The Mystical Land of Shambhala

May 10, 2019 | Views: 108,460

Shambhala001

(By Tsem Rinpoche)

For thousands of years, stories have been told of a mystical paradise called Shambhala. Hidden within the Himalayan Mountains, it has come to be known by many other names: Shangri-La, the Land of White Waters, the Forbidden Land, the Land of the Living Gods, the Land of Radiant Spirits, and the Land of Living Fire. The Chinese call it Hsi Tien. The Hindus call it The Land of the Worthy Ones or Aryavartha. The Russians refer to it as Belovoyde, and to the Bön, it is called Tagzig Olmo Lung Ring.

Shambhala has sparked the imagination and curiosity of many generations, faiths, cultures, and nationalities, and those with adventurous natures have even attempted to search for the physical location of this paradise, which is said to be filled with wish-fulfilling trees and clear jewel-like lakes.

In the English translation of “The Journey to Śambhala” (Sambalai Lam Yig) provided below, His Holiness the 6th Panchen Lama describes in great detail how to enter this mystical land. This text was translated into German from the original Tibetan, and I had it translated into English. It was expensive and took many months of translating, editing and checking, but I decided to proceed with this endeavour for the benefit of you, the readers.

The purpose of this article is to explain about the realm of Shambhala from both Buddhist and Western perspectives, to introduce the Kalachakra Tantra which is linked to Shambhala and the Panchen Lama’s incarnation lineage. This article also provides information on His Holiness the 6th Panchen Lama and his official seat, Tashi Lhunpo Monastery. May this article be of benefit to those who wish to learn more about this land of spiritual evolution, peace and happiness.

Tsem Rinpoche

 

The Legend of a Mystical Paradise Called Shambhala

Shambhala002

The name Shambhala in Sanskrit means ‘a place of peace/tranquility/happiness’ or ‘place of silence’. It is considered a pure land within the Human Realm. Pure lands are places where one’s physical needs are easy and worry free, and because of that one can concentrate on spiritual practice to achieve higher states of consciousness. In essence, pure lands provide practitioners with the most effective circumstances to progress on their spiritual path. Whereas most pure lands exist in higher realms of existence such as the God Realm, Shambhala is unique. It exists in our very own Human Realm. The existence of this specific mystical paradise is mentioned extensively in the Kalachakra Tantra.

There are many places within our Human Realm, where according to Tantric scriptures, energies from different dimensions or levels of consciousness converge. These are extremely sacred and mystical sites, and our experiences when, we visit these sites, vary according to our spiritual maturity. For example, the Heruka Chakrasamvara Tantras speak of 24 such locations in India and in each of these locations the entire mandala of Heruka Chakrasamvara is present. Those who practice Tantra in these locations are said to excel in their practice due to the enlightened energies there, which facilitate internal energetic processes better than in other physical locations. Shambhala is another location where there are perfect conditions for us to practice, especially the Tantric practice of Kalachakra. But unlike the 24 sacred sites associated with Heruka Chakrasamvara in India, Shambhala exists as its own kingdom separated from the worldly affairs of other countries and kingdoms.

According to the Kalachakra Tantra scriptures, the first king of Shambhala, King Suchandra, requested Buddha Shakyamuni to bestow upon him a practice that would not require the renunciation of his secular responsibilities to govern over his kingdom and people. Upon receiving this request, Lord Buddha bestowed the complete initiation into the Kalachakra practice to the king, and also expounded the Kalachakra Root Tantra to the monarch and his entourage of 96 minor kings and officials at the site of Dhanyakataka, located in the present-day Andhra Pradesh in south-eastern India.

In the Paramadibuddha, the Kalachakra Root Tantra, it is said:

“Then Vajrapani’s emanation, King Suchandra from famous Shambhala, miraculously entered into the splendid sphere of phenomena. First, he circumambulated to the right, then he worshipped the teacher’s lotus feet with flowers made of jewels. Placing his hands together, Suchandra sat before the perfect Buddha. Suchandra requested the Buddha for the tantra, redacted it, and taught it too.”

Source: dalailama.com

It is said that at the time Buddha Shakyamuni bestowed the Kalachakra practice, he held another teaching session simultaneously on the Prajnaparamita Sutra at Griddhraj Parvat (Vulture’s Peak), in what is the present-day Bihar.

King Suchandra, the first Dharma king of Shambhala

King Suchandra, the first Dharma king of Shambhala (click to enlarge)

The king and his entourage returned to Shambhala, and King Suchandra practised the Kalachakra Tantra diligently and gained many spiritual attainments. Then, he spread the Kalachakra teachings amongst his subjects and to the next king. Since then, all the subsequent kings of Shambhala became the lineage holders of the Kalachakra Tantra, and Shambhala produced many powerful Kalachakra practitioners. Two of the Shambhala’s kings, Manjushri Yashas and Pundarika, composed a condensed form of the Kalachakra Tantra called the “Shri Kalachakra Laghutantra”, and its commentary, the “Vimalaprabha”, that have become the heart of contemporary Kalachakra practice today.

The existence of Shambhala is also mentioned in the old scriptures from Zhang Zhung, an ancient pre-Buddhist kingdom in western or north-western Tibet. The Vishnu Purana, a Hindu scripture, also refers to Shambhala as the future birthplace of the final incarnation of the god, Vishnu, who will welcome a new Golden Age to the world.

According to the legend, Shambhala is a place where wisdom and love reign, and there is no crime. The kingdom of Shambhala is said to be in the form of an eight-petaled lotus, and the king of Shambhala rules from the city of Kalapa at the centre of this lotus. The residents of Shambhala have pure hearts, and they are immune to suffering, aging, and want. They are healthy and live for hundreds of years, and the food that they need for sustenance grows easily. The people of Shambhala consist of several well-defined classes: the farmers, the scholars, and the nobles, who all live harmoniously together.

In our world, the Panchen Lama’s line of incarnations are considered to be the emanations of one of the kings of Shambhala, King Manjushri Yashas, and are some of the greatest holders of the Kalachakra Tantra. Until today, there is a custom in Tibet for the Panchen Lama to give public Kalachakra initiations. Though Tantra is usually practised in private, the Panchen Lama incarnations bestow the initiation to huge crowds, and it is considered a very rare and special blessing to receive the initiation from the Panchen Lama. The Kalachakra Tantra is also practised strongly at Tashi Lhunpo Monastery, the official seat of the Panchen Lama in Shigatse, Tibet.

 

His Holiness the 11th Panchen Lama Gives Kalachakra Initiation

Or view the video on the server at:
https://video.tsemtulku.com/videos/PanchenLamaKalachakra.mp4

 

 

The Location of Shambhala

Altai folklore has it that the gateway to Shambhala is located on Mount Belukha

Altai folklore has it that the gateway to Shambhala is located on Mount Belukha

There are many legends associated with the location of Shambhala. The Zhang Zhung scriptures mention that Shambhala is located in the Sutlej Valley in Punjab, while the Mongolians believe that it is located in a valley in Southern Siberia. Altai folklore has it that the gateway to Shambhala is located on Mount Belukha, and modern Buddhist scholars believe that Shambhala is located in the high reaches of the Dhauladrar Mountain Range in the Himalayas.

The geographical teachings in the Kalachakra Tantra indicate that Shambhala is located to the north of India, and according to the measurements provided by these teachings, this pure land is located in a sacred place for Buddhists, Hindus, Bön and Jains, Mount Kailash.

Mount Kailash

Mount Kailash

The Kalachakra teachings also give a vivid description of Shambhala, and it is said to be located in a valley surrounded by mountains. Within this valley, there are two lakes that are conjoined by land, upon which the 1st Shambhala king built his palace.

In his book titled “Shambhala: In Search of the New Era”, Nicholas Roerich wrote:

“Great Shambhala is far beyond the ocean. It is the mighty heavenly domain. … Only in some places, in the Far North, can you discern the resplendent rays of Shambhala.”

Source: Roerich, Nicholas, “Shambhala: In Search of the New Era”, Vermont, Inner Traditions, 1990, p. 2

His Holiness the 3rd Panchen Lama Ensapa Lobsang Dondrup stated that the kingdom of Shambhala is actually three different things:

  1. A symbol representing the attainment of the Kalachakra practice
  2. An enlightened pure land
  3. An actual physical location

Whichever it may be, the kingdom has a special place in the hearts of devotees as each of these is important for practitioners of the spiritual path. This is one of the reasons why the myths, legends and stories about Shambhala are so varied. Some are meant to be taken literally while others are metaphors for one’s spiritual journey to a higher state of consciousness.

It is also stated that even though you may have reached the physical location of Shambhala, you may not necessarily realise you are there, because of your karma. For example, on the physical level you may see a river of water, but the same river will be seen by hungry ghosts as pus; aquatic animals will see it as their home; and the gods and those with higher spiritual attainments will see the river as divine nectar. In the same manner, though you may have reached the physical site of Shambhala on the earthly plane, you may not be able to recognise it on the spiritual plane as you may not have the karma to see and experience it. This theory accords with the fact that Shambhala can be viewed as a convergence of different dimensions or realms.

 

The Kings of Shambhala

There are 32 known kings of Shambhala (past, present, and future), comprising seven Dharmarajas and 25 Kalki Kings. The first known ruler was Suchandra, who received the Kalachakra Tantra teaching directly from Buddha Shakyamuni, and spread the Tantric practice to the next king and to the citizens of Shambhala.

Click on image to enlarge

King Manjushri Yashas (click on image to enlarge)

There were two other notable kings, Manjushri Yashas and Pundarika. Manjushri Yashas wrote a condensed form of the Kalachakra Tantra titled “Shri Kalachakra Laghutantra”. He was also known for converting a group of non-Buddhist priests in Shambhala and initiating them into Kalachakra practice. Manjushri Yashas also predicted the arrival of “Barbarian Dharma” 800 years later (about 600 CE). The prophecy came true with the arrival of non-Buddhist invaders in South Asia around 636-643 CE. In his introduction to the German version of “The Journey to Śambhala” which was written by the 6th Panchen Lama Lobsang Palden Yeshe, Albert Grunwedel, a German Tibetologist, wrote that:

“…the Panchen had a duty to gather together the material about a wonderland, in which he himself should have been the king in his previous existences, because he was once the celebrated [Manjushri] Yasas or Manjughosa(kirti)”

Source: Grunwedel, Albert, “The Journey to Śambhala”, Munich, Bavarian Academy of Sciences, 2010, p. 4

Manjushri Yashas is said to have abdicated and passed the throne to his son, Pundarika. Not long after his abdication, Manjushri Yashas entered clear light and achieved the state of Buddhahood. Pundarika was known for writing the commentary to the Shri Kalachakra titled the “Vimalaprabha” (Stainless Light). Both the Shri Kalachakra and Vimalapraba are the source texts for Kalachakra Tantra that are still in use today.

The complete list of Shambhala kings are as follows:

 

The Seven Dhamarajas

  1. Suchandra – a manifestation of Vajrapani
  2. Devendra, Fond of Sentient Beings – a manifestation of Ksitigarbha
  3. Tejasvin, Bearer of the Dharma Wheel and the Auspicious Conch – a manifestation of Yamantaka
  4. Somadatta, Lord of Speakers – a manifestation of Sarvanivarnaviskambhin
  5. Deveśvara/Sureśvara, Destroyer of the City of Delusion – a manifestation of Jambhaka
  6. Viśvamūrti, Conqueror of False Leaders, Holding a Lotus – a manifestation of Manaka
  7. Sureśana, Cutter of Delusion, Uprooter of Karma and Klesha – a manifestation of Khagarbha

 

The Twenty-Five Kalki Kings

  1. Manjushri Yashas – a manifestation of Manjushri
  2. Pundarika, White Lotus, Cherished by the Lord of Potala – a manifestation of Avalokiteshvara
  3. Bhadra, One Who Rules by the Thousand-spoked Wheel – a manifestation of Yamantaka
  4. Vijaya, Attractor of Wealth, Victorious in War – a manifestation Kshitigarbha
  5. Sumitra, Integrator of Method and Wisdom, Victorious over Samsara – a manifestation of Jambhaka
  6. Raktapani, Holder of the Blissful Vajra and Bell – a manifestation of Sarvanivarnaviskambhin
  7. Vishnugupta, Smiling Holder of the Trident and Rosary – a manifestation of Manaka
  8. Suryakirti, Annihilator of Wild Demons – a manifestation of Khagarbha
  9. Subhadra, Holder of the Sword and Shield – a manifestation of Vighnantaka
  10. Samudra Vijaya, Annihilator of All Types of Devils – a manifestation of Vajrapani
  11. Aja, Who Binds with Unbreakable Iron Chains – a manifestation of Yamantaka
  12. Surya/Suryapada, All-Pervading, Radiant Jewel Light – a manifestation Kshitigarbha
  13. Vishvarupa, Holder of the Vajra Prod and Noose – a manifestation of Jambhaka
  14. Shashiprabha, Lord of Secret Mantras, Holder of the Wheel and Conch – a manifestation of Sarvanivarnaviskambhin
  15. Ananta/Thayä, Holder of the Mallet that Crushes False Ideas – a manifestation of Manaka
  16. Shripaala/Parthiva, Holder of the Cleaver that Cuts the Bonds of Ignorance – a manifestation of Khagarbha
  17. Shripala, Annihilator of the Host of Demons – a manifestation of Vighnantaka
  18. Singha, Who Stuns the Elephant with His Vajra – a manifestation of Vajrapani
  19. Vikranta, Subduer of the Mass of Foes, the Inner and Outer Classes of Devils – a manifestation of Yamantaka
  20. Mahabala, Tamer of All False Leaders by Means of the Sound of Mantra – a manifestation of Kshitigarbha
  21. Aniruddha (the current king), Who Draws and Binds the Entire Three Worlds – a manifestation of Jambhaka
  22. Narasingha, Ruling by the Wheel, Holding the Conch – a manifestation of Sarvanivarnaviskambhin
  23. Maheshvara, Victorious over the Armies of Demons – a manifestation of Khagarbha
  24. Anantavijaya, Holder of the Vajra and Bell – a manifestation of Vajrapani
  25. Raudra Chakrin, Forceful Wheel Holder – a manifestation of Manjushri

Raudra Chakrin is believed to be the future and final king of Shambhala. According to a prediction within the Kalachakra Tantra, Raudra Chakrin will defeat the degenerated rulers of the future and usher in the last Golden Age. Following that Golden Age, the Dharma will degenerate and completely disappear from the world. After hundreds of thousands of years without the Dharma, the next Buddha of our time, Maitreya, will take birth once again to turn the wheel of Dharma.

 

The Prophecy of Shambhala

Shambhala007

The Kalachakra Tantra predicts that the world we live in will degenerate into war and greed as materialism and self-indulgence spreads, and those who follow the ideology of materialism will be known as barbarians (mleccha). In the future, when the barbarians and the evil kings who rule them, believe that there is nothing else for them to conquer, the mist that keeps Shambhala hidden will disappear, and the physical location of this paradise will become known to the barbarians.

An 18th century thangka of Raudra Chakrin

An 18th century thangka of Raudra Chakrin (click to enlarge)

The barbarians and their kings will attempt to invade Shambhala with their huge armies and their dreadful and powerful weapons. In response to this attack, the 25th Kalki King of Shambhala, Raudra Chakrin, will lead a vast army to eliminate the dark forces and usher in a Golden Age to our world.

According to Alexander Berzin, this event will occur in 2424 CE. However, some theologians interpret this war to only be a symbolic one, because the Buddha’s teachings do not support violence. The battle represents the inner conflict as the practitioner fights against their negative tendencies, such as greed, anger, and selfishness. This is consistent with the explanation given by Khedrub Je, one of Lama Tsongkhapa’s students:

“[The] ‘holy war’ symbolically, teaching that it mainly refers to the inner battle of the religious practitioner against barbarian tendencies.”

Source: en.wikipedia.org

The force of karma is what controls sentient beings who are driven by selfish instincts, customs, and habits created by not understanding the nature of reality. Therefore, these beings hurt and fight each other and create karma. This karma develops into habits and tendencies to continue the cycle, which creates new forces of karma.

It is because of this, the battle described in the Kalachakra prophecy is an inner one, and the invaders are the winds of delusions and afflictive emotions caused by karma running wild within our body. Practitioners of Tantra bring these psychic winds together and dissolve them in the heart chakra. When practitioners succeed in achieving this, they will then see the subtlest level of the mind, the clear light mind. This clear light mind is the deepest and most ultimate meaning of Inner Shambhala, the land of peace.

Therefore, from this prophecy, it can be said that in the future, King Raudra Chakrin will lead sentient beings in a fight against their negative tendencies which create so much suffering, and usher in a Golden Age rather than doing battle against an actual outer enemy.

 

How to Travel to Shambhala

Although Shambhala exists within the Human Realm, it lies within a different dimension that we usually cannot interact with. It is said that only those who have the merits and affinity will be able to visit this pure realm. The 14th Dalai Lama mentioned that:

“Although those with special affiliation may actually be able to go there through their karmic connection, nevertheless it is not a physical place that we can actually find. We can only say that it is a pure land, a pure land in the human realm. And unless one has the merit and the actual karmic association, one cannot actually arrive there.”

Source: ancient-origins.net

Those who wish to travel to Shambhala can reach their destination by three methods:

  • By birth
  • By physically finding the place
  • By astral travel

There are many accounts of yogis who, being advanced in their meditation, have visited Shambhala by astral travel, and have described the size, location, and appearance of the place, along with instructions on how to reach it. Other practitioners have also travelled physically to Shambhala.

In his book, “Shambhala: In search of the New Era”, Nicholas Roerich wrote:

“We know which Tashi Lama (Panchen Lama) visited Shambhala. … We know how some high lamas went to Shambhala, how along their way they saw the customary physical things. We know the stories of the Buryat lama, of how he was accompanied through a very narrow secret passage. We know how another visitor saw a caravan of hill-people with salt from the lakes, on the very borders of Shambhala.”

Source: Roerich, Nicholas, “Shambhala: In Search of the New Era”, Vermont, Inner Traditions, 1990, p. 2

 

The Line of Panchen Lamas

The 4th Panchen Lama Lobsang Chokyi Gyaltsen

The 4th Panchen Lama Lobsang Chokyi Gyaltsen (click to enlarge)

The Panchen Lama’s line of incarnations are believed to be the emanations of the Buddha Amitabha and at the same time they are considered to be emanations of King Manjushri Yashas. The Panchen Lamas are also considered to be one of the most important tulkus (reincarnated masters) within the Gelug lineage. The word “Panchen” is an abbreviation of the Sanskrit word “Pandita”, which means “Scholar”, and “Chenpo”, a Tibetan word which means “Great”. Therefore, “Panchen Lama” means “Great Scholar-Teacher”.

The first Panchen Lama to receive this title was Lobsang Chokyi Gyaltsen, the teacher of His Holiness the 5th Dalai Lama. Lobsang Chokyi Gyaltsen is considered to be the 4th Panchen Lama. Khedrup Gelek Pelzang (Khedrup Je), Sonam Choklang, and Ensapa Lobsang Dondrup were posthumously acknowledged as the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Panchen respectively. The 5th Dalai Lama also offered Tashi Lhunpo Monastery in Shigatse (which was built by the 1st Dalai Lama) to the Panchen Lama and his subsequent incarnations. Because the Panchen Lama’s main seat is at Tashi Lhunpo Monastery, some westerners, like Nicholas Roerich, refer to him as the Tashi Lama.

Tashi Lhunpo Monastery, Shigatse

Tashi Lhunpo Monastery, Shigatse

When the 4th Panchen Lama entered clear light, the 5th Dalai Lama initiated the search for his reincarnation. He also reserved the title “Panchen” for the subsequent Panchen Lama. In 1713, Emperor Kangxi bestowed the title “Panchen Erdeni” to the 5th Panchen Lama. “Erdeni” in the Manchu language means “treasure”.

The Panchen Lama is a highly realised being, and his incarnations can be traced back to the time of Buddha Shakyamuni. He is said to have many emanations not only on our planet but in various other dimensions and world systems.

 

The 6th Panchen Lama

His Holiness Lobsang Palden Yeshe (1738 – 1780 CE), the 6th Panchen Lama, was the author of “The Journey to Śambhala”. He was also the brother of an important Kagyu Lama, the 10th Shamarpa, Mipam Chodrup Gyamtso.

 

Early Life

The 6th Panchen Lama, Lobsang Palden Yeshe

The 6th Panchen Lama, Lobsang Palden Yeshe (click to enlarge)

The 6th Panchen Lama was born in Rangdi Tashi Ze in Southern Tibet to a man named Tangla, and a lady of aristocratic background named Nyida Angmao. After going through strict religious rituals and exhaustive tests, he was identified as the reincarnation of the 5th Panchen Lama. The 7th Dalai Lama sent officials to confirm the boy’s identity and invited him and his guardians to Lhasa. The 7th Dalai Lama then informed the Qing Amban (the grand minister of the Qing Empire in Tibet), Ji Shan about the discovery of the 6th Panchen Lama. Upon receiving the approval from Emperor Qianlong (1711 – 1799 CE), the 7th Dalai Lama bestowed the 6th Panchen Lama his Buddhist name, Lobsang Palden Yeshe.

The enthronement ceremony of the 6th Panchen Lama was held on June 4, 1741 at the Riguang Hall (Sunlight Hall) of Tashi Lhunpo Monastery. The grand event was attended by influential personalities including the emissaries of Emperor Qianlong and the 7th Dalai Lama.

Changkya Rolpai Dorje

Changkya Rolpai Dorje (click to enlarge)

When His Holiness the 7th Dalai Lama entered clear light in 1757, the 6th Panchen Lama instructed the monks at Tashi Lhunpo Monastery to recite Buddhist scriptures for three consecutive days to pay homage to the great spiritual leader. In June of the same year, the 6th Panchen Lama received full monastic ordination from his Sutra teacher, Luosang Qunpei.

One year later, in April 1758, an influential Buddhist teacher from the Qing Court, Changkya Rolpai Dorje, visited the 6th Panchen Lama to discuss the religious and political affairs of Tibet. It seemed that the two influential lamas bonded and forged a great relationship with each other. In February 1759, Changkya Rolpai Dorje invited the 6th Panchen Lama to hold a mass Kalachakra initiation for 6,000 lay people and members of the monastic community. This ceremony coincided with the inauguration ceremony of the 7th Dalai Lama’s reliquary stupa.

 

The Search for the 8th Dalai Lama

The 8th Dalai Lama (click to enlarge)

The 8th Dalai Lama, Jamphel Gyatso (click to enlarge)

The line of Dalai Lamas and Panchen Lamas have a very special relationship; when one passes into clear light, the other searches for the correct reincarnation, enthrones them and ensures that they receive the teachings of the lineage. In this way the teachings are preserved and spread for the benefit of countless people. This was evident in the manner that the 7th Dalai Lama found and enthroned the 6th Panchen Lama.

Following this important tradition, in 1760 the 6th Panchen Lama dispatched a group to search for the reincarnation of the 7th Dalai Lama. Later, with Emperor Qianlong’s blessings, he brought the boy who was the Dalai Lama’s reincarnation to Tibet. The 6th Panchen Lama gave the boy his ordination vows, hosted his enthronement ceremony at the Potala Palace, and gave him the name Jamphel Gyatso. The 6th Panchen Lama also acted as a regent to the youthful 8th Dalai Lama.

The 6th Panchen Lama’s management of Tibetan spiritual and political affairs seemed to impress the powerful Emperor Qianlong. In 1766, the Emperor sent his envoy to Tashi Lhunpo Monastery to convey his imperial edict that read:

“The Panchen Lama is a highly accomplished lama of noble character and prestige, who as the guru of the Dalai Lama and is proficient in Dharma, should preach to the clergy and lay people to abide by the commandments strictly, consolidate the Buddhist course of development that safeguards Tibet, and strive to teach virtue and courtesy to every common person in Tibet.”

Source: eng.tibet.cn

With this imperial edict, Emperor Qianlong offered the 6th Panchen a golden seal that weighed 11.5 kg (25.3 lbs) with his title carved on it. The 6th Panchen Lama wrote a memorial to Emperor Qianlong to express his appreciation.

 

The Progressive Lama

Another depiction of the 6th Panchen Lama

Another depiction of the 6th Panchen Lama (click to enlarge)

The 6th Panchen Lama was known for his progressive thinking, his writings, and his diplomatic roles and interests. He was also known as a peacemaker, especially in regional conflicts; for playing an important role in maintaining Tibet’s safety; and for his influence in the Qing Court.

In 1774, the British East India Company, which represented the interest of Britain in the Indian Ocean region, was engaged in a military conflict with the Kingdom of Bhutan. The king of Bhutan (Druk Desi) at the time, Kunga Rinchen, requested the 6th Panchen Lama’s help to mediate the conflict and negotiate peace with the British envoys. Druk Desi was the secular leader of Bhutan, while Je Khenpo, the religious leader, held spiritual leadership in Bhutan.

Sensing the opportunity to widen the influence of the British Empire, Warren Hastings, the Governor General of India, sent George Bogle, a Scottish diplomat, to meet the 6th Panchen Lama at Tashi Lhunpo Monastery to establish free trade between China, Tibet, and Britain. The 6th Panchen Lama explained to Bogle in an Indian language that Bhutan was China’s Vassal State, and Tibet was part of China. Therefore, a decision that involved a foreign force such as Britain was the privilege of the Emperor Qianlong.

