorje Shugden puja - without fail. Come to get your blessings and obstacles cleared by joining us at Penang Chapel, every Saturday, 3 pm at Jalan Seang Tek, Penang.
Sumptuously decorated food offerings to Rinpoche and Buddhas, thanks to Siew Hong and KS Tang during Penang weekly DS puja on 22/10/2022 ~ by Jacinta.
1 month ago
Sumptuously decorated food offerings to Rinpoche and Buddhas, thanks to Siew Hong and KS Tang during Penang weekly DS puja on 22/10/2022 ~ by Jacinta.
Is this where Rinpoche received the thangkha of Dream Manjushri?
4 months ago
Is this where Rinpoche received the thangkha of Dream Manjushri?
Is this the ruins of Zimkhang Gongma established by Panchen Sonam Drakpa. -Choong
4 months ago
Is this the ruins of Zimkhang Gongma established by Panchen Sonam Drakpa. -Choong
We hold our DS puja weekly without fail. We welcome you to join us. Penang DS puja @ 3pm~ by Jacinta
4 months ago
We hold our DS puja weekly without fail. We welcome you to join us. Penang DS puja @ 3pm~ by Jacinta
DS PUJA @ Penang. A close up of the offerings. What a feast! #Throwback 23/7/2022.
4 months ago
DS PUJA @ Penang. A close up of the offerings. What a feast! #Throwback 23/7/2022.
#Throwback 23/7/2022. Our weekly DS puja attendees. All of us were getting ready to invite Buddhas to come forth, joining and blessing us during DS puja. Kechara Penang Study Group ~by Jacinta
4 months ago
#Throwback 23/7/2022. Our weekly DS puja attendees. All of us were getting ready to invite Buddhas to come forth, joining and blessing us during DS puja. Kechara Penang Study Group ~by Jacinta
#Throwback23/7/2022 Welcoming Buddha Shakyamuni, Gyenze, Shize & Namgyalma to Penang chapel. Abundance offerings, including sensory offerings were nicely set up and offered up to Buddha surfing our weekly DS puja @ 3pm, Jalan Seang Tek, Penang ~by Jacinta
4 months ago
#Throwback23/7/2022 Welcoming Buddha Shakyamuni, Gyenze, Shize & Namgyalma to Penang chapel. Abundance offerings, including sensory offerings were nicely set up and offered up to Buddha surfing our weekly DS puja @ 3pm, Jalan Seang Tek, Penang ~by Jacinta
Kechara Earth Project 17 July 2022
4 months ago
Kechara Earth Project 17 July 2022
Kechara Earth Project 12 June 2022
5 months ago
Kechara Earth Project 12 June 2022
#Throwback. Visitation of Ven. Zawa Tulku Rinpoche and Ven. Geshe Jangchup Gyaltsen to Kechara Penang Chapel on 17/5/2022. We did a short prayers together. Really happy for the short visit. Kechara Penang Study Group~ by Jacinta
6 months ago
#Throwback. Visitation of Ven. Zawa Tulku Rinpoche and Ven. Geshe Jangchup Gyaltsen to Kechara Penang Chapel on 17/5/2022. We did a short prayers together. Really happy for the short visit. Kechara Penang Study Group~ by Jacinta
Photo from JC
6 months ago
Photo from JC
Trying to WE-fie. Do we get that just alright, lol? Come and join us next time at Jalan Seang Tek, Kechara Penang Chapel. Celebrate Wesak with us ~ by Jacinta
7 months ago
Trying to WE-fie. Do we get that just alright, lol? Come and join us next time at Jalan Seang Tek, Kechara Penang Chapel. Celebrate Wesak with us ~ by Jacinta
Trying to "WE-fie". Do we get that just alright, lol? Come and join us next time at Jalan Seang Tek, Kechara Penang Chapel. Celebrate Wesak with us ~ by Jacinta
7 months ago
Trying to "WE-fie". Do we get that just alright, lol? Come and join us next time at Jalan Seang Tek, Kechara Penang Chapel. Celebrate Wesak with us ~ by Jacinta
Celebrated Wesak Day 2022 in Penang, with a group of fun, committed, helpful and also devoted friends & family. Kechara Penang Study Group 15/5/2022 ~by Jacinta
7 months ago
Celebrated Wesak Day 2022 in Penang, with a group of fun, committed, helpful and also devoted friends & family. Kechara Penang Study Group 15/5/2022 ~by Jacinta
Vesak Day 2022 - Bird liberation. Kechara Penang Study Group ~by Jacinta
7 months ago
Vesak Day 2022 - Bird liberation. Kechara Penang Study Group ~by Jacinta