The 6th Panchen Lama Received George Bogle, an oil painting by Tilly Kettle c. 1775

The 6th Panchen Lama Received George Bogle, an oil painting by Tilly Kettle c. 1775

After this conversation, Bogle was forced to abandon his plan to set up a representative office in Lhasa, and instead set out to meet with a Chinese Amban or high official. Druk Desi then proceeded to sign a peace treaty with Britain, which required Bhutan to return to its pre-1730 boundaries, and allowed the British to harvest timber in Bhutan. The Bhutanese were also requested to offer 5 horses as a symbolic tribute to Britain. Although the negotiation did not end well for Bogle, it is said that he continued to be courteous to the 6th Panchen and their relationship was amicable.

In addition to his powerful connections, the 6th Panchen Lama was known for his literary endeavours. He wrote “The Journey to Śambhala”, which contains detailed descriptions of how to enter the kingdom and lists its geographical attributes.

 

Relationship with the Qing Court

Xumi Fushou Temple

Xumi Fushou Temple

In 1778, Emperor Qianlong invited the 6th Panchen Lama to his 70th birthday celebration in Beijing. The 6th Panchen Lama accepted the invitation and left with a large entourage in 1780, and Chinese officials greeted him along the way to the capital. To mark the arrival of the 6th Panchen Lama in China, Emperor Qianlong ordered the construction of Xumi Fushou Temple on Chengde Mountain, which was modelled after Tashi Lhunpo Monastery. Throughout his stay in Beijing, the 6th Panchen Lama was showered with riches and honour.

Unfortunately, in that same year, the 6th Panchen Lama entered clear light in Beijing on November 2, 1780.

 

Prayers

The 6th Panchen Lama was well known for his works related to both Kalachakra practice and also Shambhala. He wrote a handful of prayers which united both concepts of Tantric practice and the mythology of Shambhala together. These prayers are actually intended for daily practice and take the form of Guru Yoga meditations. Each of these prayers begins with the visualisation of the 25th Kalki King Raudra Chakrin, sitting in the central courtyard of his palace at the centre of Shambhala. The king takes on the appearance of a mighty warrior. As the emanation of Manjushri, meditating on Raudra Chakrin is very beneficial. In one of the prayers below, the Panchen Lama mentions Shambhala as a physical location, a pure land and at the same time, a symbol of the spiritual attainment granted through the Kalachakra practice.

 

SHAMBHALA PRAYER

By His Holiness the 6th Panchen Lama Lobsang Palden Yeshe

Homage to the kind spiritual master
Inseparably one with glorious Kalachakra,
Who has attained to the state of the empty body,
With the great unchanging bliss possessing all excellences
In constant embrace with the beautiful dharmadhatu lover.
To the north of India lies the fabulous land of Shambhala,
With the city of Kalapa a jewel at its heart.
There at its centre, seated on a throne studded in gems,
As though riding a magical flying horse
Is Raudra Chakrin, Wrathful Holder of the Wheel.

I call to him, an embodiment of the Three Jewels:
Come forth with your weapon of inconceivable wisdom;
Slay from within me my every delusion
And my habit of grasping at a truly existent self.

Bless me that I may behold you in Shambhala,
Wisely guiding your throngs of devotees.
And when the time comes to tame the barbarians,
May you keep me in your inner circle.

Should I die before achieving enlightenment
May I be reborn in Shambhala, in the city of Kalapa,
And have the good fortune to drink the honey
Of the sublime teachings of the kalkin masters.

May I take to completion the profound non-dual message
Of the two yogic stages of tantric practice as taught in Guhyasamaja, Yamantaka, Heruka Chakrasamvara and Kalachakra;
Thus in this very lifetime may I achieve realisation of
The clear light and illusory body in perfect union,
Or the empty body conjoined with the unchanging bliss.

Source: Mullin, Glenn H. The Practice of Kalachakra (pp. 150-151). Shambhala. Kindle Edition.

 

About Tashi Lhunpo Monastery

Sambhala017

Tashi Lhunpo Monastery was built by His Holiness the 1st Dalai Lama, Gedun Drub, with financial help from local nobles, in 1447. The name Tashi Lhunpo means “heap of glory” or “all fortune and happiness gathered here”. The great monastery is located in Shigatse, in the Tsang Region, the second most important cultural city in Tibet after Lhasa.

The 5th Dalai Lama offered Tashi Lhunpo Monastery to his teacher, the 4th Panchen Lama, and since then, the monastery has been the official seat of the Panchen Lama’s line of incarnation. The 4th Panchen Lama raised funds and expanded Tashi Lhunpo Monastery, and due to his efforts, Tashi Lhunpo Monastery was accorded a status equal to the three great Gelug monasteries: Gaden, Sera, and Drepung.

The Gorkha Kingdom (from the present-day Nepal) invaded Tibet, captured Shigatse, and ransacked Tashi Lhunpo Monastery in 1791

The Gorkha Kingdom (the present-day Nepal) invaded Tibet, captured Shigatse, and ransacked Tashi Lhunpo Monastery in 1791

After the passing of the 6th Panchen Lama, the Gorkha Kingdom (the present-day Nepal) invaded Tibet, captured Shigatse, and ransacked Tashi Lhunpo Monastery in 1791.

It was fortunate that the 6th Panchen Lama had built a strong rapport and goodwill with China, as Emperor Qianlong sent his army to Tibet, and the combined Qing and Tibetan army defended Tibet and forced the Gorkha army out as far as the outskirts of Kathmandu. The Gorkha were also forced to sign a treaty to maintain peace and pay tribute every five years. Most importantly, the Gorkha were forced to return whatever they looted from Tashi Lhunpo.

The magnificence of Tashi Lhunpo Monastery has continued to impress visitors for hundreds of years after it was first built. According to Captain Samuel Turner, an East India Company officer who visited the monastery in the 18th century:

“If the magnificence of the place was to be increased by any external cause, none could more superbly have adorned its numerous gilded canopies and turrets than the sun rising in full splendour directly opposite it. It presented a view wonderfully beautiful and brilliant; the effect was little short of magic, and it made an impression which no time will ever efface from my mind.”

Source: en.wikipedia.org

At one point, Tashi Lhunpo Monastery was the residence of over 4,000 monks. It consisted of four Tantric Colleges, and each college had its own abbot. These four abbots held the primary responsibility to search for the next reincarnation of the Panchen Lama after his death.

Shambhala019

During the Cultural Revolution, the Red Guards ransacked Tashi Lhunpo Monastery and burnt holy scriptures it contained. They also opened the reliquary stupa of the 5th and 9th Panchen Lamas, threw their relics into the river, and damaged the monks’ quarters. The residents of Shigatse managed to save some of the 5th and 9th Panchen Lama’s remains. However, Tashi Lhunpo Monastery fared better than other religious structures in Tibet because the 10th Panchen Lama chose to remain in Tibet.

Maitreya Statue at Tashi Lhunpo Monastery (click to enlarge)

Maitreya Statue at Tashi Lhunpo Monastery (click to enlarge)

In 1985, the 10th Panchen Lama commenced the construction of a new reliquary stupa to house the remains of the 5th and 9th Panchen Lamas. On January 22, 1989, the 10th Panchen Lama consecrated this stupa before he himself entered clear light six days later at Tashi Lhunpo Monastery.

Today, the magnificent Tashi Lhunpo Monastery stands on 150,000 metre2 (15 hectares) of land and is surrounded by a 3,000 metre (9,842 ft) long wall. The monastery complex contains 58 Sutra Chapels and approximately 3,600 rooms. A unique feature of Tashi Lhunpo Monastery is that most of the structures in the complex have golden glazed tiles and interlaced walls. Many pilgrims come to circumambulate the monastery because it is considered a holy site.

The main features of Tashi Lhunpo Monastery are:

  • The great statue of Maitreya in the Maitreya Temple which was built by the 9th Panchen Lama. The statue is 26.2 metres (85.9 ft) high and 11.5 metres (37.7 ft) long. The lotus foundation alone is 3.8 metres (12.5 ft) high. The statue is also adorned with precious jewels and gold and brass coating.
  • The reliquary stupas of the previous Panchen Lamas, where visitors can read the achievements of each Panchen Lama carved on the surrounding walls.
  • The Panchen Lama Palace, or the White Palace, which contains embroidered silk thangkas that relate the events in the lives of the Panchen Lamas, together with many inscriptions. However, the living quarters of the Panchen Lama are not open to the public, thus visitors should be content with the small halls in front of the palace.
  • The Thangka Exhibit Platform which celebrates the birth, enlightenment, and parinirvana of Buddha Shakyamuni. The platform was originally built in 1468 under the supervision of the 1st Dalai Lama. The Thangka Exhibit Platform is a special symbol of Shigatse, and is 32 metres (104.9 ft) high and 42 metres (137.7 ft) long.
  • Various other chapels and halls, including the magnificent Dorje Shugden chapel.
Thangka Sunning Festival at Tashi Lhunpo Monastery

Thangka Sunning Festival at Tashi Lhunpo Monastery

Every year, from May 14-16, Tashi Lhunpo Monastery holds a Thangka Sunning Festival. This event culminates each day with the unveiling of three thangkas. On the first day a thangka of the Buddha Amitabha (who gained enlightenment in a previous aeon) is unveiled, reminding practitioners to cherish the Dharma they have received in the past. On the second day, a thangka of Buddha Shakyamuni (the present Buddha) is unveiled, to remind people to engage in virtuous actions and practice the Dharma now. On the third day, a thangka of Maitreya (the future Buddha) is revealed to remind practitioners to think of their future rebirths, and remind them to make auspicious prayers to progress on their spiritual practice. It is said that every year, the event attracts over 20,000 followers.

Click to enlarge

Click to enlarge

Click to enlarge

Click to enlarge

Click to enlarge

Click to enlarge

Click to enlarge

Click to enlarge

Click to enlarge

Click to enlarge

Click to enlarge

Click to enlarge

 

Introduction to the Kalachakra Tantra

The Kalachakra is one of most advanced Tantric practices that were brought from India to Tibet. Kalachakra means the “cycles of time”. The tantra explains both universal and spiritual progress through the use of three cycles:

  • External cycle
  • Internal cycle
  • Alternative (spiritual) cycle
A Kalachakra sand mandala

A Kalachakra sand mandala

These three cycles are included in the five chapters of the Kalachakra Tantra. The first and second chapters are known as Ground Kalachakra.

  • Chapter 1 contains information about the outer or physical Kalachakra or cycle. This includes information about the Kalachakra calendar system, the working of elements, our solar systems, and the death of the universe.
  • Chapter 2 contains information about the inner Kalachara, and the functions and classifications of the human body and its experiences. The human body consists of several components such as the winds, channels, and drops, while the human experience is described as waking, dreaming, deep sleep, and the energy of sexual orgasm.

The third to fifth chapters are known as the Path and Fruition.

  • Chapter 3 contains information about the preparation for meditational practice, which is the Kalachakra initiation.
  • Chapter 4 explains the actual meditation practice on the mandala, the deities in the generation stage practices, and the completion or the perfection stage of the Kalachakra’s Six Yogas.
  • Chapter 5 describes the fruit of the practice, the state of enlightenment.

 

How the Kalachakra Tantra Went from India to Tibet

The Kalachakra deities as the main figures

The Kalachakra deity (click to enlarge)

The Kalachakra Tantra reached India through the efforts of a great saint named Kalachakrapada the Elder. It is said that one day Manjushri, who was Kalachakrapada’s yidam (meditational deity) appeared to him and entreated him to travel to the north of India. There, he encountered the Kalki King Aja who is considered to be an emanation of Yamantaka. King Aja bestowed upon him the complete initiation and commentary to the Kalachakra practice. Therefore, Kalachakrapada became the first in the line of Indian masters who propagated the practice.

After he returned to India, Kalachakrapada defeated the abbot of Nalanda Monastery, Naropa, in a debate and initiated him into the practice of Kalachakra. Naropa then legitimised the practice of Kalachakra in Nalanda and initiated great masters, such as Atisha, into the practice.

There are two main lineages of the Kalachakra Tantra that came to Tibet: The Ra and the Dro lineages. The Ra lineage descended from Samantashri, a Kashmiri master, and Ra Lotsawa Dorje Drak, a Tibetan translator. Prominent Sakya masters such as Drogon Chogyal Phagpa (1235-1280), Sakya Pandita (1182-1251), Buton Rinchen Drup (1290-1364), and Dolpopa Sherab Gyeltsen (1292-1361) practised the Ra lineages.

The Dro lineage descended from Somanatha, another Kashmiri scholar who travelled to Tibet, and translator Dro Lotsawa Sherab Drak. The Dro lineage was widely practised within the Jonang School. A famous Jonang scholar, Taranatha, wrote a commentary to the Dro lineage of Kalachakra. Both Buton Rinchen Drup and Dolpopa Sherab Gyeltsen were holders of Kalachakra Tantra from both the Ra and Dro lineages.

The Kalachakra Tantra came to the Gelug school through Lama Tsongkhapa. It is said that Lama Tsongkhapa had a pure vision of Kalachakra and auspicious signs while examining this Tantra. The deity put his primary hands on Lama Tsongkhapa’s head and declared, “Concerning the Kalachakra Tantra, you have appeared like King Suchandra himself.” One of Lama Tsongkhapa’s main disciples, Khedrup Je, who would later be recognised as the 1st Panchen Lama, wrote a commentary to the Kalachakra Tantra.

Today, the Kalachakra Tantra is practised by all Tibetan Buddhist schools, and prominently featured within the Gelug lineage.

 

Iconography of Shri Kalachakra

The following are the main features of Shri Kalachakra’s iconography:

  • His body is blue in colour.
  • He has four faces. The main face is blue-black, with a fierce expression and bared teeth. The face on the right is red in colour with a desirous expression. The face on the left is white with a peaceful expression. Finally, the face on the back is yellow in colour and in Samadhi. Each of the faces has three eyes.
  • His hair is tied and adorned with vajrasattva, vishvavajra, and a crescent moon as a crown.
  • Kalachakra wears include Vajra earrings, necklaces, bracelets, a Vajra jewel, anklets, belt, mala, and a loose tiger skin skirt.
  • He has six pairs of shoulders. The first and second pairs on the left and right are blue. The third and fourth pairs are red, and the fifth and sixth are white.
  • Of his twelve upper arms, the first four arms (left and right) are black in colour, the second four arms are red, and the third four arms are white.
  • On his twenty-four hands, all the little fingers are green, the ring fingers are black, the middle fingers are red, the index fingers are white, and the thumbs are yellow. All the fingers are radiant and beautiful.
  • In his twelve right hands, the first four black hands hold a vajra, sword, trident, and a curved knife. The four red hands hold a flaming arrow, vajra hook, a rattling damaru, and a hammer, while the four white hands hold a wheel, a spear, a stick, and a battle axe.
  • In his twelve left hands, the first four black hands hold a vajra bell, shield, Katvanga, and a blood-filled skull cup. The four red hands hold a bow, vajra, lasso, jewel, and a white lotus, while the four white hands hold a conch, a mirror, a vajra chain and the four-faced head of Brahma adorned with a lotus.
  • The right leg is extended and red in colour. It steps on a being named Kamadeva who has four hands and one face. Kamadeva’s four hands hold five flowers, a bow, a lasso, and a hook.
  • The left leg is white, and steps on a being named Rudra, who has a white face, four arms, and three eyes. The four arms hold a trident, damaru, a skullcup, and a katvanga.
  • Holding the soles of Kalachakra’s feet are two demons, Uma and Rati, who lie in a woeful position.

The following are the main features of Vishvamata’s (Shri Kalachakra’s consort) iconography:

  • Her body is yellow in colour.
  • Her four faces, from right to left, are the colours yellow, white, blue, and red. Each face has three eyes.
  • Her four right hands hold a curved knife, a hook, a rattling damaru, and a bead mala.
  • In her four left hands are a skull cup, a lasso, an-eight-petal lotus, and a jewel.
  • Her crown holds an image of Vajrasattva.
  • Her left leg is extended.

Shri Kalachakra and Vishvamata reside in the centre of the Kalachakra mandala. The weapons and shield held by Shri Kalachakra represent triumph over Mara, and his ability to protect sentient beings. Robert Beer, researcher of symbolism mentioned the following regarding the weapons held by the deities:

“Many of these weapons and implements have their origins in the wrathful arena of the battlefield and the funereal realm of the charnel grounds. As primal images of destruction, slaughter, sacrifice, and necromancy, these weapons were wrested from the hands of the evil and turned – as symbols – against the ultimate root of evil, the self-cherishing conceptual identity that gives rise to the five poisons of ignorance, desire, hatred, pride, and jealousy. In the hands of siddhas, dakinis, wrathful and semi-wrathful yidam deities, protective deities or dharmapalas, these implements became pure symbols, weapons of transformation, and an expression of the deities’ wrathful compassion which mercilessly destroys the manifold illusions of the inflated human ego”

Source: en.wikipedia.org

 

Kalachakra Practice

The 11th Panchen Lama giving Kalachakra initiation to a mass audience

The 11th Panchen Lama giving Kalachakra initiation to a mass audience

The Kalachakra Tantra is unique because of its tradition of being delivered to a mass audience. It is said that practising Kalachakra creates the cause for one to be born in Shambhala. The benefits to be reborn in Shambhala are so that one can continue spiritual practice without disturbances. The Kalachakra initiation enables practitioners to practice yoga as described in the Kalachakra Tantra with the aim of achieving the state of Shri Kalachakra.

 

Requirements and Motivation

Kalachakra Mandala (click to enlarge)

To be properly initiated in Kalachakra practice, the teacher and disciple should meet certain qualifications. According to the 4th Panchen Lama, Lobsang Chokyi Gyeltsen, the qualification of a teacher is as follows:

“He should have control over his body, speech, and mind. He should be very intelligent, patient, and without deceit. He should know the mantras and tantras, understand reality, and be competent in composing and explaining texts”

Source: dalailama.com

The student should have experienced, or at least have intellectual understanding and appreciation of the three principal aspects of the Mahayana path:

  • Renunciation of samsara
  • Bodhicitta
  • Understanding of emptiness

Out of the three, the most important is Bodhicitta, which should be the primary reason for one to be initiated. In the Abhisamayalankara text, Lord Maitreya defined Bodhichitta as “the desire for true, perfect enlightenment for the sake of others.” In the context of Kalachakra, practitioners should have the following motivation:

“For the sake of all sentient beings, I must achieve the state of Shri Kalachakra. Then I will be able to establish all other sentient beings in the state of Shri Kalachakra as well”

Source: dalailama.com

Overall, there are eleven initiations within Kalachakra practice. The first seven initiations are considered the first set, and are about preparing for generation stage meditation in Kalachakra. The second set, the remaining four initiations, are to prepare for the completion stage meditations. Those who do not have any intention to practice Kalachakra are only given the first set of initiations.

 

Western Perspectives of Shambhala

Shambhala033

For hundreds of years, westerners have been fascinated with Shambhala. The ideas of early westerners about Shambhala were based on fragmented accounts from the Kalachakra Tantra. The first known western account of Shambhala was from Estevao Cacella (1585-1630), a Portuguese Jesuit Missionary. Cacella is said to have come across references to Shambhala, which he pronounced as Cembala. He tried to find the kingdom but was unsuccessful.

In 1833, a renowned Hungarian scholar, Sandor Korosi Csoma (1784-1842), who was one of the first Europeans to learn the Tibetan language, read the Kangyur, and put together the first Tibetan-English dictionary. After this, he wrote an article about Kalachakra, and in this article he mentioned Shambhala. According to Csoma, this mystical land was located between 45′ – 50′ north latitude, which pointed to an area of low mountains, lakes, and green hills in eastern Kazakhstan. After spending many years travelling, Csoma planned to go to Lhasa in 1842, but unfortunately he contracted malaria, and died before his wish was realised.

Shambhala034

In the 1860s, a German national named Schlagintweit wrote a book titled “Buddhism in Tibet” in which he mentioned Shambhala. In the 19th century, the founder of the Theosophical Society, Blavatsky, who claimed to be in contact with the Himalayan adepts, mentioned Shambhala as a great spiritual land without giving it special emphasis.

Alexandra David-Neel

Alexandra David-Neel (click to enlarge)

American author Alice A. Bailey (1907–1942) mentioned that Shambhala was “an extra-dimensional or spiritual reality on the etheric plane, a spiritual centre where the governing deity of Earth, Sanat Kumara [lives].”

Alexandra David-Neel, a French Buddhist explorer associated Shambhala’s location with Balkh, which is the present-day Afghanistan. John, G. Bennett, a British Mathematician speculated that Shambhala was a Bactrian sun temple named Shams-i-Balkh. In the 1930s, several science fiction novels mentioned Shambhala, including one of the most famous, James Hilton’s Lost Horizon.

 

Expeditions in Search of Shambhala

The fascination that westerners had with Shambhala did not stop at mere speculation. Several of them initiated expeditions in search of this hidden paradise. However, none of these expeditions provided conclusive evidence about the physical location of Shambhala.

 

The Roerich Expedition

Nicholas and Helena Roerich

Nicholas and Helena Roerich

In 1925 – 1928, Russian explorers Nicholas and Helena Roerich led an expedition to the Altai Mountains in search of Shambhala. The Roerichs believed that Shambhala was the source of all Indian spiritual teachings, including the power of fire (agni) for purification which originated from the earliest Hindu spiritual texts, the Vedas. For them, Shambhala was a land of peace and spiritual practice. The Roerichs established a spiritual system based on their beliefs called Agni Yoga.

 

The Bolsheviks

Tibet Road in the Himalayas, photographed in 1867 by Samuel Bourne

Tibet Road in the Himalayas, photographed in 1867 by Samuel Bourne

In the 1920s, Russian writer, chief Bolshevik cryptographer, and one of the most influential leaders of the Soviet Secret Police, Alexander Barchenko, initiated an expedition to search for Shambhala in order to retrieve wisdom from its inhabitants. Their goal was to synchronize the Kalachakra Tantra with Communism. They planned to embark on an expedition to Inner Asia in search of the hidden paradise. However, due to political intrigue, this plan did not go through. In 1924, the Soviet Foreign Commissariat sent a rival expedition to Tibet instead, which was not successful.

 

The Agharti/Shambhala Expedition

An artist illustration of Agharti]

An artists illustration of Agharti

Inspired by two 19th century French novels that mentioned a place called Agharti, a Polish captain named Ossendowski and an anti-Bolshevik Austrian-born Russian, Baron Ungern-Sternberg (1886 – 1921) searched for Agharti in Mongolia. Agharti was described as an underground kingdom whose inhabitants practised magic, and would emerge to help the residents of the world to overcome destructiveness and materialism. These two explorers confused Shambhala with Agharti, and using speculation from Blavatsky that mentioned Shambhala was located in the Gobi desert in Mongolia, they tried to find Agharti in Mongolia or Central Asia.

 

Laurence Brahm’s Expedition

In more recent years, author, political columnist, and international mediator Laurence Brahm embarked on an expedition to search for Shangri-La. His expedition is documented in the two-part documentary, “Searching for Shangri-La – Laurence Brahm, 2002 Expedition” and “Shambhala Sutra – Laurence Brahm, 2004 Expedition”.

 

Searching for Shangri-la — Laurence Brahm, 2002 Expedition

Or view the video on the server at:
https://video.tsemtulku.com/videos/SearchingForShangriLaLaurenceBrahm2002.mp4

In the first documentary, Brahm describes his frustrations with the modern hectic urban lifestyle in China. He then interviews various personalities in China (artists, singers, tourists, monks) about the meaning and location of Shangri-La. His search leads him to Lhasa, where he visits Jokhang Temple and several other places in the area.

 

Shambhala Sutra — Laurence Brahm, 2004 Expedition

Or view the video on the server at:
https://video.tsemtulku.com/videos/ShambhalaSutraLaurenceBrahm2004.mp4

In the second documentary, Brahm encounters “The Journey to Śambhala” (Śambalai lam yig) by the 6th Panchen Lama. He brings the old scriptures, and asks the monks and high lamas he encountered to explain to him about the directions to Shambhala based on the scriptures. He embarks on an expedition to search for Shambhala following the description in the 6th Panchen Lama’s book. The journey brings him to many remote and ancient places in Tibet, such as the ruins of the Guge kingdom and Mount Kailash. Finally, his quest leads him to seek an audience with the incarnation of Shambhala’s king, the 11th Panchen Lama from whom he received this precious advice:

“Help others with compassion even though it may bring loss to yourself. Then peace will come. If you cause damage to others due to your selfish actions or to fulfil your own aims, then there will be no peace in the world. Moreover, in my opinion, to make guns and weapons of mass destruction, other countries spend large sums of money… This will make the countries have more military power. But it will bring harm to the world. If these countries instead use the same money to buy medical equipment to help the sick and disabled people and support students or for medical research to close gaps between the rich and poor and between developed and underdeveloped nations, then the world will have more peace, and society will enjoy better development. But by investing money on military force and weaponry, it is equivalent to throwing wealth into a vast ocean. What a complete waste.” ~ The 11th Panchen Lama

Source: Brahm, Laurence, “Shambhala Sutra 2004 Expedition”, Discovery Publisher, 2004

Finally, the 11th Panchen Lama gave the following message to Laurence Brahm to bring to the rest of the world:

“First, I wish for peace to be with the world. People all over the world unite together to help each other and be filled with love. I wish people of different religions and beliefs may be tolerant with each other. Second, Tibetans both here and abroad should love their country and make efforts to develop their hometown economy, so as to improve living standards. Lastly, every day I will pray for the world in English:

I pray for peace in the world.

May Buddha bless human beings.” ~ The 11th Panchen Lama

Source: Brahm, Laurence, “Shambhala Sutra 2004 Expedition”, Discovery Publisher, 2004

 

Shangri-La in Yunnan Province, China

Another documentary about a city named Shangri-La, formerly known as Zhongdian, in Yunnan Province, China. The narrator mentioned that the location of Shangri-La is similar to the location of mystical land described in James Hilton’s best selling novel, Lost Horizon.