All attendees are paying homage to Rinpoche and Buddhas before the start of our weekly Dorje Shugden puja. Outwardly, it seems that Dorje Shugden helps practitioners overcoming their obstacles and problems but ultimately Dorje Shugden’s supreme purpose is to help practitioners on their path to Enlightenment. Do join in our weekly DS puja, every Saturday @3 pm at Jalan Seang Tek, Penang. ~by Jacinta
7 months ago
All attendees are paying homage to Rinpoche and Buddhas before the start of our weekly Dorje Shugden puja. Outwardly, it seems that Dorje Shugden helps practitioners overcoming their obstacles and problems but ultimately Dorje Shugden’s supreme purpose is to help practitioners on their path to Enlightenment. Do join in our weekly DS puja, every Saturday @3 pm at Jalan Seang Tek, Penang. ~by Jacinta
All of us are practicing on how to properly use dorje(Vajra), bell and damaru ~ Kechara Penang Study Group by Jacinta
7 months ago
All of us are practicing on how to properly use dorje(Vajra), bell and damaru ~ Kechara Penang Study Group by Jacinta
After inviting Dorje Shugden Wangze, Pastor Seng Piow teaches us how to use ritual objects and the full set of prayer accompanying it. Kechara Penang Study Group ~by Jacinta
7 months ago
After inviting Dorje Shugden Wangze, Pastor Seng Piow teaches us how to use ritual objects and the full set of prayer accompanying it. Kechara Penang Study Group ~by Jacinta
With great happiness, merits and excitement that Penang Group have invited Buddha Wangzey to Penang chapel, complete with full rituals and prayer. 30th April 2022 Kechara Penang Study Group ~by Jacinta
7 months ago
With great happiness, merits and excitement that Penang Group have invited Buddha Wangzey to Penang chapel, complete with full rituals and prayer. 30th April 2022 Kechara Penang Study Group ~by Jacinta
Come and get your blessing from Lama Tsongkhapa and Dorje Shugden in Penang @ Jalan Seang Tek ~ by Jacinta.
7 months ago
Come and get your blessing from Lama Tsongkhapa and Dorje Shugden in Penang @ Jalan Seang Tek ~ by Jacinta.
Special thanks to one of our dedicated Penang group members, Choong for superb tormas. Swift Return Puja @ every Saturday, 3pm. Do contact William for more info ~ by Jacinta
7 months ago
Special thanks to one of our dedicated Penang group members, Choong for superb tormas. Swift Return Puja @ every Saturday, 3pm. Do contact William for more info ~ by Jacinta
Thanks to William for being the Umze for Swift Return Puja at Penang Centre. ~ by Jacinta
7 months ago
Thanks to William for being the Umze for Swift Return Puja at Penang Centre. ~ by Jacinta
The members of Kechara Penang Study Group are offering serkym to Dorje Shugden and His entourage. There's puja every Saturday @ 3 pm at Penang Chapel, Jalan Seang Tek. All are welcome. ~by Jacinta
7 months ago
The members of Kechara Penang Study Group are offering serkym to Dorje Shugden and His entourage. There's puja every Saturday @ 3 pm at Penang Chapel, Jalan Seang Tek. All are welcome. ~by Jacinta
We are in the third week of Ramadan this year, and kind volunteers have never failed to feed people in need since Tengku Zatashah started this meaningful #zerofoodwastage initiative in 2016. The aim is to benefit the underprivileged with nice surplus food collected from Ramadan buffets. Every night during the month of Ramadan, volunteers collect surplus cooked food from hotels and distribute it to charity homes and low-income families. THANK YOU, Tengku, dedicated volunteers and hotel partners, for making this Ramadan special for the underprivileged. #kecharasoupkitchen #kecharafoodbank #kecharaempowerment - KSK @ Vivian
7 months ago