 

The Real Shangri-La: Everything You Didn’t Know | China Revealed | TRACKS

Or view the video on YouTube at:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QrOTZk-mEGc
 

 

James Hilton’s Lost Horizon

 

Lost Horizon (1973)

Or view the video on the server at:
https://video.tsemtulku.com/videos/ShambhalaVid01LostHorizon1973-1.mp4

 

Click to enlarge

Click to download pdf

James Hilton (1900–1954), a British-American author, wrote about Shambhala or Shangri-La in his world-famous novel Lost Horizon in 1933. It is said that James Hilton was inspired to write this novel after reading an article in the National Geographic Magazine about Joseph Rock’s travels in the border regions of China and Tibet. Lost Horizon tells the story of a group of people who board a plane to escape chaos in Central Asia. When their plane crashes, the group are stranded in the Himalayan region, and find a community at a Lamasery in a lost Tibetan valley called Shangri-La.

The book has inspired two blockbuster Hollywood movies with the same title. A high-end hotel chain, Shangri-La, was named after the hidden paradise in the book.

 

Introduction to James Hilton’s “Lost Horizon” by Tsem Rinpoche

Or view the video on the server at:
https://video.tsemtulku.com/videos/ShambhalaLostHorizonIntroduction.mp4

Click here to learn about H.E. Tsem Rinpoche’s introduction to James Hilton’s Lost Horizon

Transcript

There are many levels of existence, and there are many dimensions of existence, and they are numberless and countless. There are many realms of existence, dimensions of existence, and modes of existence. But within all these existences, there are numberless amounts of sentient beings. There is no count. When people refer to a realm, they always talk about the human realm. But that’s very limited, that’s a speck in the vastness of the galaxy. And within that speck you have various dimensions, you have various levels of existence. All of this in Buddhist terminology you call Samsara. So Samsara is not about seven billion people on the planet, it’s much more than that. So that is why when we refer to benefiting sentient beings we are talking about innumerable, numberless sentient beings, because they are so vast in number you don’t actually have a count of them.

Shambhala040

It is said only a Buddha has the omniscience to perceive how many exact sentient beings there are. But it is certain that the amount of sentient beings is much more than the grains of sand on every single beach on this planet. Now, within this planet we have very different dimensions. For example, we are right now in Kechara Forest Retreat. We are existing in one dimension, but simultaneously, there are spirits, land gods, and nature devas. They exist. They are in another dimension but we exist simultaneously. Sometimes we cross paths, and we can see each other; sometimes we don’t. But just because we don’t see them, it doesn’t mean they are not existing right here. So they can be existing in the same dimension, and we can cross sometimes. So therefore, the amount of beings that exist in different types of dimensions, in different modes of existence are quite diverse, innumerable and without count.

Now, in Buddhist terms, when we talk about a pure land such as Sukhavati, the western paradise of Amitabha Buddha or we talk about Tushita (dga’ ldan yid dga’ chos ‘dzin) the Paradise of Maitreya, or we talk about Kechara, or the paradise of Heruka or Yamantaka, or the paradise of Manjushri, Chenrezig Avalokiteshvara (such as Potala), or Akshobhya Buddha and so on, those are places that you travel to with the mind, or in other terminology, with the consciousness or soul. So those places you ascend mostly with your consciousness. There are exceptional cases where people ascend to Kechara Paradise with their very bodies and transform. The reason for that is because the bodies are made up of four elements so the rougher, grosser elements become lighter and they become even more lighter elements such as light. But on this planet, we also have many types of existences. Existences and places where nagas exist, the places where yakshas and rakshas exist, the places where spirits exist, and they are simultaneous with us. Spirits can have a little community and they can be living right next to you, you won’t see them. But they are still existing in the same space as you but on a different dimension. I repeat, they exist in the same space as you but on a different dimension. Hence, many types of beings can exist and live in one spot, and you don’t crisscross.

Shambhala is said to exist within the Himalayan Mountain

Shambhala is said to exist within the Himalayan Mountains

Now there’s a pure land that is physical, that you can actually go to on this planet. And it is called Shambhala. Shambhala is a pure land that is said to exist within the Himalayan mountains. You have to understand the Himalayan mountain range is massive. It’s just huge, and it’s massive and most of it is unexplored because people simply just can’t get there. So within the Himalayan mountain range, which is Karakorum, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Tibet, Nepal, China (part of it), India – this whole area is surrounded by these countries, and within these countries, it’s the Himalayan region. So the Himalayan region expands to most of Tibet if not all of Tibet, Nepal, Bhutan, North India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, parts of China, and maybe Nepal.

So this is the Himalayan range, and it is massive. Now, there are people living there, there are animals living there, there are Yetis living there, there are birds living there, there are insects, there are microscopic animals or beings living there. They have a different way of existence because of the cold. They have a different way of functioning and eating and defecating, and sleeping, and procreating, because of the cold but they still exist. Now, within that Himalayan range or region of land, is where Shambhala is said to be located. Now, Shambhala is a place that is surrounded by mountains, but the people in the city live in the valley. Because they live in the valley, they get very fresh water from the mountains that is snow-capped. So the snows melt and they get fresh water.

Shambhala042

And the people who live there, they grow their own food, it is said that they are vegetarian, and they eat grains, they eat vegetables, they don’t eat rough, fleshy, bloody food. They eat very light, natural food they grow, so it is very healthy for their body. There are no toxins and pollution there because they don’t have modern amenities such as electricity, cars, you know, petrol usage, they don’t have oil usage, they don’t have anything that leaves a footprint in the environment and damages the environment. And also, everything they have, everything they do there, it is generated within themselves. But it is said because the valley is extremely well located, and I am talking about in a geographical sense, where the sun comes at the right time, the seasons come at the right time, and also there’s water there, there’s heat, there’s moisture, there’s also dryness, there’s lakes and all that. So a lot of things there grow naturally, spontaneously because of the geographical configuration. You see in some parts of our planet, things just grow very easily, there are some places on our planet where nothing grows or it is very difficult to grow.

So that is the geographical configuration of the location. And the people who live there are basically a monarchy, and they are ruled by saintly kings one after another. Now, this becomes a little mythological, but the kings are said to be emanations of Lord Manjushri. So, of these kings, the first king actually left the kingdom and he went to Lord Buddha. He heard about Lord Buddha’s fame and he went to request and receive teachings from Lord Buddha. And among the many teachings that Lord Buddha had conferred on him, was the famous tantra of Kalachakra. The famous inner, outer and secret Kalachakra Tantra that was conferred to him, and he took the tantras of Kalachakra and he also took the teachings of Buddha and went back to the Shambhala Kingdom, and he practised it, and he was said to have gained very high realisations.

Buddha Shakyamuni

Buddha Shakyamuni (click to enlarge)

And after that he taught his kingdom; he taught his ministers; he taught the people that were interested; and therefore a lot of qualified masters were produced during his time. Which after this king passed away, the next generation taught it, and the next generation taught it. Mind you, they live for hundreds of years. How many hundreds of years, the scriptures vary, some say 500 to 600 years, some say 100 to 200 years, it differs.

So in their place, things grow very easily. It is always green. This place doesn’t freeze over. They have plenty of water. They have plenty of sunshine. They are protected by a ring of mountains. And it is said that when you travel, some travellers have come across the entrance. The entrance is marked, there are markings to find the entrance. But it is said that you have to have a very strong karmic affinity to be able to find this place. So you can literally get your trekking gear, you can literally get your trekking stuff, and you can trek to the mountain to find them because people in the past have done that and have found the entrance. Some go in and stay, some go in and come back and tell us about it.

Shambhala044

And so people there live very long lives. There, they don’t have any diseases as we know. They don’t have greed because their society is not based on money. It’s not based on acquisition. It’s not based on material things. Things grow, so people help each other to build houses, they live together, they produce their own clothes, so there is no need for greed, and there is no need for acquisition or materialism because everything they have, they share. It’s just like some of the ‘primitive people’ we see today still living in South America, in the Philippine islands, and some of the Caribbean islands. They don’t have greed. You know they live as a community, sorry to say they kill a pig in the forest, they share the pig, they share their clothes, they share whatever grows. There is no sense of I own this, I own that, I own this. You know what I mean? So that does exist in the outside world, outside of Shambhala. So in Shambhala there is no sense of greed because people share their resources, and there is no acquisition of wealth. They basically have families, they get married, they grow vegetables, they have arts, they have music, they have singing, they write books, and on top of that they study the Dharma and they practice the Kalachakra Tantra in particular.

Now, how can someone go there? You can physically go there if you have the directions or you can astrally travel there. In the Tibetan tradition, there have been many lamas, who have astrally travelled to Shambhala and came back to give a very strong and very clear and accurate description. One of them was His Holiness the Panchen Lama. The Panchen Lama’s line of incarnations are considered the emanations of one of the kings of Shambhala, so he has a very strong connection to Shambhala. And in Tibet, there was a very strong tradition of His Holiness Panchen Lama giving Kalachakra teachings and initiations to people, and it was highly sought after because he was considered the emanation of their king.

So therefore, inadvertently, the Kalachakra teaching became associated with Shambhala. They were not associated initially. Kalachakra is a teaching, and Shambhala is a place. But because the king went to receive teachings from Lord Buddha Shakyamuni, and he practised it, it then became inadvertently associated. So, now this Shambhala, there are few Tibetan texts that talk about it. There are few Tibetan texts that talk about how to get there, and there are few Tibetan texts that talk about how to meditate and astrally get there. And there are very renowned, famous, well known, learned lamas who tell you they travel there psychically or they travel there astrally. So when someone of that calibre like Panchen Lama tells you, it’s hard to doubt him because everything else he does is nearly perfect.

Shambhala045

So, if someone like Jack Ma told you if you do this you’ll get rich, I mean, we will do it because he has a reputation of making things successful, right? So you know, if Tsem Rinpoche told you this is how you will get rich, you say ok, let’s research it first, because I don’t have a reputation of doing well in business. But if Jack Ma tells you, why not? So the Panchen Lama is like the Jack Ma of Buddhism. If he tells you it exists, you don’t doubt because he has done so much already. So therefore we can visit Shambhala or go there in two ways, physically, because it is a physical place, people can find it, and it’s a place that you can travel astrally if you are physically unable to go due to age, or, you know, you have disease because not everybody can walk through the snow. So, Kalachakra is associated with Shambhala in that way in a nutshell.

We can also make prayers to take rebirth in Shambhala. What’s the benefit of taking rebirth in Shambhala? You are a human, you are on this earth, you eat, you sleep, you defecate, you get old, you also die but you live a very long life because it’s a very peaceful place, it’s a very quiet place, it’s a spiritually charged place that is free of greed. So a lot of human aggression, a lot of human negative aggression and greed and anger and all that is hardly in existence in Shambhala. Does it mean that everybody in Shambhala is a Buddha? No, it doesn’t mean that, it just means that it’s a place that doesn’t breed and encourage those kind of actions.

Path to Shambhala, a painting by Nicholas Roerich

Path to Shambhala, a painting by Nicholas Roerich

So, there are communities throughout the planet earth where people’s greed and people’s materialism is much less because the society doesn’t support it. It’s very simple, ok? Now, once you go there what do you do? You live just like we live here but we have less problems, less sickness to bear with, almost none, we have less materialism, less fighting, less danger, and it’s a very beautiful, natural place to live, no toxins, no pollution.

So, Tibetan lamas, Mongolian lamas, Nepali lamas, Bhutanese lamas, Indian Mahasiddhas, Indian great masters, basically in the Himalayan region, Himalayan kingdom, renowned people have talked about this place over and over and over again. Everybody cannot be lying. One of the biggest promoters of this region in the western world was Nicholas Roerich, who named this movement the Shambhala movement and he wanted to visit this place, he wrote about it and he told people in Russia where he was from, and in the west it became a new age thing now where such a holy place exists in the world. So Nicholas Roerich in the western world was renowned for promoting the land of Shambhala. And he didn’t see it as a mystical land. He saw it as a spiritually potent land where you can really go.

Song of Shambhala, a painting by Nicholas Roerich

Song of Shambhala, a painting by Nicholas Roerich

So, is it good for us to take rebirth there? Of course, it is. If we can take rebirth there, why not? Why not? So how do you take rebirth there? Well, you can pray to the kings there, you can pray to the kings, focus on the kings, ‘May I take rebirth there’ You can focus on Shambhala itself and think ‘May I take rebirth there’ You can focus on Kalachakra Buddha and say ‘May I take rebirth there’ You can focus on Shakyamuni and you think ‘May I take rebirth there’ So taking rebirth there is just a wish.

Now, because the Himalayan lamas have talked about this for 2,500 years, the west has heard about it. So, there’s this person who [inspired] the Shangri-La hotel, chain of hotels back in the 30s, James Hilton. Shangri-La hotel was named after the legendary land featured in James Hilton’s Lost Horizon. He was a very intelligent man and he was a writer and he heard about this. So he wrote a very famous book, which I have, I’ll show you, it is called Lost Horizon.

Now, James Hilton never went to Shambhala but he heard about it from whomever, and he made up his own story based on the eastern stories about that and he wrote a beautiful little short book that two movies have been made from. A movie back in, a black and white one, back in the 50s I think, the 40s which I have, and one in the 70s and they are called Lost Horizon. But the movies are based on Shambhala and they are similar to Shambhala, but the plot changes of course. So, a synopsis of the movie Lost Horizon, which is one of my favourite movies, is a group of people are trying to escape from wherever it was, China, and they were westerners, they were missionaries, and they were diplomats, and there were some turmoil going on at that time because this was written in the 30s.

Click to enlarge

James Hilton (click to enlarge)

And so they got into a plane, and the plane crashed-landed in the Himalayas, and everybody in the plane minus the pilot survived. And so they were all in the plane and each of them, the characters had their own neurosis, they had their own fears, they had their own issues. And so they were in the middle of the Himalayas, they don’t know how they would survive, and then they were stuck there overnight, then what they see is a bunch of lamas, monks, lamas, with torches coming and they are rescued. And the lamas came to the airplane and rescued them, and took them back. They had to trek through the snow for a few days, they took them back to Shangri-La, the entrance, and they arrived at Shangri-La, there’s a marking, as it is said in the scripture, and then they entered a huge massive cave. The cave has two entrances, you enter and you exit, or you enter you exit.

So, they entered this massive cave, and as they pass through the cave, the cold starts to diminish. When they arrived at the other side of the cave, there is a huge opening and they look out, it’s the land of Shambhala, green with monasteries, with birds, with lush vegetation, beautiful, youthful people walking around, calm, quiet, no cars, no airplanes, no machineries, and everybody’s so welcoming. So the character, the main character is looking behind and he turns around he looks and guess what, there is all this snow, they look in front of him, and there is this lush valley and he just can’t believe where he is. So the lamas bring them down, to their monastery, and they treat them as guests. And they talk to them, and they give them food, they help them to heal. So each of them, one of the ladies in the book, the character was very unhappy with her life, she wanted to commit suicide. So the lama saved her life and talked to her and released her pain, released her guilt, released her feeling of emptiness, released her feeling of emptiness and loneliness because she ran around taking- she was a photo journalist- she ran around taking pictures of people getting killed, and shot and hurt so it affected her and she couldn’t live anymore, so by living in Shambhala, she healed herself and she wanted to stay.

Shambhala049

Then there’s another person who was a comedian and he was a performer, and although he was doing ok, he wasn’t happy in the outside world, he decided to stay. So the movie focused on each character and their own personal issues and problems and how they all heal. There was only one person there who was not happy and he wanted to get out of Shambhala and so what happened was the main character, the main person in the book, was granted audience with the highest lama of Shambhala. So it’s very mystical, so they take him to all these dark chambers and he goes and he meets the high lama. The high lama in the book turns out to be like a Christian priest, a friar of some sort. But he doesn’t promote Christianity or anything, but he happens to be a missionary, who went there. And in the book, he formed Shambhala. Of course, that’s not what it is, but that’s the James Hilton version. But in any case, it’s quite mystical, and everything is very Tibetan, very Buddhist you know, and so he’s not talking about Christianity, he’s talking about universal compassion. He is talking about no greed. He is talking about love, being polite and working together creating harmony.

So what happens is this lama is dying, and he’s over 200 years old or whatever it is. And he needs to pass the leadership to this person that they have predicted will come. So he’s grooming this person to pass the leadership over to him and this person is having conflicts whether he should stay or not because he’s a high profile diplomat. And along the way, he falls in love with a lovely lady in Shangri-La and she never wants to leave, she wants to live there, she was brought there when she was very young. And then his brother who also wanted to leave also falls in love with another lovely lady in Shangri-La who wants to leave too. So there’s this conflict going on. And how they can leave is every two to three years, porters come from the outside world to deliver some goods. The real Shambhala doesn’t need porters. So in the book they have porters come. so when they come, you can follow the porters back to civilisation.

Shambhala050

So what happened is the porters showed up, so this diplomat’s brother wants to leave, he doesn’t want to stay in Shambhala, he’s not interested. He wants money, he wants fun, he wants the cities. And this girl from Shambhala who they fell in love with each other wanted to leave also. So the lama said to him basically look, don’t take her out. If you take her out she is going to die because she is like a 100 years old. But she’s this beautiful woman, young with lush black hair, you know, you know just very vibrant and alive. And she’s telling the diplomat, look at me, do I have the skin of an old woman? Do I have the passion of an old woman? He’s like, no, you don’t look like an old woman at all. So anyway, the porters come, the brother convinces the diplomat to go with them. So the diplomat, the brother and this Shambhala girl, Shangri-La girl, leave with them and they go with the porters.

So the porters are very fast and they go ahead, and they are left behind so they shout “eh wait for us, wait for us, wait for us”, and they created an avalanche. And the avalanche carries away the porters and these three are stuck in the snowstorm. They are stuck in the middle of the Himalayas, but it’s actually filmed in Pasadena, California. They are stuck in this huge snowstorm. There are three of them, the girl from Shangri-La or Shambhala, whatever you prefer, the diplomat, and his brother, and the girl says I just can’t go on anymore, I am so tired, so they found a cave nearby, and they carried her, and when she arrived at the cave, she became an old woman. Her skin became wrinkled, her hair became white, and the diplomat realised everything the lama told them was true. That when you are in Shangri-La, your youth is preserved for a long time. The diplomat’s brother who didn’t believe that, was in shock because he said “They are lying to you, this girl isn’t a 100 years old, she’s young, look at her, we are going to go out and have a good time in New York, in Paris, Tokyo, we are not going to stay here.”

Click to enlarge

Click to enlarge

So in front of his eyes, he couldn’t accept it, he saw. So he ran out and he fell over the cliff. So the diplomat was stuck in the snow and he walked down to civilisation, and they put him in a hospital. So because he was a high diplomat, people had been sent to go and get him back to the western world, and when they came to his room in the hospital after he had recovered from dehydration and a little bit of frostbite, he ran away. And the end of movie is so beautiful because there’s singing and all that, he ran away and you see him arriving at the entrance of Shangri-La, because he is prophesied to take over as the next world leader for Shambhala after the old lama had passed away.

But in between all this, when they are inside Shambhala, what’s beautiful is that each one of them, each one of the characters goes through their own transformations. They become light, unmaterialistic, happy, they let go of all their burdens, they let go of all their stress, they let go of all their memories and they just become happy, they live there in simplicity. They live there in simplicity, in happiness, in pureness, and that’s what Shambhala is all about.

So the movie ends with the diplomat going back there and meeting up with his friends again and also to Shambhala, and his girl is waiting for him, so that’s very westernised, and then the movie ends. I have watched this movie 20–30 times because I wish I could go to Shambhala, not for the girl, not for the simplicity in life, but for the spirituality. So I watch this because this is the only movie available about Shambhala. So what’s beautiful about it is in the mountains, it is difficult to find, and they depicted that very well. And then when you get there, it is a pure life, with no modern amenities, and the water is clean, the environment is clean, everything grows, there’s no greed, that’s very true. And it’s ruled by a high lama, that’s kind of true, because the one that rules there is actually the spiritual king, right? And then they have a monastery there, they have a lamasery there, that’s accurate.

Shambhala052

So the only thing that James Hilton embellished to make it more westernised was the romance that happened there and, you know, that somebody didn’t believe in the place, and that some people wanted to escape. But it became a very classic book and it became a big hit, and two movies were made of it, and it’s just very beautiful. So, if you go to Shangri-La Hotel, you will see the book being sold, even till now, it’s a classic. So the movie is called Lost Horizon and I gave you a synopsis of it, and what I like to do is to watch it with all of you one of these days. Because although it’s embellished with western ideas of romance, and, you know, finding the perfect place to live, but it’s based on the eastern teaching of Shambhala or Shangri-La. Some people call it Shambhala, some people call it Shangri-La, it’s the same thing.

So, it’s one of the most beautiful movies I have ever seen, it’s one of the most touching, and it brings tears to my eyes each time, because I wish Kechara Forest Retreat will become like a Shambhala, where we come from KL, and we come through Bentong and the road is a little messy, we enter through the gate, it’s just pristine and beautiful here. And what we do here is we practice, we are kind to each other, we are giving, we practice Dharma, we improve our minds, we let go of our baggage, we let go of our garbage, and we just develop compassion. That’s what I’d like KFR to be. And also I hope some of us can take rebirth in Shambhala, and it’s incredible because in the Dorje Shugden puja text, in the beginning, one of the places you invite him from is Shambhala, so he resides there. So that’s the synopsis of the Shambhala movie, and the Shambhala movie Lost Horizon written by James Hilton is based on the actual Shambhala texts that are from the Tibetan lamas of the Himalayan region, or the Himalayan lamas of the Himalayan region of which one of the lineage holders is His Holiness the great line of Panchen Lamas.

And so I like that movie because it is related to the text; I like the movie because of the ideal, the romantic part, and the western embellishment is interesting, but I guess they have to sell it to the western audience with some western ideas which is beautiful too, and so we have found the text, “The Journey to Shambhala” (Śambalai lam yig) written by the Panchen Lama and you know what, it was translated into German. So it’s the Panchen Lama giving you instructions and direction and meditation on how to get to Shambhala.

So this text is in German and Valentina worked very hard for the last three or four months, searched for her own sponsors, and she had a master’s degree holder in the German language translate it into English. So she has the whole text, 128 pages in German translated into English. It has never been translated into English before. So this text on how to get to Shambhala, how to do the practice to get to Shambhala was in Tibetan, it was translated into German by a scholar, now it is translated into English by an Indonesian scholar, and it has been checked and re-checked by other scholars and their English is very good.

So I am going to present this text by His Holiness the Panchen Lama on Shambhala in English, and then we will have a blog post on it, and it will support Shambhala, it’s will give a background of Shambhala and the kings and Panchen Lama, all that stuff, so that blog post is coming out.

They have been working on this blog post about six months now. So it will be explosive, it’s going to be wonderful. The most beautiful part about this is that it will have the text by the Panchen Lama in English, for the first time ever. So Valentina arranged all of that, Valentina Suhendra. So, I am excited to have that text for everybody, because anybody who is serious in practising the Shambhala teachings needs this text by Panchen Lama. The second thing is, I am going to include the movie Lost Horizon in this blog post because it is something related to the western embellishment. So it will be a very exciting blog post, and I am recording this to explain the synopsis of the movie and what Shambhala is and how it’s all related.

This transcript has been edited for clarity and ease of understanding.

Close transcript

 

Conclusion

The mystical kingdom of Shambhala has attracted many people across generations to search for and attempt to find this hidden kingdom driven by their personal reasons. There are also many great meditators that have travelled astrally to this place and given vivid descriptions of their experiences. There will be many more in the future who will visit and tell of their experiences. However, while the story of Shambhala is fascinating for many who wish to visit or create the affinity to be born there to do their practice with less distraction, it is also important to start working on our negative tendencies and achieve our Inner Shambhala.

 

Gallery

Rime Thangkas

King Manjushri Yashas (Main figure)

(Top to bottom): Kalachakra, Dharma King Suresana, King Manjushri Yashas and Dorje Shugden (click to enlarge)

 

King Raudra Chakrin (Main figure)

(Top to bottom): Shambhala (abode), His Holiness the 10th Panchen Lama, Two-Armed Kalachakra, Raudra Chakrin, Manjushri and Dorje Shugden (click to enlarge)

 

Other Thangkas

Suchandra, the 1st Dharma king of Shambhala © Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (click to enlarge)

Devendra, the 2nd Dharma king of Shambhala © Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (click to enlarge)

Tejasvin, the 3rd Dharma king of Shambhala © Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (click to enlarge)

Deveśvara, the 5th Dharma king of Shambhala © Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (click to enlarge)

Viśvamūrti, the 6th Dharma king of Shambhala © Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (click to enlarge)

Sureśana, the 7th Dharma king of Shambhala © Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (click to enlarge)

Manjushri Yashas, the 1st Kalki king of Shambhala © Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (click to enlarge)

Vijaya, the 4th Kalki king of Shambhala © Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (click to enlarge)

Sumitra, the 5th Kalki king of Shambhala © Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (click to enlarge)

Raktapani, the 6th Kalki king of Shambhala © Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (click to enlarge)

Vishnugupta, the 7th Kalki king of Shambhala © Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (click to enlarge)

Subhadra, the 9th Kalki king of Shambhala © Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (click to enlarge)

Aja, the 11th Kalki king of Shambhala © Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (click to enlarge)

Vishvarupa, the 13th Kalki king of Shambhala © Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (click to enlarge)

Shashiprabha, the 14th Kalki king of Shambhala © Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (click to enlarge)

Singha, the 18th Kalki king of Shambhala © Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (click to enlarge)

Vikranta, the 19th Kalki king of Shambhala © Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (click to enlarge)

Aniruddha, the 21st Kalki king of Shambhala © Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (click to enlarge)

Narasingha, the 22nd Kalki king of Shambhala © Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (click to enlarge)

Maheshvara, the 23rd Kalki king of Shambhala © Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (click to enlarge)

Anantavijaya, the 24th Kalki king of Shambhala © Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (click to enlarge)

Raudra Chakrin, the 25th Kalki king of Shambhala © Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (click to enlarge)

An 18th century thangka of Raudra Chakrin (click to enlarge)

 

Go to Panchen Lamas

Back to Tabs

Rime Thangkas

H.H. the 4th Panchen Lama (Main Figure)

(Top to bottom): Manjushri, H.H. the 4th Panchen Lama, H.H. the 5th Dalai Lama, Tulku Drakpa Gyeltsen, Dorje Shugden and Four-Faced Mahakala (click to enlarge)

 

H.H. the 4th Panchen Lama (Main Figure)

(Top to bottom): The 5th Dalai Lama, The 4th Panchen Lama, Tulku Drakpa Gyeltsen, Brahmarupa Mahakala and Dorje Shugden (click to enlarge)

 

H.H. the 10th Panchen Lama (Main Figure)

(Top to bottom): Amitabha, Lama Tsongkhapa, H.H. the 10th Panchen Lama, Tsangpa Karpo and Dorje Shugden (click to enlarge)

 

H.H. the 10th Panchen Lama (Main Figure)

(Top to bottom): His Holiness the 10th Panchen Lama and Dorje Shugden (click to enlarge)

 

Other Thangkas

The 4th Panchen Lama Lobsang Chokyi Gyaltsen

The 4th Panchen Lama Lobsang Chokyi Gyaltsen (click to enlarge)

The 6th Panchen Lama, Lobsang Palden Yeshe

The 6th Panchen Lama, Lobsang Palden Yeshe (click to enlarge)

The 6th Panchen Lama Received George Bogle, an oil painting by Tilly Kettle c. 1775 (click to enlarge)

The 11th Panchen Lama giving Kalachakra initiation to a mass audience (click to enlarge)

Another depiction of the 6th Panchen Lama

Another depiction of the 6th Panchen Lama (click to enlarge)

 

Go to Kalachakra

Back to Tabs

Rime Thangkas

Kalachakra (Main Figure)

(Top to bottom): Buddha Shakyamuni, Kalachakra (main figure), Vajra Vega, White Tara and Dorje Shugden (click to enlarge)

 

Kalachakra (Main Figure)

(Top to bottom): Buddha Shakyamuni, King Suchandra, King Raudra Chakrin, Vajravega and Dorje Shugden (click to enlarge)

 

Other pictures

Kalachakra Mandala (click to enlarge)

Kalachakra Mandala (click to enlarge)

 

Go to Shambhala’s Illustration

Back to Tabs

Rime Thangkas

Portrait of Shambhala (Abode)

(Top to bottom): Dorje Shugden, Shambhala (abode) and emanation of King Raudra Chakrin (click to enlarge)

 

Portrait of Shambhala (Abode)

(Top to bottom): Shambhala (abode) and Dorje Shugden (click to enlarge)

 

Other Pictures

Click to enlarge

Click to enlarge

Click to enlarge

Click to enlarge

Click to enlarge

Click to enlarge

Click to enlarge

Click to enlarge

Click to enlarge

Click to enlarge

Click to enlarge

Click to enlarge

Back to Tabs

Go to top

 

The Journey to Śambhala as written by His Holiness the 6th Panchen Lama (translated from German)

Cover Page

 

The Journey to Śambhala

 

(Śambalai lam yig)

 

By Albert Grünwedel

 


 

Munich 1915

Published by the Royal Bavarian Academy of Sciences

The Committee of G. Franzschen Publishing House (J. Roth)

 

Title Page 1

Treatises

The Royal Bavarian Academy of Science

Philosophical-philological and historical class

XXIX Volume, 3rd Treatise

 


 

The Journey to Śambhala

 

(Śambalai lam yig)

 

of the third Great-Lama of bKra śis lhun po bLo bzaṅ dPal ldan Ye śes

 

translated from the Tibetan manuscript

and published with the text

 

by Albert Grünwedel

Presented on December 5th 1914

 

Munich 1915

Published by the Royal Bavarian Academy of Sciences

The Committee of G. Franzschen Publishing House (J. Roth)

 

Title Page 2

 

The Journey to Sambhala

 

by Albert Grünwedel

 

Unchanged facsimile print, 2010.
Originally published in 1915, Munich.
Printed on acid free, age-resistant factory print paper.

 

General production:
Fines Mundi GmbH · 66111 Saarbrücken · Johannisstraße 27
Telephone: 06 81I 96 03 69 0 Fax : 06 81 I 96 03 69 9
E-Mail: info@fines-mundi.de Internet: www.fines-mundi.de

 

Page 3

Click to enlarge

This present edition and translation of this peculiar book is one of the preliminary works of my planned edition of the Sanskrit manuscript and the Tibetan translation of the Kālacakratantrarāja. For years, I have dedicated some of my limited leisure hours to these difficult texts, which are heavily annotated1.

The Kālacakra has an exceptional importance to our knowledge in the syncretic form of subsequent Buddhism because it illustrates the most rounded tantric system, which, simultaneously, has to be regarded as the core of the hierarchical norms for everything related to the bKra śis Ihun po. According to Bergmann2, it is known that Tibetans and Mongols have the most far-reaching interest in ancestry even today, and very recently, an attempt has also been made to prove, by a keen Lama, that the Romanov dynasty from the Kālacakra is regarded as the future world rulers and to trace back their genealogy to the ancient ancestor, Sucandra3 in a thick book, written in Russian.


References:

  1. Regarding to the quotation given bellow from time to time, I would like to inform you that I have a transcript of the Parisian text by A. Schiefner, Prof. Minayev’s collation, and the copy of the Berliner Kanjur. Further details will be explained in the current edition.
  2. Benjamin B.’s Nomadische Streifereien unter den Kalmüken (The title of Benjamin Bergmann’s book).
  3. Ulijanov, the state Gelong’s guard Sotnie of Don Cossack’s army, wrote this book. I read it in St. Petersburg in Winter of 1913; unfortunately, the war prevents me from obtaining a manuscript from which some precious quotations could be given.

 

Page 4

There are plenty of commentaries, however, they are mostly darker than the text itself. Therefore, I have had to go further. The literary position of commentaries itself would apply if I adhered to the legends of the persons involved. The translation of Tāranātha’s book called Edelsteinmine (The Mine of Precious Stones), the finished edition of which was prevented by the war, and the translation of the Grub t’ob, which will hopefully be published soon, provide the proper level and thereby a sum of facts on which one could elaborate. And this is how I came across Lam yig by dPal Idan ye śes. Already in 1904, I received a block print, as an additional material, of the Asian Museum in St. Petersburg through the kindness of the academic, Mr. K. Salemann, to whom I am now still grateful. As good as this text is, it nevertheless shows some blanks due to the coarseness of the paper. In order to fill in these blanks, Sarat Chandra Dás sent me a manuscript written in native handwriting on a modern paper that was apparently duplicated from another copy of the same block printing4.Thus, I was able to complete the text from St. Petersburg that provided the basic criteria for the edition, except for a single point. In addition, this Indian manuscript is full of mistakes, misunderstandings and jokes about monks, which I would like to omit here. Orientations such as “to the right of the nose” (śaṅs) instead of “to the right of the land of ice” (gaṅs) are bad jokes. They can only be characterised but not cited as interpretation. I would like to give one example of such a mistake: on page 28b 1, one speaks of the “Great Gods” with Vishnu (K’yab ojug) in the lead. Because the copyist had understood Mahādeva as the leader, Vishnu was justifiably omitted and he replaced Vishnu with the brilliant K’yab bdag. Apart from the absurdity that has been created, the strong emphasis on the Vishnuite elements that play such a prominent role in the Kālacakra, was suppressed by this mistake.

The book is perhaps the most interesting Tibetan opus I have ever read as it is about the author’s will. The third Paṇ c’en, dpal Idan ye śes, from bKra śis Ihun po bLo bzan had an outstanding personality which also reflected his political views in an interesting way.5 At the end of the book, the Paṇ c’en names all the persons who inspired him to write it and who are also to be regarded as collaborators. In fact, the concept was actually that the Paṇ c’en had a duty to gather together the material about a wonderland, in which he himself should have been the king in his previous existences, because he was once the celebrated Yaśas or Mañjughoṣa(kīrti) or Mañjuśrīkīrti and as the Tegüs Izaġortu6 of the Mongolian historian, who enforced the conversion of the ṛṣis of the sun’s chariot. It is obviously an acceptance of the integration of a foreign religious system into that of the Kālacakra.


References:

  1. In the Tibetan Dictionary by S. Chandra Dás our text was on the list of quotation. However, one can find only a few chosen proper names here and there. It was not about the usage of the text. Dás’ “Dictionary,” thus, does not provide special help in difficult cases.
  2. The older news from Köppen in his famous Buche II, 215-22, also S. Chandra Dás, JASB 1882, I, 29-52 with an illustration of his rebirths and Buddhist text Soc. VI, 1898, IV, 1-8, G. Huth, History of Buddhism in Tibet and Mongolia, transl. 302 et seq., F. Younghusband, India and Tibet, London 1920, p. 4-24. Bronze portraiture in Berlin and St. Petersburg. In Berlin also a magnificent album of his pre-incarnation cf. original messages Berl. Mus. 1885, p. 38 et seq.
  3. Ssanang Saetsen, History of the Eastern Mongols, ed. J. Schmidt, St. Petersburg 1829, p. 271.

 

Page 5

The gratitude to the people, who provided inspiration, and to collaborators sounds almost ironic. Two souls are present throughout the whole book: The Great Lama, who is draped by his surroundings as an incarnation with the full absurdity of its system, besides the reasonable man and what a reasonable one! So the biased narratives continuously go as lyrics, interrupted by a delightful, humorous capuchin’s preaching, occasionally through the mouth of his holiness that ironises the whole style. In a brilliant way, he sets the real India against the dream image from the works of Amoghāṅkuśa and comrades, which still contain some elements of truth. With affectionate love, he commemorates the founder of Buddhism and criticises him with sharp-edged commentaries at the same time. Apart from that, he apologises for the evil weaknesses of humanity. He uses a language that is elegant, pleasant and its finesse cannot be imitated; he refers to the karma and concludes with the modest indication that he became just a Tibetan and he himself was not lucky enough to have been born into these holy places.

The book was written in 1775: the events of its time are clearly printed in details despite some mistakes. In the winter of 1774-5, the English ambassador [George] Bogle was in his courtyard. His report, which shows us the actual man’s word, harmonises so well with his character. What he narrated about India is based on the conversation between Bogle Sahib and Dagdor Sahib (Dr. [Alexander] Hamilton) as well as on the reports of his pilgrims, which he sent to India. And it often gives us the impression as if similar to the Indo-Persian miniatures—Mughal palaces and garden scenes—had been rolled into a film scene. With his word form, that sounds like English for the Europeans, one can certainly assume that the occasional stay of the Englishmen at the bKra śis Ihun po could be regarded as common ‘geography lessons’ as everyone, who was among the Orientals, knows from experience. For there is nothing the Orientals are more grateful for than the satisfaction of their thirst for knowledge by just reading a map and the conversation that runs smoothly without using other materials. Even before the arrival of the English, the Paṇ c’en had sent a pilgrim’s caravan to Vajrāsana whilst the Rājā Cetasiṁha (Caitsingh), whom he remembers with warm words of gratitude (27b2), supports his emissaries and sends them back. In his report, the paths of this journey are mentioned everywhere.7

In 1779, the Paṇ c’en was appointed to the Manchurian imperial court in Jehol and after a long-term stay there, he died at the age of 42. It would have hardly been such a farce, as Köppen meant, since the Paṇ c’en was still the representative of the underage Dalai Lama at that time (cf. below 7b 3 et seg.) and because the spiritually excellent Lalitavajra (cf. below 30 a 5) was also involved, this could have been about the rigorous Chinese-Manchurian impact or perhaps about the reformation of the whole hierarchical system with the guidance of these great minds.


References:

  1. Journ. As. Soc. Bengal LI, 1882, I, p. 32. A polemic against his commentary on Vajrāsana at Vasiljev, p. 73, is incomprehensible to me because the following book below does not contain the contested passage

 

Page 6

The system of a new bKra śis Ihun po in the imperial court itself indicates that the Manchu emperor wanted to keep the reasonable man with him and to protect him from any interaction with the English. The assumption has been expressed that the Chinese had sent him “on the tramp” and it is also assumed that the clique, which he himself describes as “sbrul srin bu sogs”, helped him to rediscover the “atoms of the great country”.

More detailed commentary from my part is currently impossible. In the annotations, I only give what is necessary for understanding, except for a few things that are available at hand. I hope I will be able to get back to the remaining annotations, particularly to the linguistic aspects.

 

Page 7

(1a) The following book consists of a wonderful content that recounts the nature of great magic land of Śambhala with an explanation of our knowledge about Āryadeśa.

(1b) Before Śrī-Kālacakra, I prostrate myself. Before guru Tathāgata Śākya t’ub pa, I prostrate myself; (2a) Before Sumatikīrti (Tsoṅ k’a pa), the Vajradhara Sumatikalpabhadrasamudra; and the lotus feet of Śrī-Kālacakra I prostrate myself. (2b) I prostrate myself before the absolute body (dharmakāya), which is an example of the connection with the characteristic of the supernatural power (siddhi), which rests on the root (dhātu) E of lotus rose from every messenger that comes from heaven (dūtī), (3a) the lotus rose which grew in meritorious virtue that remains indestructible wherever a connection is established by birth. (3b) The ways of life in a place, where birth and death reign are already abandoned, he (dharmakāya) has Surendra’s kind of arrow which hit the farthest target; (4a) therefore, I prostrate myself before the highest bliss (sambhoga) in which the sermon call E resonates with the syllable VAṀ: (4b) I prostrate myself before the glorious Nirmāna, whose sublime fleeting reflection (māyā) is of a reincarnation, emerging from the wonderful realm of universally flawless ascending forms (dharma) (5a) because her glory is the sole self-contemplation that arises during meditation.

 

Page 8

(5b) Vajradhara, the Munīndra, that thou hast the power over the gentle bliss in thee of the complete vajra for the hand, mouth, and heart (kāya, vāc, citta), and over the prajñā which is the essence of thy sovereignty over the three kāyas, thou, who obediently follows the path of Saudhodani and all the lonely heroes (ekavīra) amidst this bliss of the magical competition, the Jinas, even thou companion, thou devoted, omniscient (sarvajña) Tsoṅ k’a pa, Lord of the Oral Tradition, son of the heroes, I worship all of ye by prostrating myself! Now, even thou, bsKal bzaṅ rgya mts’o, thou art, in all atoms, the glory of an immaculate incarnation as the first protector of the ideal of the deity of the ocean, whose enchanting reincarnation is revealed to us, and thou leavest your imprints of lotus feet on my head; thus, bless me so that I will resemble you in attaining salvation from the cycle of life among all living beings, who are only able to breathe by blessing in order to love and to understand, so that in this way, the essence of the lesser vehicle of Bodhisattva rests in my mind. Here, I would like to discuss the avatar in the magical city of Kalāpa, with all the aṅgas of all mahāsattvas and devas by offering, through all matters, my worship to the deities’ flock of the sublime Wheel of Time, from which the mandalas took form through the recitation of the hūṃ and phaṭ syllables. At this point, my book should explain what is required for the upadeśas and aṅgas in order to reach the most magnificent of all lands: the land of Kalāpa or Śambhala. It is for the benefit of some existing yogis who, despite the degenerate age, have become vidyādharas or who seek to obtain mahāmudrāsiddhi, or in case they should be missing. It is for the few people who want to get rid of a miserable existence, where the three beliefs—namely, the heterodox, orthodox and the religion of the barbarians—still exist. There are two sections: (6a) a general account of Jambudvīpa and, as a counterpart to that, a description of this wonderful land. The first part is also divided into two sections: namely, a brief description of Jambudvīpa’s nature and a detailed portrayal of Āryadeśa.

 

Page 9

First Section. In the Abhidharmakośa, it means, “[e]verything regarding Jambudvīpa has thus three sides, which give it the form of a carriage and have a length of two thousand yojanas, except for one side that has four and a half thousand yojanas.” In addition, it is stated in the Śrīkālacakra that “[t]he dvīpa, pure as the white moonlight, has the salt reed grass as the most glorious endowment (kuśa) and, although kinnaras, grey storks and Rudra are there, the dvīpa, as seven continents, is the place of bliss where human beings live; it is, therefore, the place, where the karma is ripened: it is called Jambudvīpa.” In the related annotation, “there is an assumption that the seventh part of the great Jambudvīpa has a round form; it has one hundred thousand yojanas in length, and three hundred thousand in radius.” Thus, the presumption arose that the indications of the sutras are inconsistent in some points. When they suggest such indications about the scholar Yoṅs kyi ok’or lo that he, therefore, corrected the great Kālacakra’s commentary on the Dharmarājā dGe legs dpal bzaṅ; but because the daring hypotheses cannot work through the thousandth part of the Rock of Divine Revelation, there is no reason to oppose disparate information on the terrestrial conditions either. In essence, the sacred texts are founded on the belief that the basis of each individual, who is a subject of conversion, may lie in completely different karma, and may justifiably regard Jambudvīpa quite differently, even though this aspect remains the same at all times. (6b) Similarly, the parable of a cup full of water illustrates how the same cup appears differently to three different beings, namely gods, humans and pretas.

 

Page 10

Whilst in this cup is vain amrit for the deities, it is water for the humans, pus and blood for pretas. And just as the basis in each individual’s karma makes the full cup of water appear alone—without allowing anyone to speak about the three illusions, just like when one looks at Jambudvīpa from the perspective of the way of conversion, how it justifies Abhidharma and how it wants the Kālacakra—hereby gave the expression, so to speak, that there are different views set by the respective area as well as the respective intention. Furthermore, it was also in the interest of the second Ārya Jina, the hero’s son, when he made his statements to ensure that no illusion could exist between both approaches; therefore, it is solely the responsibility of karma that respect must be shown for the people among individual particularities, who were the aim of conversion in both mentioned commentaries. Criticising something, one doesn’t know either, amongst lots of …“oh!” to make new improvements is really not amusing in this course of time, and this happens when scholars amuse themselves by playing all sort of mischievous jokes, and perhaps by nesting as white ravens. “The character of air, fire, water and earth is operating in the four points of the compass8: in the East, there are Videha and the little Jambudvīpa, in the North Uttarakuru, in the West Aparagodāna: so are the divisions indicated according to the great ṭīkā. The so-called little Jambudvīpa is in both cases the same here and in the statement of the aforementioned retracted quotation from the Abhidharma. From that point, the land Āryadeśa in the South which lies in the open position between the North and the South after a rough estimation, just as the respective inhabited places in Jambudvīpa are located, should also be treated in detail below. What we consider the North begins from Vajrāsana.


References:

  1. There is no closing quote in the German translation

 

Page 11

The “country of the black plain” or Mahācīna, the kṣetra area of the Āryamañjuśrī, lies in the conglomeration of individual kingdoms in the vast territories between North and East. From that country, only thirteen great provinces are now mentioned; hence, these are the sixteen great lands: Ṭi-li (Chih-li), Śen-yaṅ, Kiaṅ-naṅ, Śan-tuṅ, San-si, Ho-naṅ, Śan-si, Hu-kuaṅ, Ṭe-kiaṅ (Cheh-kiaṅ), Kiaṅ-se, Fu-kien, Kuaṅ-tuṅ, Kuaṅ-si, Zit’uan (Ssǔ-ch’uan), Yun-nan, Goi-ṭeu (Kuei-chou). Likewise, the holy place called Pañcaśīrṣaparvata, where the incarnated Ārya Mañjuśrī now lives: a splendid palace—which stands on the highest mountain towering over many other wonderful mountains such as Ū nis śaṅ and gLaṅ c’en ogyiṅ, besides Pe ciṅ, Ṭhaṅ an, Lo yaṅ and Naṅ kiṅ; amidst these four cities operating the dharma, surrounded by an army of troops that survived the match with the power of Devendra—is where the cakravartins of the Han, Miṅ, Suṅ, Hor, Tā Miṅ and other dynasties resided. At the present time, he rests his feet on the heads of his hundreds of thousands of fiefdoms. As their great patron, he looks down from his Lion Throne upon the magical divine rebirth, in which Mañjuśrī Kumārabhūta appeared as a human. Mañjuśrī Kumārabhūta as the owner of the power of six ruler lineages and the Lord of Heaven and Earth from the lineage of the C’iṅ, has also become our great patron. The borders of the countries subjected to this Dharmarāja (7b) are as follows: Hor and the Mlecchas live in the West Udyāna, which can be reached in one to two months and is an area close to the border of Balkh: this is how it should be, if one takes Āryadeśa as the centre. They are located in the southwest from China. Exactly in the north of Vajrāsana lies our land of ice. The upper provinces are mṄa ris skor gsum, then the four centre provinces are dBus, and the two gTsaṅ and Ru, and the three lower provinces mDo, K’ams, and sGaṅ are also located there. In the whole region that was said to have disintegrated into thirteen dominions, King mÑa k’ri btsaṅ po has erected a single royal power and the religious King (dharmarāja) Sroṅ btsan sgam po even took over the power.

 

Page 12

How He, who leads us all, the Lord of the Holy Clan and the mandalas, wearing the crown jewel of the “reign of peace” unrivalled through the fullness of His blessing and a dynasty of rebirths that lines up as if a string of pearls, protects the country. How he now obviously, sublimely unites with Him the offerings by all human forms of the Mañjughoṣa amidst the four dvīpas and spreads extraordinary blessings according to the old way of a second Jina, which contains the essence of teachings of the first Jina. How he is now wearing the crown jewel of the “reign of peace” from the highest ruler, who portrays a sea of Mañjuśrī essence (Mañjuśrīsāgara), and sits on the indestructible vajra throne, receiving the longing beginning bliss of a new Kṛtayuga on his behalf. This can be best seen in the individual C’os obyuṅ for a more detailed description of mercy for this country. The Mongol tribe, e.g., the Khalkha belongs to China because they live in individual parts of the lower provinces; they are, thus, subjects of the Lord of Heaven. Whilst the area of the upper part of the country, for instance, Parsik, (8a) is under the rule of Hastināpurī and the Paṭhān, the inner India and Russia lie beyond it, the so-called yellow plain. And whilst the Mlecchas follow the religion of Tajik, the inhabitants of the small island belong to the people of Phereng. With regard to these Phereng, of whom it is certain that they are generally inhabitants of small islands, I heard that they, who were once in the servitude of Ashoka and all the dharmarājā succeeding the ruler of Āryadeśa, had not yielded until they had not made themselves servants of the great King of Rum Śam who reigned in the West, from Āryadeśa to the north. They are the same inhabitants who have been submissive servants during the Mongol dynasty (Hor) in Mahācina, from Emperor Jiṅ-gis to the time of the Emperor Žuṅ dhi. They are the ones with whom some ties concerning matters, which lie in the middle for both countries, India and China, are now maintained by sending presents on certain occasions, perhaps through an emissary, to the respective throne successor of the Mañjughoṣa Grand Emperor as a symbol of respect.

 

Page 13

A detailed description of the third part now follows, in which the more important Āryadeśa should be discussed in greater detail as compared to these both countries. Here, we also want to name the kings who reigned in Āryadeśa and to also mention how the religions of the heterodoxy and orthodoxy are geographically distributed in this country. First section. If we hold on to the fact that the whole country is divided into five parts: the centre (Madhyadeśa), the East, the South, the West, and the North; we understand that this division has to be made to provide an overview for those who want to educate themselves. It is stated in the Vinayapuspamālātantra: “Śrāvastī, Sāketa, Campakā, Vārāṇasī, Vaiśālī, Rājagṛha, (8b) these six are praised as the great cities.” These six listed cities are located in Madhyadeśa and Vajrāsana is also located in Rājagṛha near Magadha. Since the middle of the earth and the centre of the religion lie next to each other like chain links, the central point of the earth is, thus, a real Madhyadeśa here. And our saviour, the holy conqueror, the most gracious, who is incomparable in transcendental powers, he, the King of Śākyas, has made Madhyadeśa an essential place. Through the dharma, this place is akin to Akaniṣṭstha heaven because it is namely the place, where the samyaksambuddhas’ incarnations, the Buddhas that belong to the thousands of bhadrakalpa9, and the infinite Jinas of the future, appear. As far as the natural location of the place is concerned, the superhumans, who are used to living secretly in vajra caves, have little by little evaded under the earth, so to speak, as soon as the Turuṣkas’ armies have only moved a bit closer.