We are in the third week of Ramadan this year, and kind volunteers have never failed to feed people in need since Tengku Zatashah started this meaningful #zerofoodwastage initiative in 2016. The aim is to benefit the underprivileged with nice surplus food collected from Ramadan buffets. Every night during the month of Ramadan, volunteers collect surplus cooked food from hotels and distribute it to charity homes and low-income families. THANK YOU, Tengku, dedicated volunteers and hotel partners, for making this Ramadan special for the underprivileged. #kecharasoupkitchen #kecharafoodbank #kecharaempowerment - KSK @ Vivian
We were chanting Migsetma mantra at the time this picture was taken. Thanks to all our Penang members who are very committed to attend Swift Return puja weekly. Kechara Penang Study Group, every Saturday @ 3pm. ~by Jacinta
8 months ago
We were chanting Migsetma mantra at the time this picture was taken. Thanks to all our Penang members who are very committed to attend Swift Return puja weekly. Kechara Penang Study Group, every Saturday @ 3pm. ~by Jacinta
William, who is our leader/ Umze is cleaning the pantry and Gordon offered up 4 carton of packet drinks today. We cannot thank you enough for all kind hearted who sponsored various offerings weekly. Kechara Penang Study Group ~by Jacinta
8 months ago
William, who is our leader/ Umze is cleaning the pantry and Gordon offered up 4 carton of packet drinks today. We cannot thank you enough for all kind hearted who sponsored various offerings weekly. Kechara Penang Study Group ~by Jacinta
Siew Hong came with a basket of fruits while Choong, who is expert in baking offered tormas today for our Swift Return Puja. Kechara Penang Study Group ~by Jacinta
8 months ago
Siew Hong came with a basket of fruits while Choong, who is expert in baking offered tormas today for our Swift Return Puja. Kechara Penang Study Group ~by Jacinta
Dedicated sisters, Sharyn and Swee Bee. They always make sure our puja offerings, especially fruits are arranged nicely. Kechara Penang Study Group ~ by Jacinta
8 months ago
Dedicated sisters, Sharyn and Swee Bee. They always make sure our puja offerings, especially fruits are arranged nicely. Kechara Penang Study Group ~ by Jacinta
Committed and hardworking Kechara Penang members, Mr. Tang and Mr. Huey. Really appreciate having you both at our weekly puja . Kechara Penang Study Group ~ by Jacinta
8 months ago
Committed and hardworking Kechara Penang members, Mr. Tang and Mr. Huey. Really appreciate having you both at our weekly puja . Kechara Penang Study Group ~ by Jacinta
KSK medic personnel have been tending to the needs of the clients every week. Their consistent kindness helps improve the medical welfare of those without a home. Thank you for serving and making them your priority on your weekends. #medicteam #kecharasoupkitchen #kecharafoodbank #kecharaempowerment
9 months ago
KSK medic personnel have been tending to the needs of the clients every week. Their consistent kindness helps improve the medical welfare of those without a home. Thank you for serving and making them your priority on your weekends. #medicteam #kecharasoupkitchen #kecharafoodbank #kecharaempowerment
In the midst of chaos, let's start healing. We have Dorje Shugden Puja every Saturday @ 3 pm. Contact William for more info. Kechara Penang Study Group. ~ by Jacinta.
9 months ago
In the midst of chaos, let's start healing. We have Dorje Shugden Puja every Saturday @ 3 pm. Contact William for more info. Kechara Penang Study Group. ~ by Jacinta.
9 months ago
Pastor is in da' house!!!! Kechara Penang Study Group @ Saturday, 3 pm. Contact William for more info ~ by Jacinta
9 months ago
Pastor is in da' house!!!! Kechara Penang Study Group @ Saturday, 3 pm. Contact William for more info ~ by Jacinta
9 months ago
10 months ago
After Dorje Shugden puja @Penang Chapel, Jalan Seang Tek, members went to a nearby vegetarian shop for gathering. #CNY2022 #HappyReunion by Jacinta.
10 months ago
After Dorje Shugden puja @Penang Chapel, Jalan Seang Tek, members went to a nearby vegetarian shop for gathering. #CNY2022 #HappyReunion by Jacinta.
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Dorje Shugden
Click to watch my talk about Dorje Shugden....