References:

  1. The present kalpa or auspicious aeon.

 

Page 14

Whilst the devas, nāgas, and yākṣas, etc. still deeply worship the incarnation of Vishnu in the Mahābodhi temple, Brahmins, who are knowledgeable in tantras, and bhikṣus prove their devotion resting in their ideals. Beneath its rich fragrances, the bodhi tree, however, shows wonderful forms and figures, which are noticed by the pilgrims depending on their respective karma. Magic powers, which are demonstrated as soon as the person concerned has just reached the place, and powers of blessing, which occur in another place only after the long-standing dhāraṇīs recitation, quickly develop here after a single change: such wonderful things occur there. In general, (9a) Vajrāsana is now used as a name for this place in Sanskrit. On the one hand, it is called Gāya, an applied word by the ācārya nowadays, and on the other hand, it is called Bodhigāya because it is the place where Mahābodhisattvas stay. It is true that each of the six local cities had a king at the time Tathāgata actually wandered the earth in the flesh. However, from the time Āryānanda obtained the sacred doctrine after the Nirvana of Buddha, Śrāvastī or Kośala, Sāketa, and Campakā had already become vassals of King Rājagṛha Kṣemadarśī or Ajātaśatru; they have no longer been independent up to our time. Vaiśālī is called Prayāga today and what is regarded as Vārāṇasī is still just called Vārāṇasī or Bhanarasī or Kāśī. One part of this area is now the big city of Lagnur (Lakhnau) and the country of the currently named Mirzāpurī city is under the king’s dominion. There is an extensive city called Pāṭnā with thirty thousand houses that are situated directly at a ford of the River Ganges. This city can be reached from Nepal in only a few days. Since this area of Pāṭaliputra belongs to the twenty-four sections, the Nāgara is, thus, founded on the fire radius of Kāyacakra. Also in this area, there are the stupa of five skandhas and the stupa of Aryānanda.

 

Page 15

Ṛṣipatana also lies in the area of Vārāṇasī. The throne, which was given by four Vināyakas and on which the thousand sublime Buddhas sit, is erected in the gazelle park. In addition, there is also a large facility of the heterodox followers and an access to the River Ganges (9b) where they might like to perform their ablutions. In that area, there are also many magic schools for orthodox as well as heterodox tantras, among them are the schools of the ancient pandits and mahāsiddhas. In Vaiśālī, the wonderful religious practice that embraces the entire world, is in the vihara whose building is erected on the banks of the monkey pond. At the entrance to the Ganges, there are many heterodox and orthodox tantric schools. Within the six great cities, which are of great significance here, there are hundreds of thousands great monasteries, viharas of Otantapurī, Gṛdhrakūṭa, Śrīnālanda and Vikramaśīla, schools for the followers of tantras, and little houses of the hermits who have become siddhas. Moreover, one can also find the ruins of the schools from the time of the ancient Buddha, the sanctuaries of the pandits and siddhas, and countless places which are famous because of their wonders; for instances, places where one becomes a siddhi, where the flower shower fell in the great hour when it occurs, and where the siddhis were of many kinds when it had been requested. Even today, Mathurā and Bhasajinātha are well-known, although they have grown in heterodox places under the pressure of time. Just like Vajrāsana, they are honoured as sacred places by both heterodoxy and the orthodoxy. What we consider the temple of Trikaṭuka, is located in Rāḍhā that forms a district of the Bhaṅgala10 country. It will be recounted below that it seems as if there were still ceremonies with three different manuscripts even today. As for these six great cities, they have grown so vast and heavily populated by people, to whom ten million houses belong. These cities are full of people who have “a good year” in their contentment, so full that they could compete with moths that are flickering in the sunlight.


References:

  1. Bhaṅgala means Bengal

 

Page 16

There are officials, soldiers, and Brahmins, (10a) great landowners, who possess wealth like the deity Vaiśravaṇa. They have so much wealth that they could compete with Vaiśravaṇas’ possession and are extremely great even in all smaller places, which are altogether three times greater than the Tibetan possession. People come from all directions on a seven days’ journey and what piles up in their bazaar alleys when there is a market, is admirably abundant and extensive: there are vaiḍūrya and ketana stones, white and red corals, the right-handed saṅkhas, red and white pearls, indranīla [sapphire], gold and silver, the finest linens, one hundred thousand worth of karṣāpaṇas, magnificent silks and all sorts of endowments, and endless kinds of jewellery, which could all compete with the Trayastriṁśat. In all great cities, the surrounding wall is a mighty one, with probably one hundred gates in all directions, which, however, only create a narrow entrance. The magnificent buildings and the kings’ palaces, which probably have five hundred halls, are a real marvel; they have upper as well as middle floors, and lower rooms. The facilities are somehow hard to describe: there are magnificent rooms made of gold and silver, decorated with multicoloured glass, all kinds of wonderfully manufactured sculptures11 whose figures are made of ivory with enchantingly beautiful marquetry; near a thousand kinds of delicacies, whatever one can only find; There are probably ten thousand amusements. The court officers, the captains of the soldiers, the purohita Brahmins, landlords, and Brahmin clerks are like a big (10b) sala tree. There is also a group of countless brave soldiers, who have excellently proven themselves in twenty-four tests and have thereby earned the prize of all heroes. The surrounding is full of elephants, horses, buffalos, antelopes and cattle of all kinds.


References:

  1. The word “Plastik” was used in the German translation.

 

Page 17

In the cities bazaar streets, stone tablets are used as pavement; cult figures are carved in stones and sparkle in this colourful setting. People of the sweeper caste manage to take the garbage away three times a day and sprinkle water every day. At the intersections of the bazaar alleys and streets, there are little stone houses with jugs about the size of a droṇa12, in which cold water is filled and covered, and held ready for the passers-by to drink. Next to it is a small cooling pond, where one can perform ablutions. It is nice that numerous fields and lawns are everywhere in the country. The cool air on the verandas of the tired travellers is filled with the smell of incense. For feathered friends, there are fruitful gardens, groves of sandalwood tree and agarwood among other trees in the palaces; kokilas, sparrows (kalaviṅkas), parrots, pheasant, in short, all kinds of birds, and even squirrels (kalantakas) fill up the park. The little birds let their songs be heard. The lawns are so colourful with all kinds of flowers, artificial ponds, and natural lakes. There are also pools and tarns, where hansas, cakravākas, wild ducks and swans make their sounds and where padmas, utpalas and kumudas, (11a), as well as other flowers, spread their scent. The parks, which are so large that one probably needs two days to walk through them, have an artificial lake in the centre. In the middle of this lake, there are artificial mountains, on which one can find a grove rich in medicinal herbs. There is also a beautiful pavilion built with glass, jade, and sandalwood. What is more admirable is that there are ships landing at jetties all over the lake; in that case, the king and his entourage can just board the ship from the pavilion located on the lake whenever they want to travel. The king sometimes mounts and rides a tamed water demon or makaras, endowed with a jewel-adorned saddle and bridle. In conclusion, it is such an abundance of wealth to be able to compete with the Trayastriṁśat Palace.


References:

  1. A measure of capacity

 

Page 18

All these are based on truth and no untrue word is said. If one rightly understands the meaning of what is said in the śāstras about the six great cities of Āryadeśa, the concept will indeed remain that the vast territory of the country is just as perfect as the centre (Madhyadeśa). The six great cities, however, are only in Madhyadeśa. As far as the eastern country is concerned, it consists of three parts: the centre (Madhyadeśa), the South, and the North. The land in the west of Madhyadeśa, which would take up to the six-months journey—from both sides, east and west—still belongs to Bhaṅgala. If one divides it into its corresponding districts, then the districts belong to many towns such as Purñana, Raṅgapurī, Raṅgamati, Magputapā, Pūrṇavartta, Rāḍhā or Rara, Hugli, Kalakatta, Ghorabakka, and the rest. On the eastern side, the land belongs to Varendra, apart from Bhaṅgala. A journey through this land may last up to three months. After approximately a month-journey, one can reach the island of Tāmradvīpa. It is probably the country to which contemporary Indians refer as Mag in their language (11b). This country borders the eastern sea that is also connected to the lower Bhaṅgala in the West. The river, known by the name gTsaṅ po in our country, is called Brahmaputra by the Āryadeśa inhabitants. The Brahmaputra tumbles out into a gorge at devil’s face (Yama) and then flows through Kamaru. From there, it flows towards the east in a short period of time, then it passes from the borders of Varendra through Bhaṅgala and by Svanarghavo as well as Tāmradvīpa, and falls into the eastern sea. A single traveller can hardly make a journey in Tāmradvīpa13 because its inhabitants are very violent and practice cannibalism. Starting from the Anavatapta Lake, the great Ganges River passes through the land of mṄa ris in a few days’ journey, then flows to the southwest. From Haridvāra, it bends towards the east, flows past the bank area of Vārāṇasī and flows from the near side of the south of Bhaṅgala to the very east, it is where the river splits into two branches: the larger branch draws nearer the Tibetan gTsaṅ po and then rushes to the sea, whilst the smaller one heads towards the eastern sea on the south side of Bhaṅgala.


References:

  1. The word Land is used in German translation. However, Tāmradvīpa is the island of Ceylon, Sri Lanka.

 

Page 19

This place is called Gaṅgāsāgara and Gaṅgāsaiger in common pronunciation. In the Ratnagiri, there is a vihara on top of a hill. In this vihara, there is an ancient image of Hālāhalāvalokiteśvara that was created by the Minister Puṇyaṇātha at the time of the great siddha Kṛṣṇacāri, shining in the splendour of his graces. In a small vihara close to the sea, there are (12a) six pieces of bone jewellery, which are consecrated by the younger Kṛṣṇacāri, Bhuvari, and Bhuvadhīmān, and which a ḍākinī had passed on to14 the elder Kṛṣṇacāri. These things have great miraculous power because they emit sparks of fire at night. For the heterodox followers, vihara is a spell house, a so-called kapālamuni. If banishing spells have already been performed for a month and neither great nor little changes have taken place by now, then no real success can be attributed to them. But then, nāgas, horrible yakṣas and poisonous ḍākinīs appear in all kinds of ghostly figures that are hard to deal with. In the surrounding forests, many fierce wild beasts come out. The demon beast, makaras, and child eaters (śiśumāra), that emerge from the ocean cause horrible fear. Since the thunder dragon and thunder with unbearable lightning bolts occur simultaneously in the summertime, only a superhuman can live in such an area. Not even one of the tantras, who is powerful, is able to do so. It is hard for people to stay there, except for someone who is fully aware of pure morality. In the aforementioned place, Pūrṇavarta, there is a self-arisen temple of Khasarpana: if one builds a small sacrificial house there and recites a praṇidhi for seven days, one will certainly attain the siddhi. In the aforementioned country of Rāḍhā or Gausompurī, there is a great school, in which Mahākāla himself currently seems to be in person. Furthermore, there are also many tantric institutions for the heterodoxy and orthodoxy followers in this country.


References:

  1. There might be a mistake in the German translation, instead of using the verb vererbt (to pass on) the verehrt (worshipped) was used.

 

Page 20

To the south from Ganges lies the southern part of Bhaṅgala; the name of the province is Oḍiviśa or Urisa in vernacular. It is also the place where the Mahāsiddha Vajraghaṇṭa attained siddhi in ancient times. (12b) The eastern sea is also the border of this land in the East. There is also a large city surrounded by a dense forest nearby the temple monastery of the Āryāvalokiteśvara Lokeśvara and Jagaddali with Vajraghaṇṭa as its attraction and a foundation of the tīrthikas15. It was, in ancient times, a temple of Vishnu with a stone image that had powerful witchcraft power, which, however, lost its magical power after the siddhi-ācārya Prajñāmitra had seen it. Even now, there is an image named Jagannātha or Jakennātha in common language, which elements are falling off and which is still considered to have very powerful magic. The two temples of Jagannātha and Jagaddali are only as far as one hears a voice calling from the sea. The northern side of Bhaṅgala is divided into three parts: the East, the West and the Centre. Kāmarūpa or Kamaru, in common language, lies in the West. One of the twenty-four divisions of the great siddhi area is established there because it lies on the running-to-the-east spokes of the Śrīcakrasaṃvara’s vākcakra. This is the place where the compassionate Tathāgata showed his way to Nirvana, Kuśinagarī, and the Malla Kingdom. It is also the place where Buddha entered the Nirvana and where there is the sāla forest with a chair in it; moreover, it is the place where the Mahāvīra Myug gu can and others sat: a place of worship for all heterodox and orthodox followers. At the Mātṛkā’s birthplace, one can also find a self-established shrine, it is called Kāmākhyā or Kumucha in the vernacular, and a shrine of the Vishnu with a face of a horse, the so-called Girimatho.


References:

  1. Non-Buddhists

 

Go to Page 21 to 40

Back to Tabs

Page 21

What lies to the east of the Malla (13a) is the land called Asam, now it is commonly called Aśoṅ by the caravan leaders and other Tibetans nowadays. The middle part of northern Bhaṅgala is called Kaccharaṅga, Gauḍa (Ghavura) in Sanskrit, and Ghahroṅ in common language. There are two areas: one is called Tripura or a group of mountains belonging to Bhaṅgala and it lies at the hollow. The other one is on the upper parts of the valley and it is called Devīkoṭi. It is an outstanding area that rests on the spokes of the cittacakra under twenty-four divisions. There is a school founded by Mahāsiddha Kṛṣṇacārī in this area. It is where the ḍamarus’ drumbeat was heard and a flower shower appeared when Kṛṣṇacārī made offerings. There are so many miraculous things here, including the spot where Mahāsiddha Guhya destroyed the witch. There had been no defects in the areas where other siddhas resided in the ancient time, yet its inhabitants have become like the devils that eat human flesh in later times. Despite everything, it has to be a land that was once a jewel-like Buddha’s Doctrine. Since this is the land which is close to the Tibetan mountains, at least one big clan, who belongs to lJaṅ and speaks Tibetan, wishes to live on the side close to Ghahroṅ. However, it seems to be an unknown land to the Tibetans. Nonetheless, I heard that it is called “the Great lJaṅ of the king of Ba taṁ, etc.” It can also be assumed that the sect of the Karmapas is located there. To the east of Ghahroṅ now lie the very vast areas of a land, known as Koki, connected to the lands of Naṅgaṭa, Tsakma, Mor ga ko, (13b) Kamboja, Rakhaṅ, Bal gu, the area of Pu kam as well as of Haṁsavatī and other cities located by the sea. Haṁsavatī and Mergui are also known as Mu kaṁ. In Haribandha, a district of Rakhaṅ, there is a large stupa and next to it, a large vihara. It is well-known that Bhramarāja is the common name of the kings of this country.

 

Page 22

As far as the lands of Mergui and sMan tse are concerned, some people assume that they belong to the clans living in China; however, this assumption is not justified. Since people there wear white turbans and their language is similar to the Bhaṅgala language in general, it is thus obvious that people from the big cities in the eastern side of India are described here. At the border of their country, Yunnan, a large city of China, is also included in their territory. I heard that from this city, big elephants are used at the imperial court of Pe Ciṅ’s “Lord of Heaven,” the Great Golden Imperial City. If one continues to sail straight from this country, one will arrive at Dhanaśrīdvīpa. It is where the stupa of Śrīdhanakaṭa or Śrīmaddhanakaṭaka, which is known as Astukaya in the common language of the country, is located. Next to it is the big city of Śrīdhana, which certainly belongs to India, and because it is separated by the sea, it is thus an island. At the same time, Candradvīpa, Parjadvīpa, Paigudvīpa, and other islands still belong to the eastern lands of Āryadeśa. (14a) These lands enjoy great prosperity; they are filled with all necessities and facilities of an innumerable population. Like the cities in Madhayadeśa, they are more particularly rich in crops and fruits. In all these lands, especially in Kamaru, Ghahroṅ, Kaccharaṅga, as well as in the lands of Koki, the magicians have fought many battles and what exceptionally wonderful is, is that even the bazaars and field crops often prosper through magic. As far as Devīkoṭi is concerned, numerous ḍākinīs, who wander the world, grant manifestations of omens in tantras in general, especially as soon as meditations are made through anuttarayoga recitations. Of course, there is also a number of big tantric schools in other parts of this area.

 

Page 23

But, when referring to people like our Tibetans, these Tibetans do not desire to go to those areas nowadays. Apart from the dangers of the heat, snakes, and poisonous worms of all kinds, in brief, all the wild beasts that are terrifying, the luminous power of various kinds of tantras is also difficult to achieve there, and more particularly, because of the bitter perception of the inhabitants of Āryadeśa that they use only the term ‘lower caste’ for the Tibetans. The south of the country is very fortunate and has a lot of big cities. If we want to list only the lands on one side, (14b) we will find Triliṅga, which is located close to the aforementioned Uruviśa or Oḍiviśa or Urisa; it is the birthplace of Dharmakīrti and where the sandalwood forests of Trimala are. Apart from Triliṅga, we will also find the following cities: Marahaṭa, Khanadeva, Taṁbala, Vidyānāgara, Karṇāṭaka, Cañci, Malyāra, Caritra, Margarava, Kunkuṇa, Cevala, Nicamba, Nicambahara, Candradura, Pañcabhatāra, Caramandala, Mauramandala Jalamandala, Tolamandala, Tundamandala, Bhoga, Malyāra, Nerapatareva, Chetareva and so on. The sea called Mahodadhi by the inhabitants of Āryadeśa that extends from the southern part across the eastern seaside and the sea called Ratnasāgara that is beyond the West and the South meet at the sharp corner of Jambudvīpa. This spot is therefore described as triangular. Although both seas have the same depth and the same appearance, they still have different names because a border of wave trains can still be detected in a far distance to the south as a result of the shaping of Jambudvīpa. In the area of this sharp corner lies Rāmeśvara, which is on the current southwestern wind spokes of cittacakra from the division of the twenty-four lands, and Indraliṅga, Triliṅga, Umāliṅga and Śivaliṅga lie there correspondingly. There are eight16 different lands in total.


References:

  1. On page 24, it is stated that there are eight (acht in German) lands in total. But, it is not clear which eight lands are meant here.

 

Page 24

From the side of the aforementioned spot, a so-called bridge of stones leads to the sea. The bridge should have been built by Rāma as he conquered Lanka in ancient times (15a) and one recounts that, in this way, he could have crossed the sea and would have reached Lanka. From the twenty-four divisions, Māru, Mevar, Ciṭavar, Bivuva, and Ābhu lie on the wind spokes of kāyacakra at the border of the South, whereas Soraṣṭa and Gujiratha or Gujiraṭ in the common language lie on the spokes turning to the west. They are all regarded as very large provinces in this country. The great blessings of the vajrakāya have been in Soraṣṭa when Siddhendra Virūpa attained the vajrakāya and the cult image Somanātha was also there. Generally speaking, it is not enough that these lands in the South were so extraordinarily blessed with wealth and craftsmanship and that they could compete with the Trayastriṁśat; to those, who rule over the lands—which have the five names of the aforementioned mandalas, whilst as one, they are regarded as Pañcadrāviḍā—the Golden Island (Suvarṇadvīpa) only counts as a beggar land. In any case, these lands are known to have twenty thousand entertainments, from which they particularly love the dance. In the land of Māru, Ācārya Saroruha took the daughter of a king from a lower caste through conjuring tricks because she was a padminī and forced her to work for him. That terrible and brutal king unveiled the painting of Śrīvajra made by her with the best sandalwood flour and closely looked at it. Consequently, he broke the vow and vomited blood. If one travels by ship from Koṅkuṇa straight to the west, one will arrive at Ḍāmiḍodvīpa. At first, one will reach a land in between, known as Saṁloranśo in common language. Since there are numerous evil witches in this land, there seem to be many (15b) siddhapuruṣas scholars as well as Padmasaṁbhava’s schools of magic.

 

Page 25

If one travels by ship from banks of Rāmeśvara to the south, one will arrive at Siṁhaladvīpa or Siṁhala. On this island, there is the footprint that is called Śrīpāduka of the ruler of Śākya, the Bhagavān, who regards himself merciful. The Śrīpāduka was still highly celebrated at that time. This land’s inhabitants are so rich that they deal only with gold and pearls. If one continues to sail from here to the south, one will arrive at the Potala Mountain and if one continuously goes to the west for a while, one will reach the province named Jhamigiri. In this province, there are so many places where Ācārya Nāgārjuna has stayed. Travelling by ship from there to the east, one then reaches the great land of Suvarṇadvīpa or the Golden Island, the home of Suvarṇadvīpīs. It rests on the south-facing wind spokes of the kāyacakra in these twenty-four divisions. Next to Suvarṇadvīpa lies Yavadvīpa and in the centre of Yavadvīpa lie Vanadvīpas. In the centre of Vanadvīpa, there is a broader, immense inner room like a quadrangular house on a tuff rock mountain. It is said that all notable Guhyatantra books in the human world are kept in that place and since the mountain is very steep, people do not make a little effort just to even look at them. The livelihoods, traditional costume, and language of all these small islands’ inhabitants and South India’s inhabitants coincide with each other. Furthermore, all old (16a) scholars have classified all these lands, where the sun sets, under the eastern lands category because if the sun is at the southern declination in Vajrāsana, it appears just above Oḍiviśa. And if the sun is at northing, it appears exactly from Rak’aṅ. Whilst half of the Indian people assume that Oḍiviśa is not in the South even today, there are also people—who are truly not your lineage, namely the Lord Buddha of three times, the illustrious second Jina—who have testified that Oḍiviśa is in the South in the commentary on Pañcaghaṇṭākrama. Indeed, everyone has something to say here.

 

Page 26

If that is the case, it can be questioned as to whether one may have given information whose source could be responsible for the false statements. However, the fact that there is only one general statement must remain true. If someone makes the matter clear and precisely understands it after considering everything, including the utmost consequence, it will be the one who lives in Oḍiviśa. When one measures the direction from Udyāna in the direction to the south, the place Udyāna is in Vajrāsana when the sun declines to the north, in the direction of the sunset. As the yoginī gave the prophecy about Vajraghaṇṭa, she preaches that “one must walk from Udyāna to the south, to Oḍiviśa, and meditate there!” Therefore, it is not an antithesis when the second Jina says that the secret lies in the South and when I say after calculating the direction from Vajrāsana that “it is in the East”. Furthermore, one must adhere to the main point that a completely square field must appear: when the declination of the sun reaches the North, an interval occurs in the East. Since the sun is declined to the north; the interval between instants is in the northern dimension from the time the sun rises and when the declination of the sun reaches the South, the interval between instants also occurs from the west point (16b) in the western dimension. This means that the dimension of the interval must also be in the South if the sun rises a southerly declination. A square thus emerges. Making a circle in the margin of the centre of a very clean paper also means creating a border four margins long for a country like Āryadeśa. For a country like Tibet, which is nearer to the north, however, one builds a shorter border by about four fingers. The spot where the shadows of the rising sun do not reach in the morning has to be marked by an asterisk first. Then, one notes the spot in the East for the evening. In that way, a meeting point between the two spots can be marked by a circle. If one pulls a little piece of string above these two markings, one connects the North and South with a straight line and also puts asterisks on the same line.

 

Page 27

Then, one puts one’s little wooden stick in the middle of the circle and takes a look at it; since it is clear that the rotating sun from the south declination to the north cannot cast shadows in the exact middle between the North and the South, one has thereby acquired fixed orientation guidelines for these countries. With these guidelines, one can determine one’s location. The city located in the south of Āryadeśa towards the West is called Ṣāhbandar. In this city, there is a bazaar to which one needs to go on a two to three days’ trip. If one continues to travel from there in a westerly direction, one will reach a big city called Nagara Ṭaṭa, where the Sindhu River is located. And there is also a large area that lies on the kāyacakra’s running wind spokes heading southwest. From the spot where the great Sindhu River falls into the sea, lies a barren valley which is about a nine-day-journey. If one goes there and confines oneself to the penitent’s diet, merely by eating cloves (17a), one will encounter on delightful rocky hills the protective deity of the area, the heterodox goddess, Hiṅgalācī, and the image of the goddess as well as her place of origin. If one continues to travel from there in a northerly direction, one will reach the powerful and wealthy cities of Mūltān, Kabhela or Kabala, Khorasan, Vajapāna and Gośa. Since these cities are all captive under the evil religion of the Mlecchas, it is obvious that the orthodox followers left these cities and there may not be many followers of the old religious traditions of heterodoxy. If one goes from there as far as possible slightly to the west, one will arrive at the Holy Land of Udyāna, or Oḍiyana in Sanskrit, which lies on the west facing wind spokes of cittacakra. Its inhabitants, who were mostly Mlecchas, named it Ghāznī. As far as the present prevailing establishments are concerned, there are no traditional forms of religion, neither heterodox nor orthodox nor the Mleccha’s, but there is a tremendous number of yoginis of the individual kṣetras and dark magicians in this land.

 

Page 28

If people like us come to that place, the jenes will immediately appear as carnivorous women in form of tigers and draw near these people. Since they use the three poisons (lobha, dveṣa, moha) on these people, the dark bewitchment affects them in an excellent way and the jenes can easily consume their meat and blood. These women transform themselves into different birds whenever they want to pass a river. So they show us different striking magic tricks, with which they are spreading terror everywhere. That is one of the country’s peculiarities. Even if one asks each woman in cities, such as Dhumaṣṭhira or Kaboka, the question (17b): “From which clan or which family are you?” One may quite wonder if it also means: “I am created by myself because all the dharmas come from us, so modest are we as we know it: since primeval times, we have seen so many transformations of creatures, bear in mind that this means a lot to us as much as when we stretch out the arm and move it in again.” Particularly, when one begs these women for food and has then eaten it, it seems as if this food that is handed by the vajra-airwalkers (vajraḍākinīs) would be regarded as the origin of many magical powers as soon as it reaches the stomach. Near the northern part of this country, there is a mountain called Ilora. The spot approximately in the centre of Ilora is where the palace of King Indrabhūti stood. If one reaches the place where the saint, who wore woollen garment (Kambala), was banned, or one reaches the cave where the saint has spent the night, one can be attracted and be encouraged to contemplate by so many things in this land. Pandit, kṣetrayoginīs, and sādhakas, who are in lands like Vidyānagara that lies in the South, or in Draviḍa and on the islands in the Southwest or in Devīkoṭi, the neighbour lands of Ra k’aṅ in the East, were already mentioned above or they have just now appeared in this main kṣetra Udyāna and in the area of Śrī Śambhala; one must listen carefully to the message of the second Jina, who speaks without passion.

 

Page 29

In any case, one can also immeasurably benefit from knowledge; furthermore, it is also known in the Nam t’ar of the Sarvajña dGe odun grub that the main point, which has to be kept in mind, was the reincarnation of the soul. If one envisages where the soul has gone and if one hears that the second Jina was reincarnated in an unusual place, our noble guru (Tsoṅ k’a pa) indeed appeared to mK’as grub c’os kyi rgyal po dge legs dpal bzaṅ as a vision in the form of a yogi with a sword and a skullcap in his hands (18a), riding a wild tiger surrounded by the eighty mahāsiddhas. The inhabitants’ work of redemption in accordance to the task—namely, to work out salvation of living beings in the twenty-four lands and to show appropriate consideration towards the harsh nature of our highlands in teaching—was connected with asceticism captured from the essence of reincarnation in all those sādhaka schools. The teaching had gained a great deal of knowledge and revelations through sutras and tantras, which could emerge if an existence was finally reincarnated with Sumatikīrti and others in the old days, approximately during Nātha Nāgārjuna’s time; as a result, an uncountable number of siddhapuruṣas had increased and such people like Mahāsiddha Śāntigupta, the Tāranātha Guru of Jonaṅ Buddhaguptanātha and Pandit Pūrṇavajra were so justifiably born then because they had also been reincarnated. It is also mentioned in the second Jina that he had incarnated as an ascetic. It is certainly well-known that all these kinds of exertions are based on the religious beliefs or on a gradually developing path of salvation among all these mahāsiddhas and followers of Nāgārjuna who himself was the spiritual son of a hero. This is also a reason and an initiation why every Buddhaguptanātha had to find the opportunity to meet the Jonaṅ Tāranātha in the Byaṅ c’en monastery, who certainly has to be there. At the beginning, he presented him some textbooks which he picked up.

 

Page 30

Suddenly, he stopped teaching Buddhaguptanātha and he urgently had to go back home to India. Lord sGrol mgon then pronounced a vow of the praṇidhi that he would like to stand by him all the time. However, there were comments: “Since you have scruples, you do not really seem to be able to understand it, (18b) I wanted to explain to you some upadeśas.” This Reverend Tara seems to be a specialty of a doctoral student without a guru. Although he did not have a guru, he had still managed to make himself as a domain; nevertheless, it turns out that he had not achieved anything because he was not even a ruler over the abhiṣeka once, as far as his mental strength strived to reach. So there was nothing special about him; a hostile, unyielding doctrine, which was established by the well-known sectarian Dol (from the monastery of rJe P’un ts’ogs gliṅ) and is described as the text of the hero’s son, Nāgārjuna, has appeared here. He perhaps could have imagined that the great siddha has probably thought about the content of his work seven times. Furthermore, it is stated in gSaṅ rnam of the first Paṇ c’en C’os kyi rgyal mts’an, written by C’os rje sÑiṅ stobs rgya mts’o, that the ordinance of his spiritual superior could not find Tāranātha. Indeed, his superior makes the rounds to summon him from elsewhere as far as a yogi’s arm could reach up to Lha sa and it turned out that he, who could not be found at that time, was just accompanied by the first Paṇ c’en bLo bzan C’os kyi rgyal mts’an. Since he was now a mahāsiddha, he seems to regard himself religious; among other things, it means that there was a pandit from India at the place of incarnation when the great tantric Buddhasāgara met with Tāranātha in the oJigs byed c’os byuṅ book of the board rJe Jam dbyaṅs bžad pa and in Nam t’ar of Jam dbyaṅs bžad pa, written by mK’as grub dKon c’og ojigs med, a man from the present surrounding of incarnation. He would have told all sorts of matters in common language, then he would have stood and prostrated himself before Buddhasāgara and he would not have done it in the proper manner when he asked for the blessing. The pandit, who is blessed by Tāranātha with the “power of nothing,” should have been the aforementioned Pūrṇavajra, “the Lord Gaṅ pai rdo rje.”

 

Page 31

During this chanting in “Sanskrit” (19a), the pandit certainly prostrated himself. It was because Buddhasāgara, the honourable tantra specialist, spoke with respect towards him as it was to be expected from such a lever of the Yellow Church. Furthermore, on this occasion, it is quite clear that His Venerable Tāranātha has also gained a (high) reputation by bowing at the moon glow feet of a tantra specialist, as if he were his own guru pandit. Trustful words were made sufficient to enlighten society towards the stupidity of today’s generation and to take them seriously. Now that is enough, we do not want to comment further. As far as the name is concerned, even every form of incarnation that appeared in the field of the second Jina is simply called Kīrtinātha. It is now still most highly respected by the heterodox as well as orthodox and the Mleccha religions in Ȁryadeśa; even though Kīrtinātha is now terrorising the Mlecchas. In such a place, the waves of the lake move in circles on the east and south coast of Udyāna. If one travels by ship, one will pass the Mleccha lands of Balkh and Buchara. The land of Bhadagṣan is in between. From there, all lands—as far as the land of Bhadagṣan—are under the rule of Kun gzigs in Yer kend. Everyone who is the reincarnation of Mañjughoṣa, that is, the Chinese Emperor, is known from aforementioned information. If one goes further to the westward side of all these lands, one will see many lands of the Turuṣkas, particularly sidewards of the Tibetan Maṅyul. Linked to it is the large area of K’ac’e, which is called Kaśmīra in the widely spoken language in Āryadeśa. To the south-west of K’ac’e lies Hastināpurī city or the great royal palace of Dharmarāja Ashoka. It is now called Ḍili, where a pātsa is and he as a mighty lord like an almighty Emperor of Āryadeśa resides. Simultaneously, some very powerful orthodox kings in Jayanagara and Marāṭha etc. have immense possessions and prolonged power over a mass of their subjects, unless one thinks of Mleccha’s Emperor of Rum.

 

Page 32

Here (in Ḍili), one can find the king, to whom the traditions of ancient Tibetans are referred, who is popular according to the way of expression in the treasury books of rÑiṅ ma pa, and acts as a scavenger with a king’s army of the upper Hor, a land next to Tibet. Although it would just be a sufficient reason to expect the display of power in Ḍili, the great power, however, has now been diminished due to all kinds of internal discord. Even if the name of a ruler over all the provinces still remains, there is more than one, e.g., the King of Marāṭhen in the South and the King of Bhaṅgala in the East, who wants to diminish his power. Today, the given name of a protector of the earth, who has nothing to do but to protect his throne, is Alimal in Ghavo. In further South, Zahor or Sahora is still located next to Jayanagara and Marāṭha. The dynasty of this kingdom has great power. Since the kingdom is in the middle of the northern side of Āryadeśa, it could still count to the area of Śrī Śambhala. This will be given a general description on the following pages. Counting each part of the area to the north of Śrī Vajrāsana, the next area will be Campā that lies on the eastern side if one goes from Kaśmīra slightly to northeast. From the twenty-four districts, this land is located on the running wind spokes to the northeast of the kāyacakra. Then followed by Kuluta or how the current Tibetan people call it (20a), for instance Ñuṅ ti in mṄa ris, and one of its districts is called Gaśa. These areas are amongst the lands of Jambudvīpa. As a nearest neighbour of mṄa ris, Gu ge, and bKa gnam, the King of Vatsa is famous in ancient times, at the time of Tathāgata. In the city called Vaiśālī in Āryānandāvadāna, now lives a king called K’u nu by the Tibetans. If one continuously goes from here to the southern direction, one will arrive at the Bhagavāns’ birthplace, the unrivalled Śākyarāja.

 

Page 33

There is the great city of Kapilavastu in which there are springs in a forest valley. On that spot where Bhagavān was born, there is a plakṣa tree stump that illuminates the Nyagrodha grove with the light of infinite blessing. This might be the area commonly called Sāhermon or Sermon. Because this place is close to Tibet, the proximity of the snow mountains (Himālaya) is, thus, explicitly emphasised in sutras and other sacred manuscripts. Eastward from there lies Śrīnagara or Silinagara, one of its districts is called Phulahari and is now known as Haridhovar or Hardhovar; It is the place where the Holy Na ro cast his spell. Further north on the steep mountain slopes in the locality of Nāgarakuṭi, one can find Jvalamukhī or Jvalamuga that means “the fire from the stone” in Tibetan. It rests on the cittacakra with wind spokes running north and has been the homeland of Jalandhari. Nearby the cliff—Namintra, Jhuṁ laṅ, Laṁ jhuṁ, Gorśa, Tanahuṁ, Bhidiya, the thirty districts of Nepal including Kirānta as well as Bhicchapurī; the Tibetan subjugated oBras mo ljoṅs or Sikkim (20b), and the oBrug pa province which are surrounded by mountains and are still regarded as part of India—lie in order. I wanted to tell so much about this most important topic. The area of Kamaru is in fact nothing other than what also lies on the rocky hills surrounded by mountain gorges because the mountains from the east side of the oBrug pa area go even further and also comprise this country. As the testimony was mentioned in the old translations or, at least, according to their information on the eastern area, the main part of the land, insofar as it is surrounded by the mountain, but also the parts, which are not surrounded by it, are very rich and full of food and beverage, instruments of power and craftsmanship. However, there are also witches endowed with wonderful arts, which they particularly activate among other things by using the cunning artfulness of their tantra spells. In addition, the use of mediums, particularly venomous snakes amongst them, is their way to challenge against the opposition, which is hard to defeat.

 

Page 34

Second Section. When I refer to the royal families who were the successors of the kings and lived according to the Vinaya rules and the sutra texts, I also refer to the point in time from which our teacher of the Most Gracious appeared and the Mahārāja Ajātaśatru still saw His face. From the time Āryamahākāśyapa was still a teacher, all the six great cities, except for Vaiśālī, were under his power. With the advice of his minister, Brahmin Varṣakāra, Āryamahākāśyapa with a large army had subjugated all the neighbouring countries in the East. He has filled his life with Āryānanda’s teaching all this time. When Āryaśāṇavāsika was in charge of teaching, he left the world after he had been a righteous prince and for as long as he had protected the dharma. He was succeeded by his (21a) son Subāhu, whose successors were Sudhanu, Mahendra, and Camasa. They all made Triratna as their guru, they mostly honoured the religion of Jina, and they were righteous kings. At that time, King Nemita was in the north of Āryadeśa; He had eight sons, seven of them were from women of royal blood, and Ashoka, the eighth son, was born by the daughter of a caravan leader. Since his older brothers could attack him, the king entrusted his youngest the city of Pāṭnā or Pāṭaliputra. Whilst he was living there peacefully, a great war arose between the old King Nemita and the last descendant of the King Ajātaśatru’s clan. Thus, King Nemita appointed his seven grown-up sons as leaders of the army. When they had advanced to the south across the Ganges to fight the armies of the six cities, and ultimately conquered the six cities, the old king died of natural causes.

 

Page 35

The ministers performed the abhiṣeka rite for Ashoka as their King. When the older brothers learned about this event, each of them took one of the six conquered cities into their possession. But Ashoka defeated all his elder brothers in a battle and extended his power to the east and to the west towards the seas; to the south into the Vindhya Mountains; to the north into the depths of the Himālaya and also over many islands that even include the island of Rākṣasa. At first, King Ashoka was devoted to a false religious belief, and then he became Arhat Yaśas’s student and was converted. After becoming an almost incomparable contributor to the religion of the Tathāgata, (21b) he filled the whole Jambudvīpa with ten million stupas, which surrounded the relics of the Tathāgata as an entrusted property. As a humble servant, he was able to make use of all the yakṣas after gaining yakṣas’ carriage through the tenth tantra spell. Ashoka gave great honour to the sanghas of all four corners of the earth in an indescribable way and he also turned the nāgas into slaves in the end. When the big day arrived, on which he should be granted the incomparable bodhi, a rain of flowers fell during an earthquake. Towards the end of his life, he promised to donate the sanghas of the Aparāntakas, Kāśmiras, and Tokhāras ten million gold pieces each. Since there is no rivalry in the succession of such a contributor, he manages to build the first vihara in Śrīnālanda at the birthplace of Āryaśāriputra, who had been instructed by the Tathāgata to remember the sutra texts. As a Minister, this mahārāja would obtain yakṣas, and for this, a preaching is received if he were to be born as Ashoka because in his previous reincarnation, he had given a Tathāgata a handful of flour when he was still a child; he was the brāhmaṇa-ācārya Sarvamitra during the proclamation of Suvarṇaprabhāsasūtra.

 

Page 36

For this purpose, this is the king’s birth order according to a praṇidhi. At the same time, he was promised that he, in all reincarnations, would be a follower of the devīs armed with weapons of war. King Ashoka was, therefore, a great admirer of Umā and Mātṛkās whilst he still adhered to the false religion perspective of the link (nidāna) of this events. Eventually, he even came up with the idea whether the devī’s tantras would not give him the chance to subdue the yakṣas. The genealogy of his followers is therefore: Vigatāśoka, Vīrasena, Nanda, and Mahāpadma, all (22a) of them greatly worshipped the sacred religion. Due to the banishment of the goddess Mahāśrī, their possession of power had never diminished; however, it is certain that they could no longer dominate the island and the superhuman, namely, yakṣas and rākṣasas, as in the time of their ancestors. After that, Haricandra, Akṣacandra, Jayacandra, Nemicandra, Phaṇicandra, Bhaṁsacandra, Sālacandra and Candragupta appeared in the east of Bhaṅgala. From the East, their reign extended as far as Madhyadeśa. Whilst enjoying their great power, Cāṇakya, a Brahmin minister in Gauḍa of the King Bimbisāra who is Candragupta’s grandson, succeeded in banishing Yamāntaka and since the latter actually appeared, he brought many people into misery. Finally, Cāṇakya was reincarnated in the body of an asura and this was revealed to him in the Mañjuśrīmūlatantra when he died in hell. The king, who had had the possession of a king’s throne since his childhood, killed many people who had a grudge against his minister. He also received a request by the mūlatantra to use the dhāraṇīs of Āryarāhulī. This king and those who follow him to Pañcamasiṃha were certainly equal to King Ashoka in power and devotion, they only differed in the fact that they were no longer in possession of the islands. Thereafter, he was succeeded by Śrīcanda, the king’s grandson, and sequentially: Dharmacandra, Karmacandra, Vigamacandra, Kāmacandra, Siṁhacandra, Bālacandra, Vimalacandra, Gopīcandra, Lalitacandra.

 

Page 37

During the Candra Generation, King Mahāgopāla and his successors peacefully ruled a vast area of Bhaṅgala. (22b) Apart from the insignificant declarations of loyalty towards heterodoxy, every faithful follower greatly admired the teachings of Buddha and many of them achieved the siddhi. The great kings in all the western countries, who also shared the same admiration, are namely Agnidatta, Indrabhūti and the three as follows: Kaniṣka, Candanapāla, and Śrīharṣa in addition to Udayanabhadra in the area bordering to the south and Gauḍavardhana in the eastern land, but there was also the King of Turuṣka, who banished the Amṛtakuṇḍali, Mahāsammata and others in Kaśmīra, the land to the north of Kaniṣka. Since they were all powerful, all subjects in the land bounded by the ocean were peacefully protected and although they were all exuberant adherents of the religion of Buddha, they only hear the preaching of the Mañjuśrīmūlatantra. During King Dharmacandra’s reign, there was a king of the Hor in the West, named Khunamasta. He was devoted to Guhya’s field of work in tīrthika science and he was a Turuṣka, who came from the Sog clan, and with him, Dharmacandra could get along variably and intermittently. One day, the Sog King was angry about the way presents had been sent to him, so he took an army to Madhyadeśa, defeated King Dharmacandra in a battle, and forced him into servitude. When there was no one left who wished to continue the teachings of Buddha and when the wickedness was widely spread without interruption, the great King Buddhapakṣa, a son-in-law of Dharmacandra, still lived in the Kāśī’s Kingdom or in Vārāṇasī. As (23a) the monk of the T’aṅ’s era and other Chinese monks were earlier given leaders to accompany them, King Buddhapakṣa then made the decision to give the Chinese śrāvakas the meaning and the content of the books sent from all the ācāryas trusted ministers as coadjutors in all literary subjects, whose words were the basis of the sutra texts.

 

Page 38

Hence, King Buddhapakṣa obtained the great honour from the Chinese ruler through an appreciation letter, in which the latter wished him prosperity of his good will, and through precious things, which were very huge that only a thousand strong porters could carry them. Furthermore, he also received gold, which has the weight of one hundred men. By all means, the great kings of the East as well as the ones who live on the Vindhya Mountains and also the kings of the wild mountain near to Tibet, who were under arms in Madhyadeśa, were fortunate to be kept alive by King Buddhapakṣa. They were then all allied at some point; they attacked the King of Turuṣka in a battle and crushed this evil king and his troops to dust. Consequently, the King of Turuṣka submitted to the greater part of Āryadeśa and restored many buildings in Vajrāsana. He also gave the greatest honour to the religion of Buddha and built the vihara of Ratnagiri near Urisa or Oḍiviśa. Gambhīrapakṣa, the King Turuṣka’s son, gave Āryāsaṅga the erudite crown for his recitation of the Prajñāpāramitasūtras when he was in the city of Pañcāla. He was succeeded by the following kings: Cala, Caladhruva, Vishnu, Siṁha, Pañcamasiṁha, Prasanna, Prāditya, Mahāśākyabala; there were also King Śukla in the South, Candraśobha, Ṡālivāhana (23b) Maheśa, Subhoga, Keśabhadra, Candrasena, Saṇmukha. The religion of Buddha was highly esteemed even by the successors of King Sāgara. When King Lalitacandra of the Candra lineage passed away peacefully, there was no great king in the eastern land and Madhyadeśa for some time. Each land was ruled by appanage princes without a blessing. Gopāla, a mahārāja of the Sūryavaṁsa, endowed with siddhi power, had gained the siddhi through the tantras of Marīcī. He subdued Madhyadeśa as well as the whole East again and prostrated himself before the teachings of Jina.

 

Page 39

During the reign of the second Rāsapāla, King Devapāla’s son and his descendants, the whole earth was ruled again according to the teachings of Buddha and the sanghas from all four parts of the world were excessively worshipped. The great religious King Dharmapāla, the direct successor of Rāsapāla, was again in power over everyone who had once been subjected to Ashoka in the ancient times. His power extended to the large Sītā River, which is located further North. The fact that the Russian and European people obeyed the ruler of Ḍili17 was an inheritance apparently from the time of King Dharmapāla. Even emissaries from Tibet, the land of ice, came to pay tribute to this king. In the Tibetan tradition, the jewel-like contribution was at times an expression of tribute offering by the descendants of Gye re lha pa of gÑos lineage in return for a praṇidhi; his lineage should hereby become great in the religion of the Tathāgata. King Dharmapāla took the ācārya Buddhajñāna for an erudite in science; he prostrated himself before the religion of Jina and gave ample funds for spreading the teachings of the prajñāpāramitāsūtras and śrīguhyasamājatantras. Furthermore, he reconstructed what had been destroyed in Vajrāsana, in Śrīnālanda and in the temples of Somapurī and elsewhere, basically everything that were constructed by his grandfather Devapāla. The cloud of incense was endlessly spinning. What makes King Dharmapāla more remarkable is the fact that he built a vihara in Vikramaśīla, which he provided with an infinite number of temple servants. In Āryadeśa, these temple servants definitely did not have an overseer, an assistant, a surveyor, etc. from a number of those dressed as monks as they had done it in Tibet. But instead, King Dharmapāla appointed Jamādār, who had the role of a serving bhikṣu of the king. According to alternate inquiries with sthavira and an enormous number of fifteen to eighteen thousand bhikṣus, the selection could not really be inappropriate after their careful consideration.


References:

  1. Ḍili means Delhi

 

Page 40

In this way, the monks of the sangha were spared from collecting alms and begging for food in other or foreign places. They survived with the help of these temple servants. The latter provided these monks also with the thirteen necessities of life and everything one need in order to practice tantras. At that time, King Dharmapāla is said to have received hints from many bhikṣus, who were simply experts of the Tripitaka: to apparently do what the tantras demanded—namely, to seek the highest profundities of sampannakrama in the numerous books about Guhyatantras—would be against the commandments of the Vinaya. Now, King Dharmapāla is alleged of letting them be buried in the ground. It is his way to complain about things which are not true. If Tāranātha and his imitators testified like that, it is worth scrutinising this matter. (24b) The reason is that there was no opportunity to practice the banishment ceremony at any time and to ensure a mudra when a firm faith is not truly obtained, unless the spirit within oneself secretly rests in the profundities of sampannakrama’s principal element in Āryadeśa. However, when the time came where one began with the banishment ceremony, he had to go a long way to the eight mortuaries because the banishing ritual was officially practiced as a moral degradation for the abbot and sangha monks and it had never been performed in the vihara. It is hence because there is not one bit that could distinguish sutras from tantras under these circumstances. If the use of supernatural powers under such circumstances was definitely stopped during the ceremony, the ranting would be meaningless. I do not even take the Saindhavas into account, who belong to the Hīnayāna, because they know nothing but their second ritual: “to get up early.” If a mahāsiddha emerges in the aforementioned way, one ought to rant when he realises clearly that there is no point in gossiping too much about a “blue-gem maiden”.

 

Go to Page 41 to 60

Back to Tabs

Page 41

Vanapāla, Mahīpāla, Mahāpāla, Prajñāpāla, Bheyapāla, Neyapāla, Āmrapāla reigned thereafter. When Hastipāla was still a child, King Cāṇakya, Hastipāla’s mother’s brother, ruled the empire. During this period, the Turuṣka made a successful invasion for the third time. After Hastipāla, Rāmapāla, and Yakṣapāla had gradually restored their kingdom, a certain Lavasena from the clan of the ancient Candras, a dignitary of King Yakṣasena’s Buddhist minister, maliciously stole the kingdom. Lavasena’s son was Kāsasena whose son is Maṇitasena (25a) whose son is Rathikasena are called “nomads” by the Tibetans. During their reign, they followed the religion of Buddha. When the reign of Lavasena’s descendants of “nomads” came to an end, Candra, the King of Turuṣka, made an expedition from Antarvedī, in which he completely overcame Magadha, destroyed all the temples such as Otantapurī and Vikramaśīla, and inflicted unbearable damage. Then he got infected with the terrible mouth disease; he began to howl, died, and was reincarnated in the great hell of Avīcī. This is exactly what had been prophesied in the Mañjuśrīmūlatantra and the subsequent Kālacakratantra. Even the aforementioned King Dharmapalā and his successors had also been proclaimed in the Mañjuśrīmūlatantra; the only difference was that he became known as a king blessed with a perfect bodhi in the long line of succession. When King Candra passed away, Buddhasena and his son Haritasena succeeded to the throne. Although they became the Turuṣkas’ servants and did not have any titles of power, they still followed the religion of Buddha as much as they could. Haritasena’s son, Pratītasena, did not have a son; thus, after his death, as far as I have heard, no mahārāja has subsequently emerged, who would have worshipped the dharma of Madhyadeśa and Magadha up to our days.

 

Page 42

It is certain that Pratītasena had also lived during the time Bu ston and his entourage had lived in Tibet. After a hundred years had passed, King Caṅgalarāja resided in Bhaṅgala. Since he was devoted to the religion of Buddha and made endless offerings, he thus restored the nine terraces of Gandhola in Vajrāsana that had meanwhile been destroyed by the Turuṣkas. After a victory, he reigned over (25b) the heterodox and orthodox followers as well as numerous Mlecchas’ people due to his merit, which arose from his numerous offerings to the members of the sangha and the yogis in all parts of the land. The Turuṣkas were particularly afraid of him that they were willing to be his subjects and accepted whatever he liked. I have some doubts whether this king is the same one to whom the Holy Saskya Pandit referred in the rNam t’ar. Later the saint was reincarnated as a mighty king in the east of Āryadeśa. After the death of this king, the Turuṣkas were in power again in the eastern country and in Madhyadeśa in a short span of time. Since a strong regiment no longer exists, the offerings to the religion of Buddha also ceased to exist. The exception was in the land of Urisa where there was a certain Mukuṇḍadeva who made himself master of a vast area in the eastern country and in Madhyadeśa. He was the tenth descendant of King Akamarāja, who had banished Aryāvalokiteśvara. In the beginning, he was devoted to Brahmins, but then he was persuaded to change his fundamental belief by his wife who believed in Buddha. So he gave offerings to the religion of the conquerors and brought some presents to Vajrāsana. He even built several temple monasteries in Oḍiviśa. The desire to have a son in this royal house seems to be fulfilled by the birth of King Nandapāla. In accordance with the way the translator of Lha mt’oṅ bŚes gñen rnam rgyal (Mitravijaya) repeats the expression of the Ācārya Dharmavarttī, this king would have probably been a subordinate to the prince of the upper Hor, the ruler of Ḍili.

 

Page 43

However, there is no credible evidence about this assumption at all. Then after some time has passed, a certain palimba appeared in Bhaṅgala as a king. It seems as if he had been a Bodhisattva, who ruled his people peacefully, although the way he was converted could only be associated with the heterodox religion that conformed to the human existence under the pressure of time. From then on, many Bodhisattvas have appeared—(26a) namely, Pundhasahi and others in the Magadha kingdom, as well as Parvandhasiṃha in Vārāṇasī. Nevertheless, they were forced to serve the Turuṣkas Mlecchas because their sphere of influence was not particularly great. Since the religion of Buddha subsequently hardly had any followers, the way they were converted, thus, has evidently been such a conversion that could be in the heterodox form of religion. From the time the aforementioned King Lavasena owned the city of Hastināpurī, the ruler of the Mleccha Turuṣkas18 had also made these Bodhisattvas the great kings of this city. In a district that belonged to them, a certain Maduśa ruled his subjects peacefully because he conducted himself as a righteous judge. A certain Nau ran ji, however, turned out to be a tyrant, dragging all the countries from Zahor into war, whilst the whole clan of the local rulers conducted themselves as if they had maintained a righteous regiment. These local rulers opposed the religion of Buddha and this becomes apparent in the way they had carried out the ten great vices, generally as a centre point of their act, with full brutality even against the tīrthikas. In this particular case, they declared maltreatment as appropriate. They also considered all ways of killing people as the main purpose of their act and thus regard the most unprotected subject as a work of destruction. During these actual conditions, our land of eternal ice shows here—through the incomparable grace of the great one with the eye of compassion (Avalokiteśvara) and through the omniscient Jina princes whose names can never be praised enough—the masters of a sea from mandalas and emerged from the essence of all Buddhas of three times, who are gifted with the power of purer weapons, as patrons of this cold land at the zenith of the three worlds, (26b) imprinting the benediction of his lotus feet. This was how the vicious Mlecchas had fallen apart due to internal wars during the time when a Cakṛavartī regiment functions in the dual authority in church and state. As a new kind of Mlecchas appeared, which took the name Paṭhān, they became kings in the land of Khaṇḑara and in the land called Kabhela or Kābala.


References:

  1. The German Translation firstly uses “Turuṣkas Mlecchas“ and in the following sentence, the order of the words “Mleccha Turuṣkas” changes. The English translation follows the German translation accordingly.

 

Page 44

When the ruler of Ḍili fought with them in a battle, the people of Ḍili were conquered and Pātsha was driven out from his city. In the city of Prayāga or Vaisālī, he had to control his overconfidence with external help. As a result, the fortress commanders, whom he had appointed himself, acted up as kings without taking their position into consideration. At the time Maduśa lived, there appeared in the land of Priyaṅgudvīpa, a frontier area of Jambudvīpa, the lords of Āryadeśa; the Enlec’i that is also called Pherengi and “dol bo” in Tibetan śāstras. Engeraichi, Holandhaisai, Parsisi, Bikanda, Hurmuju, Sirkodhana, Rukma, Purabma belong to their region. These Engeraichi—the most eminent of all that there are, including the land of Urusu—then arrived. Because they were great merchants and asked for a territory, Maduśa thus gave them a merchant house in the place called Kālikāṭā19 in east Bengal. Whilst they were peaceful because they had mercantile profit as they wished, the Mlecchas20 fell apart due to internal discord. Thus, measures to guard Bengal for the protection of the “Company”-House by the commanders receiving orders from Ḍili could not be carried out. Because, being the most eminent, they might fall under “murderous daggers” (27a) if they were unprotected, the aforementioned merchants brought soldiers from their own countries21.


References:

  1. It might refer to Calcutta
  2. The Mughal empire/li>
  3. In Tibetan part, there is a footnote without a reference word: (sic!) instead of kaṁ pa ṇi.

 

Page 45

From Varendra and Bhaṅgala they subjugated everything up to Vārāṇasī and brought it under their protection. And today they are also rulers of Śrīvajrāsana. Their hereditary king lives on an island, he is from the lineage of Pāṇḍavas and thus belongs to the people of Āryadeśa. These people are evidently opposed to the orthodox followers and tīrthikas. They treat people regardless of their religion, even that of the Mlecchas, in a just regiment of a purely secular character. And if one asks, who the greatest person in Āryadeśa today is, the answer will be the Mahārāja of the Mahāṭhen in the south of the country. Almost a hundred powerful great kings in several ten thousand houses are under his command. Although the clan of the rulers stems from the kings of Zahor, a man named Mathora, who belonged to mahābrāhmaṇa in an unfortunate relationship to the Ñag pra bas pa caste, acquired the possession of the royal dignity with the power of time. He greatly honoured the religion of the conqueror and paid tribute to all who belonged to the tīrthikas. With his possession of an innumerable army, consisting of all four types of troops, he powerfully spread terror with the use of his magic amongst those who belonged to the Mlecchas, Tajik or Turuṣkas, and even amongst the Pherengis. But, because he relied on a bad wife, he had to die. Now his grandson from one of his daughters has the kingdom in his hands. He respects both religions of all Bauddhas22 and tīrthikas. A man named Maudhājigosala, on the other hand, grants the Bauddhas extraordinary offerings, but treats the Mlecchas in a cruel way, (27h) on the other hand. Due to the present conditions of the commanders deployed by the Pherengis, no authoritative royal power can exist in some parts of the Magadha. After the death of samyaksambuddha, however, the royal clan has not died out until now. The crowned Cetasiṃha, as he is called, certainly has dignity, but since he has to keep an eye on the people of Mlecchas and Pherengis, he only has little power; nevertheless, he has the unfading crown of glory because he treats the pilgrims as jewels in the religion of Mlecchas, the conquerors, and also people from the island as his visitors. The act of endowing them with dresses, for instance, as if he were their old brother proves that he rather treats them with honour and not like his slaves.


References:

  1. Buddha follower or Buddhist

 

Page 46

Based on what we have just said, we would just like to give a rough sketch of the lands and royal lineages as they are now because who else would be able to explain them in detail if not us? Now, let us clarify the ultimate objective which has been mentioned so far in this part.

Third Section. If we assume that countless Buddhas have appeared here in Āryadeśa in countless kalpas in the past in order to turn the converts from the darkness into the light of the holy religion, then our teacher, the royal Śākya, has also only kept an eye on this kind of a perfect Buddha in the area of Vārāṇasī whilst honouring many millions of Buddhas. Consequently, he appears here in this bhadrakalpa for a little while and teaches as an enlightened one in the most glorious magical reincarnation, which occurs only in Vajrāsana for all Buddhas from the times of Kāśyapa. The magnificent Wheel of Dharma revolves in this very place (28a) on the Gṛdhrakūṭa Mountain at Rājagṛha and in other great cities; thus, the infinite trinity in the teachings of Buddha that is relevant to the way of conversion, established the path to a complete enlightenment. It was the same way the fourth saviour, the royal Śākya, appeared in person in the great city of Kapilavastu and lived in bliss as a crown prince for a while, but then he attained enlightenment about the cycle of life, so he made his decision to leave the family. After six years of solemn penance and similar practices, he led all army troops of Māra—that was at the zenith of their power in Vajrāsana—to confusion in order to finally bring a large number of people, who were capable of converting themselves, to the path of bodhi on the bank of the Nairañjanā River; thus, he showed the power of a samyaksambuddha who is in full possession of four bodies and five jñānas.

 

Page 47

In the first turning of the Wheel of Dharma, he taught the Four Noble Truths and led the five bhadravargīyas as well as the eight hundred thousand deities to the path of bodhi. On the Gṛdhrakūṭa Mountain, he also preached to everyone who belonged to the group that tolerated the conversion to Mahayana, the middle part of the three moderately large collections of Prajñāpāramitā, without letting the characteristic come to the fore. The King of Śambhala did not belong to the flock of converts at that time. From the reincarnation of Vajrapāṇi, Sucandra as well as the ninety-six kings of the lands surrounding Śambhala, all guhyadharas among them is Vajrapāṇi in the lead, and all vidyādharas with Vetālī in the lead, up to the very beginnings of the kṣetra of all ten parts of the world: all of them worshipped Dhanaśrīdvīpa from ancient times. In olden times, the stupa (28b) of Śrīdhanakaṭaka appeared as a source that the “fruits” (phalas) of five hundred arhats fell down like rain because the great deities, led by Vishnu, were said to have built a mountain in the form of a stupa, yet rocky on the surface, at the time of the Buddha Kāśyapa. The Naksatramahāmandala, followed by the Vajradhātuvāgīśvaramandala in its magical manifestation, appeared above the inner courtyard with twenty-eight columns and filled with five hundred stupa-like vaiḍūrya vessels, which were self-arisen. He used the Kālacakramūlatantramahārāja as a starting point for preaching all tantras there. The turning of the Wheel of Dharma that have taken place in the area of Vaiśālī and other places, explain as good as possible the conclusions of the teaching of Buddha that there would be nothing real in what would be considered as “nitya” compared to the repeated contemplation of the sutra texts. In this way, he taught the infinite four tantra collections in the course of what is essentially mentioned in form of a sutra. The sutra collections—namely, the Vinaya, the Mātṛkās and the Abhidharma—are a mass of material that could have barely apprehended the Tathāgatas.

 

Page 48

Finally, he entrusted the teachings to Mahākāśyapa. The latter gathered everything his master had taught him and entrusted them to Āryānanda. After the emancipation of Madhyāhnikas, Āryānanda entrusted the teachings to Śāṇavāsika, and later to Ārya Upagupta. After Ārya Upagupta had proven his preservation of the teachings through his incredible accomplishment that he bound the opponent (Māra) by a strict oath to become a lord, he entrusted them to Ārya Kāla. The latter entrusted them to Dhītika who entrusted them to Sudarśana. After Sudarśana had powerfully influenced the religion, there were teachers who continued to succeed arhat-gurus in the following order: (29a) Yaśas, Pārśva, Mahāloma, Dharmaśreṣṭhī and others, the great Brahmin Śaraha, Śrīnātha Nāgārjuna with five vīra sons, Āryāsaṅga, P’am-t’iṅ and his brother, Guṇaprabha, Śākyaprabha, Vinītadeva etc., the great Siddhācārya Śāvari, followed by Maitrī, Lūipā, Dārika, Ḍeṅki, Vajraghaṇṭa, Kacchapapāda, Jālandhari, Kṛṣṇacārī, Guhya, Vijayapāda, Ḍombi, Tailo, Naro, Mañjuśrīmitra, Buddhajñānapāda, the head of his spiritual sons, Mahācārya Padmākara, also followed by a great number of learned pandits led by the One wearing the crown jewel with the entire five hundred disciples, the sole holy divine Lord Dīpaṅkaraśrījñāna, the Pandit Kṣitigarbha, Nyāyakokila, the Old and Young, the Ācāryas Muktasena, Vimuktasena, Siṁhabhadra, the old and young Kusali, Suvarṇadvīpī, Diṅnāga, Dharmakīrti, Abhayākara, Śākyaśrī, Bhūmiśrī, Buddhaśrī, Kālapāda, the Old and the Young, Vāgīśvarakīrtti, Meghapakṣī, Sumatikīrtti, Bhavabhadra and many others;

 

Page 49

Then still in later times, Vanaratna, Rāhulaśrībhadra, Narāditya, and many other pandits, Matsyendranātha, Oṁkaranātha, Nandī, Gopāla, Asitaghana, Jñānamitra, (29b) Śāntigupta, Buddhaguptanātha, Pūrṇavajra have continued to be teachers of those who attained the siddhi even during the main period. The philosophical concepts in the individual texts with the utmost ingenuity of everything that can be counted as part of the doctrine of the conqueror differ from the meaning of the “Ens” and each of them brought their own belief into the system. Thus, they are divided into the representatives of four great doctrines. These are the Vaibhāṣikas, the Sūtrāntavādīs, the Cittamātravādīs and the Madhyamikas. According to this statement, however, there is again a new division of the Vaibhāṣikas, namely into four principal schools. In these schools, separated fields have developed that led to the foundation of up to eighteen schools. From the followers of the four principal schools, there are those who follow Rāhula from the noble blood as teachers. They belong to the Mūlasarvāstivādīs School. They speak their Pratimokṣasūtra in the Sanskrit language, wear their saṅghāṭi in twenty-five to twenty-nine robes, and take the four emblems, namely, utpala, padma, ratna, parṇa in their names. Those, who follow Mahākāśyapa from the Brahmin caste as teachers, speak their Pratimokṣasūtra in Apabhraṁśa, wear their saṅghāṭi in twenty-three to twenty-seven robes, and take the emblem of śaṅkha in one’s name, belong to the Mahāsaṅghikas School. Those, who follow Upāli from the Śūdra caste as teachers, recite the rule of their Pratimokṣa in the language of the Piśȃca, wear their saṃghāṭi23 with twenty-one to twenty-five robes, and take the blossom of tāmbūla (betel) as an emblem, belong to the Mahāsammatīya School. Those, who follow the monk Kātyāyana from the Ārya lineage as teachers, read the Pratimokṣasūtras in the vernacular, wear the saṅghāṭi like the former ones, and use the word cakra as their initial name, belong to the Sthavira School. These are the four schools.


References:

  1. It might be a spelling mistake. It should be a saṅghāṭi.

 

Page 50

The Tarkajvala states only three branches of these schools, whilst the Ācārya Vinītadeva’s conception (30a) certainly does not apply here. According to the Tarkajvala’s enumeration, the mentioned Sthaviras are from the first group, the Mahāsaṅghikas the second group, and the Mahāsammatīya from the third. Vinītadeva disagrees with this enumeration. According to him, “Pūrvaśailas, Aparaśailas, Haimavatas, the Lokottaravādīs, and Prajñaptivādīs are the five branches of the Mahāsaṅghikas School; The Sarvāstivādīs and Kāśyapīyas, the Mahīśāsakas and Dharmaguptas, the Bahuśrutīyas and Tāmrasātīyas, and lastly the Vibhajyavādīs are sub-sects of the Sarvāstivādīs. The Jetavanīyas, the Abhayagirivāsīs, the Mahāvihāravāsīs, the Sthaviras, the Kaurukullikas, the Avantakas, and lastly the Vatsiputrīyas are subdivisions of the Sammatīya School. The Kaurukullikas, the Avantakas, and the Vatsiputrīyas are the three sects; this is how they are divided into eighteen groups according to different methods used by each of their teachers to represent the subject. If one would like to make a sharp distinction, a lot more groups would come out. Those who want to gain a clear insight can read a basic handbook from India, such as the Tarkajvala or the gSuṅ rab of the son of the gods, of the second Jina, or lastly the classification in the Grub mt’a of the sublime lCaṅ skya Rol pai rdo rje (Lalitavajra) who is a true luminary in this depraved age; thus, some types of groups of sects formed by the sublime Tāranātha will surely vanish into thin air. It is, however, well-known that the individual sects clearly differ in Aryadeśa, Madhyadeśa and even in Tāmradvīpa, Yavadvīpa, Siṁhala, etc. even today.

 

Page 51

The Sautrāntika are divided into two schools: (1) those who follow scripture and (2) those who follow reasoning; (30b) the Cittamātras are split into two: depending on whether they stipulate truth or untruth of perception. In the Sautrāntika, there are three differentiations: questionable untruth, certain untruth, and the exemption from both of these varieties so that the subject to be understood and the comprehension of it must be equally recognised as if they were two parts of an egg. The Madhyamikas are divided into two groups: the Svatantras and the Prasaṅgas. They introduced their conception that scripture and reasoning were uncertain into the system. Hence, they set a coherent conversion process as mentioned in the idea of the Tathāgata. A general outline of the methods would therefore be to take the guided path led by this school: first, one must attain upadeśas of a kalyāṇamitra in an arbitrary way of how one thinks and expresses himself. Then, one must draw a conclusion about the three bodhis: the path of all vijñāna kinds, the path of syllogism and the path of insight; this path of meditation and the one leading to the bodhi without interruption thereby lead to the complete enlightenment. These are considered to be the five paths according to the Mahayana method. Being in connection with the first stage brings great joy. The first stage is called the joyous. The stainless follows as the second stage, the light maker as the third, the radiant as the fourth, the very hard to conquer as the fifth, the turning-toward as the sixth, the far-going as the seventh, the immovable as the eight, the good mind as the ninth, the Cloud of Dharma as the tenth. In the meantime, everything is recognised in this context and liberation is achieved after passing through all stages of the dharmamegha. If four of the five transcendent groups, which use the guiding methods for practicing the path, are now mastered, then the moment will come when the subject of insight, which turns into wisdom (prajñā), merges with the recognition of possibility of the prajñāśūnya, or when idealism (paramārthabodhi) (31a) connects with materialism (samvṛttibodhi) or they seem to unite in order to make progress.

 

Page 52

Thus, the existence of a vidyādhara is established, which withstands many hundred thousand of kalpas for the ātman of the sādhaka over a period of time, and may develop to maturity with the guidance of the tantras through the expeditious journey of the dhāraṇīs who are almost incomparable in the Mahayana and through the tantra of termination (caryātantra) and the yogatantra. From that moment when other beings are ready to interfere, the crossing of the pathway is completed. Supported by vidyās like the sword, etc., vidyādhara reaches the kṣetra region of Sukhavatī in his ordinary physical form. The fact that he can personally hear upadeśas with Nātha Amitābha and its surroundings, the completion will quickly occur for the two spheres, namely, the one of merit and the one of prajñā. To be more precise, everything that anuttarayoga tantra books and their companions offer, is to resolve the difference between the two divisions. These two divisions are the pitṛtantras and mātṛtantras, which correspond to the division of method (upāya) and wisdom (prajñā). The method of how this is spiritually conceptualised occurs by concentrating on the central consciousness. When compared to the influence of Rāhu, all relevant obstacles to the area of Vāta, which causes enough disturbances in these bad times, are resolved. The glory of Vajradhara thereby falls effortlessly into a lifted cupped hand. Because the great sage siddhapuruṣas gained their hope, even to be able to ascend to heaven, they hence create all systems and recommended to others the path they had taken themselves. Even though one disregards those who considered it as their main purpose to profess in the class of a pandit, these people still found their pleasure according to the rules which conformed to their doctrines. All the ultimate success of a siddhapuruṣa was, thus, promised to them compared to those who still need to be converted. What they absorbed into their minds were only the sutras and the tantras, how they corresponded (31b) to the doctrine of the Nāgārjuna’s school.

 

Page 53

Those who left and moved away from the path of the Holy Ācārya Nāgārjuna, whose moonlight blessing is yet to shine, would not find their way of peace. Indeed, such deception distracts them from the truth and the enlightenment can no longer be achieved by those who have renounced their religious belief. Those who allow themselves to be controlled by a fundamental error, will face obstacles to enlightenment and the siddhi of a sarvajña. This is also the reason why the disengagement from mortals is impossible. The doctrine, which was praised as a great “special sunyata” in Tibet, has never appeared in Āryadeśa. Its statements are based on the meditation bliss of a vajra without calling in a blue-gem maiden. The doctrine was spread by C’os rje Dol po Śes rab rgyal mts’an and his followers. The teachings of the “special” sunyata had been introduced in the yoginitantras of Tara and in the text of some great dohās. Even if the teachings were respected by some people in Tibet, they remained insignificant because one immediately sees that the concept of the teaching is nothing but a rumination of the great ṭīkā of dPal mar me mdsad (Śrīdīpaṅkara) and certain dohās. In Āryadeśa, there are people who see the world either consistent or decrepit. Now I mean those, who are outside of the dharma or the tīrthikas and consider the world to be consistent, are the Aiśvaras, the Vaiṣṇavas, the followers of the Brahmā, Kapila, Bṛhaspati, the Veda specialist, the Vaiśeṣikas, the Nirgranthas, and the Sāṅkhyas. However, there are also those who consider the world to be transient, they are the Lokāyatas and other related dialecticians. Their samādhi is also twofold and their tantra theories with their appendices still exist. This is how they all disintegrate into sectarian schools: there are one hundred and ten false systems, of which the Tarkajvala has information (32a), whilst others commentaries speak of ninety-six remarkable systems among other schools that are stated in the sutras. According to the statements in the śāstras, the admirable ṛṣis have developed themselves as leaders with Brahmin Kapila for over so many years, as far as time is concerned, and gradually split into a number of sects.

 

Page 54

Explaining their methods in detail, how could one do that! They and the orthodox followers of the old times had struggled with each other over and over again, and it had occurred often enough that they had to force themselves to acknowledge their defeat against the religion of Buddha. Nevertheless, during the time of the aforementioned King Lavasena, a Turuṣka army comes forth. They have stolen all the treasures and the votive offerings of the Vajrāsana’s Mahābodhi temple, destroyed the great Gandhola, and killed many bhikṣus and upāsakas. At that point, all existing parivrājaka teachers summoned their troops of millions of nirgranthas and exclaimed: “[w]hilst the Gautama Buddha has had this only one thought for a long time—namely, to be beneficial to us—the Turuṣkas stole the treasure of his cult image. Due to the fact that our conceptions now quite differ from those of the bhikṣus, who have followed him and lost their lives, we therefore want to form an army.” This was how they spoke and a tremendous troop of nirgranthas marched behind the Turuṣkas. A large number of King Candra’s warriors was killed; the votive offerings, gems, and other goods were taken from them, dragged and returned to the temple. Furthermore, the imprisoned bhikṣus were freed and released. Since then, the heterodox and the orthodox followers have preserved their own religious beliefs without being united and the time of their disputes was over. (32b) It is certain that among these parivrājakas, some might find one, who also respects the tantras of the orthodox: Even today, the possession of the place of Vajrāsana and the cult of the Mahābodhi are in the hands of the parivrājakas. After our teacher left his house, he first arrived at the residence of Rudrakarāmaputra and Arāḍa Kalāma. In his great mercy, he treated them with the present of his Holy Word and after he had become the samyaksambuddha, he went to Vārāṇasī to give the preaching of the dharmacakrapravartana. On the way there, he did not object to engage a parivrājaka, who was approaching from afar, into conversation.

 

Page 55

It is clear that a wonderful reflection of his blessing exists here. Generally, the Bauddhas of Buddha or Jayadhara are known today as jinadharamārga, the heterodoxy followers as śivamārga, the Mlecchas as musalman in common language in Āryadeśa. In the land of ice, there are certainly enough fools who in their ignorance claim that Mleccha and tīrthikas are the same. The assertion that they are not the same is clearly based on very different statements of the Kālacakra. As far as the heterodox followers are concerned, they promise enlightenment; they also have all sorts of means for the humanity to find bliss. The Mlecchas, however, are divided into four major groups—namely, the Mogol, Paṭhan, Sik, and Sāhi. All of them want the protection from a demonic man of asura descent, named Bhikhili or Bhisimila, as their ultimate goal. They give the title “Satan” to our teacher and profess their faith in principles that are very unusual. (33a) Thus, they consider the preservation of bad practices, such as circumcision, as devotions. Since they profess their faith in a violent religion, their destination undoubtedly leads them, therefore, to the greatest hell. I do not want to talk about the orthodox followers in India; all the local heterodox followers find it embarrassing when they do not enjoy food given by someone using his hand. This great country has such wealth that it could compete with Vaiśravaṇa. It is teeming with millions of soldiers from various military disciplines (caturaṅginī senā). There is a real science competition that originates from eighteen schools and due to the fact that the war resources are also unlimited, there are in fact many interesting things to learn about this country. I did not write anything about their circumstances because our Tibetan is not quite interested in these. Surely one can say: “You have promised us that you would talk about such matters as how to reach the Śambhala land, and now you are distracting and giving us a long account of Āryadeśa;

 

Page 56

Is it not according to the parable of the King of the East and the West of the magic cage, and does it make any sense at all to comment on how kings and others have converted themselves?” Now it seems one was right. My reason for this conclusion is that the whole conception of Śambhala is based on India; many Buddhas of the three times and the leaders of this bhadrakalpa, in particular, achieved their enlightenment there. Indeed, the language, traditional costume, castes, lineage, and many other things of Śambhala have the characteristics of Āryadeśa and we also received the gracious present of the Tathāgata’s precious teachings from there. (33b) The particular refinement of a large tantra school in this area is not very well-known in our present time. No one knows where the great Mahābodhi temple is located because the puruṣas are seen sleepwalking there and their heads are hollow because it means that the joyful yoginīs spread their “merit” there. Additionally, there are livestocks in every part of Pāṭnā and Magadha. Whoever takes a closer look at the entire incorrect manuscripts had to eradicate misconception first of all, which emerged from the rumour that from now on, the name of the religion of Buddha is no longer known in Āryadeśa. If one takes care of the rNam t’ar of a bLa-ma, who has become stupid from meditating in our place, Tibet, then all the Trayastriṁśat could truly become jealous of how the unique splendour of the place of his work is so magnificently presented. This is done only to exaggerate his small (sleepy) nest. If one has to read such stories patched together with exaggeration, one will surely be allowed to tell in detail that what is to be praised does not cause any real harm; the wonders of the land and the place where the Buddhas of the past, present, and future as well as the siddhapuruṣas find atoms of their great home.

 

Page 57

And if one asks how the situation is there with the religion of Jina, the answer will be: there is only a very few bhikṣus and yogis living in Madhyadeśa, who devote themselves to tantra practices and are familiar with them or who maintain their vows. Whilst there is a few more bhikṣus and yogis in Bhaṅgala, there is an extremely large number of them in the border areas, which are located a little further to the east such as Koki, in the South and West, and in lands such as Vidyānagara, Kuṅkuṇa, Malyāra, Kaliṅga, Māru, Mevar, Citavar, Sihuva, Ābhu, Sauraṣṭa, Gujiratha, and in Bhaṁdva, on the Vindhya Mountains (34a). On the one hand, there are many Hīnayāna bhikṣus in Siṁhala, Yavadvīpa, Tāmradvīpa, Suvarṇadvīpa, Dhanaśrī, Payigu and elsewhere; on the other hand, there is also a few followers of Mahayana in Siṁhala, Dhanaśrī and Payigu.

Secondly, if Śambhala, the most glorious of all lands, should now be portrayed, let us tell you how to get there, about the nature of the land and in what circumstances the inhabitants live with their king and holy religion. “First, whoever wants to go to this land in his spiritual form, must be someone who has the power of virtue and tantric knowledge. If that is not the case, one must fear that yakṣas, nāgas, and allied furious creatures will kill him on the way.” And if one comes and asks: “Did not the Holy Man of Man luṅ say that one could reach this land within about two or three years if one passed some ulusse of the Sog and the principalities of the upper Hor from mṄa-ris and Maṅ-yul” only once, so one may have been enthusiastic about the statement that regards one’s influence on others; one may have even considered one’s own dreams to be true when one bears in mind that one was quite biased towards one’s own upadeśas, so that the images of five colours about some definite places within or from a whirl of deceptive, false simulating images, which set in as products of one’s imaginations whilst reading the individual chapters, appeared in his dream of a blessed sleep.

 

Page 58

That was the reason why one uttered his wish to clarify it. Now it should be clear that it is terribly hard for someone from the South to go there if he is not familiar with the tantras. One might thereby think that it must have been very difficult for a traveller on foot to go there in ancient times; so the statement “the magical incarnation (34b) of the kulika obstructs the way” still applies here. If one wishes to be able to know and tell all about this at this day and age, one can ask the orthodox and heterodox mahāparivrājakas, even the Mlecchas—namely, the royal officials and soldiers who can boast of having wandered through Jambudvīpa for three to four times! It is also such an unbelievable story to narrate to all the people, who went to the north that if one had crossed through Miseg by ship, one would see creatures that lived in a big forest. They had human faces, but their bodies were completely covered with woollen fleece like black sheep! It is also explained, particularly by these parivrājakas that they could not go any further because the water of the contiguous great Sītā River turns into stone as soon as the body touches it. Apart from all other information that I could utter myself is the following: in the northwestern direction near Kabhela and Balkh, there is the land of Rum śam; the area of the “yellow plain” or U-ru-su that adjoins the lower part of this land, whilst on the south side of Jambudvīpa, a mighty Mleccha emperor is enthroned and has proudly invaded the whole half area. In Kālacakrasaṁgrahatantra, it is stated that: “After a hundred serpent years, the teaching of the Mlecchas will truly be accepted in the land of Makha.” The great commentary and the great ṭīkā of mk’as grub C’os kyi rgyal po (Dharmarāja) also state that this Makha, from which the religion of Mlecchas should begin, is the place where the māsitas (mosques) of the teacher of this religion are.

 

Page 59

Many clans living in the North call this same land the t’or-k’od (35a) k’uṅ du k’ur pāts’a or k’uṅ k’ur pāts’a. It is obvious that extensive neighbouring lands exist in the vast area up to the north if one follows the direction from that place towards the locality called Miseg, located in the surrounding areas in the northwestern direction. His Venerable Tāranātha provided a translation based on a Nepalese book of Ārya Amoghāṅkuśa about the description of a journey to Śambhala. Let us focus on the content by only acknowledging it as authority. If one has the desire to reach this great city and has achieved the primary goal of one’s religious duty towards one’s supreme lord, one will have a clear route description in a dream and if such a sign has appeared that one will reach the land, then it means that one will be able to go there. Otherwise, the brood of fiends, namely the yakṣas and nāgas, would take one’s life when one has arrived in the middle of the road. If one has received this sign, one must murmur the dhāraṇī for eight hundred thousand times, which forms the essence of Ārya Mañjuśrī, to obtain supernatural powers. Furthermore, one must perform eight thousand homas and make an offering of udumbara flowers into the fire to every being with whom one is karmically obligated. In the end, one still has to perform one thousand homas by reciting one hundred thousand dhāraṇīs of Amṛtakuṇḍali, which begin with amrit, to subdue all the evil gaṇas. Moreover, in order to totally annihilate all disturbing human beings and the supernatural creatures, one must recite all possible mūladhāraṇīs of Yamāntaka for one hundred thousand times, beginning with one’s manifestation as a vajrabhayaṅkara. Firstly, one performs thousand homas and make an offering of kiṁśuka flowers, then once again performs ten thousand paṭa homas and lastly, one joyfully performs ten thousand homas with which the balis are quite wonderful because they are supposed to consist of red sandalwood (35b) and fluid of abhita. One connects the prayer for prosperity with this fire offering: “Svāhā, grant me the favour of bearing the name of a yogi that I wish for, that in reality I will be a part of a magical Śrī Kalāpa through this fire offering!” In countries like Tibet, where these trees do not exist, one can take the sap from any tree according to the siddhisāgara’s saying.

 

Page 60

Shortly after one has arrived in Vajrāsana, which is still located in Śrī Magadha, one honours the bodhi tree by giving many thousands of sacrificial offerings, where all Tathāgatas attain enlightenment, and intends to recite a praṇidhi to succeed. Then, one travels by ship, passing through the western sea, and arrives in Sirkodhana. Arriving on the two special islands—as there is still one island called Ratnakośa—one considers these two as the land of Pherengi. This is the place where a stupa of Samyaksambuddha Kanakamuni is located and one recites the pradakṣinā for ten thousand times among the several hundreds of murmuring repetitions of the Tathāgata’s syllables. Now, if one recites a praṇidhi that one would like to reach one’s goal, one will return to the actual Jambudvīpa by sea. If it is stated that one goes to the land of a powerful ruler from the place where one’s ship has embarked, it is obvious that one comes from Sindhu. From there, one reaches the north of the Rugma city, Mount Rāsa of Kaṭakila and Madhuvandhu, and further north within six months. This is the only land that represents the north of the aforementioned dvīpas. There is a large river (36a) called Patru in the north of the last-mentioned city. Many virtuous people, who are converted, live in all the cities located along the Patru River. Thus, it is very easy for someone to pass through this area and receive alms. If one continues to go from this river to the north, one will see a large ice mountain called Mount Kakā, where a great medicinal herb called tujanaya grows. Its flower is red like the colour of the rising sun, its leaves have many sharp thorns like the blade of a knife and it grows hanging from the edge of ravines on the mountain in the South and has a very sweet flavour;

 

Go to Page 61 to 80

Back to Tabs

Page 61

the herb tilaka, however, has a bitter taste, its flower is white like the udder of a mahiṣī. One trims a vataliwood as a magical bludgeon and by reciting the powerful dhāraṇīs of vajrarāksasa for seven times, one turns it into a shape of a magical spike. One digs out the roots of the plants with this wood and dries them with the leaves, flowers, and fruits for up to a week. Then one hides them using amrit’s hearth in a cave protected by the dhāraṇīs. Shortly after this, when the wheels appear in five colours on the sides of the mountain as far as they can turn, one rises and bathes in the water of the glacier. Since one is gifted with the yoga of his Supreme Deity (Adhideva), one paints the goddess Mārīcī on a white stone tablet: the body is painted yellow with three heads and six hands; the main head is painted yellow, the head on the right side is painted red, the head on the left side is painted as a head of a very angry black pig. Her first two hands are holding a flower, a bow and an arrow, the middle hands a sewing needle with a thread and a branch of an ashoka tree; each of the last two hands, however, is holding a skull and a staff (khaṭvāṅga) on the right of her umbilical region facing to the left. She is riding a (36b) tiger24 and wearing a blue silk scarf, whilst the Guhyamandala is dimly glowing. By meditating on this goddess, who destroys all the poisons in the three worlds, one must perform five hundred homas and make an offering of ashoka flowers with the following dhāraṇī: “In veneration of the Triratna, according to this saying, oṁ vatāli, vatāli, varali, varali, boar heads, all evil creatures be silent, svāhā! As this is the case, oṁ Vajravetālī hūṁ p’aṭ!” Whilst one is reciting it for ten thousand times, one is cooking the herbs that are, as previously mentioned, hidden in the cave of the mountain together with the milk from wild cows of the glaciers so that none of them falls to the ground, and one puts them in front of the image.


References:

  1. It is unusual. This might be a mistake in the text, instead of the word “p’ag“, the word “stag“ is used. Generally, the goddess rides a pig! or is it a joke?

 

Page 62

Then at the end, one adds the words of the mentioned pithy saying: “May it turn into a drop of amrit.” Whilst one is reciting it for thousand times, one brings the bali during the dhāraṇī, hands it to the goddess as an offering and must then drink this herbal juice. It is said that in doing so, one could overcome everything that is poisonous without being hungry, thirsty, or weary through the power of the goddess. After that, one must embellish the image, which faces north, with many flowers and fruits and hide it. In addition, one needs twenty-one days and nights to cross the terribly secluded valley in a northerly direction. In that area, there is neither grass nor water nor wood available; one needs twelve days to cross a forest filled with wild beasts and snakes. If one overcomes this, one will arrive at the high mountain of Gandhāra, whose area has a circumference of twenty miles and where many medicinal herbs grow. In this mountain, there are also lions with eight feet and many creatures which appear in many different transformations through magical power (37a): as gazelles, for instance. Everyday this lion kills such a gazelle and a sādhaka takes the blood of this gazelle, then prepares a bali out of it in front of the image of a rākṣasī with her terrible face, showing her teeth grinning on a black stone tablet that is called Mandeha. She is holding in her right hand a leather sack made of cowhide filled with various kinds of flesh and blood and in her left hand a sword. Furthermore, she has wrapped the human skin around her loins. In one’s heart, one meditates on the very terrible Yamāntaka, who carries the compelling bludgeon and noose, whilst riding a buffalo: “Oṁ hṛḥ Thou black from the Hṛḥ-nèe, hūṁ k’aṁ svāhā kreṁ kare kreṁ kare rākṣasī Mandeha come here, come here!” So one may probably recite it for ten thousand times or for the least as long as possible until one is approached by the rākṣasī.

 

Page 63

When she finally arrives, then one commences to do the head mudra, turning the vajra hand position upwards, and praises her: “Here now, rākṣasī, grant that I may have little provisions for as long as I am in wastelands and when I go to Kalāpa city for the salvation of all living creatures. After that, the rākṣasī promises that this wish shall be granted and she immediately disappears again. All paths along the way are covered with mud, which tastes like honey and are as white as jasmine flowers at the foot of Arjuna trees; thereon the body will be shivering. Then, one reaches a great mountain of snow of three hundred miles in circumference. The mountain is called (37b) Mahāhimavat and is filled with flocks of devas, ṛṣis, vidyādharas, yakṣas, and rākṣasa. This is where Sthavira Abheda resides. If one is a tantra specialist who has attained siddhi through the finest tantras, with whom25 siddhas and yakṣas play all sorts of competitions for mutual entertainment, one will suddenly be lifted to the shoulder and will reach the Kalāpa city in no time. However, if one is someone who has not yet completed the tantric paths, one must immediately set forth in a northwesterly direction. From this glacier, a mighty river, which looks like a lake, is formed as the confluence of eighty thousand springs in a region, stretching from east to west. Since one does not notice the flow of the river on both East and West sides, one reaches the sea. This river is called Sītā or the “White”—as noticed by mK’as grub C’os kyi rgyal po in the great commentary on the Kālacakra—due to its white colour because it is filled with white foam. This great Sītā River flows precisely between the north and south of Jambudvīpa and the river is very cold that no demons could stay there. Due to the great coldness of the ground, the cold wind penetrates everything and no ice is formed. Because it is said that it is impossible to bear the coldness, even if it is just one limb of the body that touches the water, all Indians therefore unanimously call it the Bhastani River nowadays.


References:

  1. It is uncertain whether they are playing “with tantra specialist” (with whom) or with “the finest tantras” (with which).

 

Page 64

The landscapes, which are located, in some path measurements, to the east and west of the streets described above, are full of Mleccha’s big cities. These (38a) are Rum śam’s subject. On the south side of the Bhastani River, many sādhakas live in a mountain with many thousands of caves called Tāmravarṇa. They are supposed to paint the protector deity of the mountain and the Vidyuccalā River on a black stone tablet with the blood of the wild gañja and hariṇa as well as the blood of buffalos and elephants of the forest. It is also the blood of the creatures killed by the lions, as mentioned before. When the sādhakas paint the goddess in this way: black as a rain cloud, swinging a pestle and devouring a whole elephant’s corpse, they thus prepare a bali of the flesh of the above-mentioned creatures and meditate within themselves on Yamāntaka who is black as a cloud and supposed to bring the end of time (kālāntamegha). He has six faces, twelve hands, and six feet. In his right hands, he is holding a sword, an axe, a karttrikā, a club, a cakra and a trident and in his left hands, he is holding the bludgeon of Yama, the noose of time, the skeleton staff (khaṭvāṅga), an iron hook (aṅkuśa), and a skullcap full of blood; and in his terribly unbearable figure, his last hand is painted with a threatening finger. Then, they recite the dhāraṇī of the great wrath: Oṁ … and the dhāraṇī of the rākṣasī, (38b) and when the rākṣasī appears in person, one will say to her: “Show me the way to the Sītā River.” By sticking to his plan, the sādhaka then reaches the other side of the river without hindrance.

 

Page 65

There he finds a forest full of all kinds of trees: kaṭaka, baila (?), kapittha, patuśa (palāśa?), bradara, kaṁbita (or kibita?), arjuna, and tāla. This is the place where the sādhaka rests for a month. After reciting the nine thousand letters of the dhāraṇīs to the goddess Cundā for five times, he will become very strong if he lives on the flowers, fruits, and roots of this forest because he is urged to eat as much as possible. If the content of his dream, namely the black blood from the limbs dripped everywhere, has recurred three times, then it means that sādhaka has not become ill, but has regained his strength. He should feed himself with the gold-coloured watermelon as much as he can, especially in this forest, and he should not be scared that he will not be able to tolerate them. As soon as the sādhaka has reached the edge of this forest, he sees a lake surrounded by ranges of small ice mountains in the East as well as in the West. There are also many beautiful rivers, which come from these mountains, they turn south and draw nearer to the Sītā River. After one has passed the rivers, there is no drinking water within a distance of fifty miles to the north. If one eats the watermelon that were mentioned earlier, one will feel neither thirst nor hunger and through the power of the previous recited dhāraṇīs of the goddess Cundā, one can easily overcome the appalling barrier of the mountain within a week. (39a) Even if it means that whether one eats either more or less watermelon, the fruits will not run out as long as one has not crossed this mountain gorge. However, the watermelon will immediately run out as soon as one has crossed it. This demonstrates the power of the praṇidhi of a Bodhisattva. If one arrives at a very white mountain covered with beautiful forest, one should not enter the mountain on the west side at the end of the gorge because rākṣasīs with copper beaks and messengers (dūtī) of asuras live there. If one continues to go from there in a northerly direction, one will reach a big mountain called Ketaka in one day.

 

Page 66

Since the mountain is black or looks like gravel and has a height of ten miles, it appears like an erect pillar that it only causes fear. The mountain is surrounded by four lakes with padmas and utpalas in all directions. Despite all this, the inner part of the mountain is filled with gold and silver. It is the place where the great King Virūḍhaka lives. If he talks to a flock of asurakumārīs, charming demons and nāga maidens, and a crowd of a thousand lovely maidens surrounding him from time to time, then many preta spirits, which belong to his community, will also appear there. The sādhaka is supposed to lay down a bali consisting of roots, fruits, tree fruit seed, meat and fish meat there if he has them. But if he does not have those, then he shall use white incense, which simulates all these things. He can also use resin and fumigation, which smell of flesh, as bali to worship the Lokapāla with this following dhāraṇī: Oṁ! … Virūḍhaka with your flocks … left by the pretas, please take this sacrificial offering, rejoice in the pact hūṁ … (39b). If this takes place, then all asuras, rākṣasas, pretas, piśācas, and ḍākinīs will be subdued by this power. If one goes from there further north, then one will see rākṣasīs with horse heads, asuras and nāga maidens, who are playing their games with music and all kinds of songs on a mountain that is beautiful due to its blossoming champak and other flowers. Moreover, this mountain is full of the best kind of sandalwood, the so-called mon-ko. If one arrives there, one must not stay and participate in the community’s music and songs, but must only accept their hospitality for the sake of the religion. If one has passes through the north, one will reach a big river called Patvalotana. It flows from south to west and it is very difficult to cross due to its tremendous wave-vortex. In one spot near the river, there is a large Nyagrodha tree which grows out of a rock on both banks. Perhaps, this vortex occurs because the branches get tangled together and encircle or it occurs through the power of the Fish King.

 

Page 67

Near this river, there is a red hill called Lohita; it is where the unexciting wild red rice, mudga and manbuva etc. grow. When preparing a hot meal, one takes some of these crops and mixes them with sweet honey that drips from a tree. Then one prepares five hundred certain bali dumplings for all kinds of living beings. One truly counts on one’s Supreme Deity (Adhideva) and lives under the blessing of a dhāraṇī, who are in control of all the treasures under heaven. One then murmurs: “Oṁ … Eat! Enjoy! Take this bali O God. . . all the Buddhas like it well”, and throws the bedding offering into the river for five hundred times. (40a) Then, when the Fish King, who is surrounded by all the fish species living in that area with the heads of a tiger, lion, big tiger, buffalo, monkey, parrot, raven, and human, approaches the sādhaka, one then speaks: “Well, o Fish King, let me cross this river safely, so that I may arrive in Kalāpa city for the benefit and prosperity of all living beings because this alone is the aim of the Tathāgatas.” After speaking these words, the Fish King takes the sādhaka on his back and carries him across the river; the sādhaka, thus, reaches the bank of the river. In the above-mentioned Kakā Mountain, it is said that the image of the goddess Mārīcī is hidden. There is not a spot where one can cross the river because no human being exists there. However, it is clear that the south side of the Sītā River is full of nāgas, yakṣas, and asuras and only the vicious Mlecchas live there, as stated above, whilst the human settlements are located on the west and east sides. Therefore, it is not necessary for the sādhaka to go there. Those cities, where people live, are similar to the cities that will be described later, in terms of their language, food, religion, and way of life. They solely belong to the north side of Āryadeśa. After passing this great river, one immediately finds large cities of the north side of Jambudvīpa in the area of Kailāsa. From there, the bDag ñid ña city is in twenty miles reachable and has the same distance as the Sumindo city. One needs up to one hundred miles to reach the Bhadasyana city and one thousand miles (40b) is Cīna (rGya nag).

 

Page 68

In addition to these cities, one can reach the Dardo city within one hundred miles. It has the same distance as Kuru. Bhadrika is in fifty miles reachable; it is, however, even further away and slightly separated from these cities because it is in the midst of desolate lands. Gandhāra is twenty miles away and is just as far as Kāśa. One needs up to two hundred miles to reach the land of Bhaṭa; the next to be mentioned city is Mahācīna, which can be reached in one thousand miles. There is also Dhardhau which is located on the edge of a rock and is at a distance of hundred miles away from Kailāsa. One needs two hundred miles to reach Brikika as well as Mahiṣa, and a thousand miles to Mahilako. Apart from these cities, one can also reach the following cities: the Barba city is reachable in two hundred miles, Putāphāla in five hundred, Kaṭuka in fifty, Khara in five hundred, and Kamboja in hundred miles. And even when all these rich cities are situated very far apart from each other, the sādhaka can still reach them within a week or two and even the furthest border in less than six months’ time depending on the power of his dhāraṇīs. Apart from that, there are many mines of gold, silver, copper, iron, and other valuable metals and such minerals piled up like numerous mountains. There are gemstones and all kinds of corals, which are also set there, so that one cannot see a spot where trees or ordinary grasses grow. Furthermore, the water that flows from the gold mountains brings death, the water from the silver mountains turns one insane, and the water from the mountains of copper and iron causes blistering and scabbing. And even if all kinds of injuries are caused by such substances, for a gifted sádhaka with magical powers, however, the gold water becomes the water of long life, the silver water makes one (41a) dazzling beautiful, and the others become the elixir of life that heals every injury.

 

Page 69

In addition, the magnificent rivers flow with a total water area of three hundred miles that have to be traversed. When one reaches the so-called Five Mountains, one will see there several hundred species of the exceptional Paradise Tree adorned with all kinds of jewels. This is the place where kinnaras and kinnarīs live and play with each other. They try to lure the sādhaka through songs, to which the sādhaka is expected to quietly listen, and through their wonderful appearances. If they change into their frightening forms and threaten him, then he has to go further with the immutability of his spirit and overcome them with the sunyata. When he has passed by their place, he will then arrive at Bhoṭa, Sudābhoṭa and Prabhoṭa, where the vajraḍākinīs live in their human appearances. He may take a vow for a week there and then the ḍākinīs will come to ask him: “What do you wish for?” So he tells them that he wishes to reach Kalāpa. After that he is lifted to their shoulders. Since the ḍākinīs have magic powers, he will reach the more than four-mile-high glacier and the several hundred miles snowfields in just an hour. Finally, he will arrive at a refreshing valley, where countless trees with highly nutritious fruits flourish, and that is the Candrakalā Mountain. This mountain is located near the snow mountains that surround the land of Śambhala. The sádhaka performs eight thousand homas and make offerings of jasmine and saffron flowers to the incarnated Aryā Ekajaṭī, who resides in this area. He professes a praṇidhi for the sake of a siddhi, then he picks up a white puṇḍarīka flower and recites the dhāraṇī for five thousand times: “Oṁ Thou with the white (41b) lichen, triumph by śruti and śmṛti Svāhā!” he is crowned with a wreath and therefore holds the power over the yakṣas and asuras. And now his spiritual ability to understand everything is no longer an obstacle and has thus flourished. From there towards the north direction lies Meghakeru and beyond that, the sal and tāla forest. The place, where this forest is located, is separated from the city by a hundred miles.

 

Page 70

From there further north is where the village of Śunikarana is located. Moreover, there are also the village of Khivajila, the large Khadira and sandal forests, which area is also one-hundred-square miles. Beyond that, there is a large valley called Sasukha. The people, who live on the borders of the snow mountains that surround the land of Śambhala, are hermaphrodites; they have male genitalia on their right thigh and female genitalia on the left thigh. All paradise trees of Jambudvīpa also grow there without exception. If one goes further, one will reach the next forest called Samantaśubha and more importantly, the great Kingdom of Śambhala.

A Second Version. According to the Saṅgrahatantramahārāja, “The sacred Sūrya kings and some others have power over Kalāpa that is highly praised as Śambhala; it is encircled by mountains in all directions within the distance of one yojana” and it also explains that: “[o]n the right side is Śambhala, the abode of the most sublime muni; this land has more than ten million residences. Since it is the land surrounded by ten million residential areas, it is regarded as the royal city, which has a hundred thousand neighbouring countries” (42a). This small Jambudvīpa has the distance of twenty-five thousand yojanas between the North and South; it is divided into six small regions and beyond each region lie the following: India, Li, Cīna, Mahācīna, and Kaīlāsa. All these six regions are equal in length in the East and in the West, but they have different widths. One side has four thousand one hundred and sixty yojanas and the other one has seven to eight thousand yojanas. In the division of Kaīlāsa, which is three hundred and thirty-three threads long, each of it is thirty-eight yards high; on an isolated side of the mountain lies the wide area of Śambhala, precisely on the right half which remains open at the side of the adjoining Sītā flow. For comparison reasons, one would imagine that India and China, etc. lie precisely in the west and the east of Tibet26 ; however, one must imagine that Āryadeśa lies from the southern tip of Rāmeśvara up to the border of Nepal with this estimation.


References:

  1. In the German translation, it is mentioned that “in other words, China and so on are attached to Tibet”. However, since they lie in the west and east of Tibet, they are certainly attached to Tibet. Thus, the phrase “attached to Tibet” is omitted.

 

Page 71

In addition, the Tantrarāja explains: “Moreover, every leaf (the surface area in the form of a lotus leaf) is adorned in the land of Sūrya (“Day-maker”) and on the continents of the dvīpas.” This great wonderland is quite round and its edge is surrounded by cirques. The road leading there comes from the southwest and east side. Among the ice mountains is where this round country is located. This country is surrounded by dense sal forests and is divided into three equal regions. The palace of Kalāpa is located exactly in the centre (42b) like on the receptacle of a nymph and it is also surrounded by a crown of forests and ice mountains that still reach far beyond the surroundings of its centre, so to speak. The space between the territory of the palace and the surrounding mountains is five hundred yojanas. When one makes day trips to the mountain from the area surrounded by the crown of forest, which gradually grows up to the ice mountains, one will arrive at the top of the main glacier. Since the ice mountains have not melted for some years, they appear crystal clear. On a resplendent, mighty, and wide plateau is the palace of Kalāpa. This is how mK’as grub C’os kyi rgyal po dGe legs dpal bzaṅ po describes the ice mountains in his great Kālacakraṭīkā. On the other hand, Paṇ c’en bLo bzaṅ C’os kyi rgyal mts’an speaks of a very large and round omphalos in his Kālacakra commentary. When taking these two opinions into account, one has to consider that the comment of the great ṭīkā is only a general statement about the glacier, whilst the Paṇ c’en’s view of the absolutely genuine cintāmaṇi jewel refers to the very wide plateau on the ice mountain. The facade of the palace is naturally made of all kinds of gems and fulfils the length of one yojana with its magical light. This light also shines on the round hilltop of the surrounding glacier and it illuminates the night as bright as day that it is indeed enough for someone to be able to read even the smallest writing.

 

Page 72

If one looks at the rays of the moon in this wave of light, one will recognise that the magical light will not prevail against the rays because it only appears like a pale shimmering windowpane. “Therefore, the Holy bLo bzaṅ C’os rgyan states in his Mañjuśrīkīrtiavadāna: those who cannot endure the light under the smart deception of the four dvīpas, leave” (43a). In this palace, there are rooms made of emerald, candrakānta, and diamonds. It is where the kulika stays and the magical light coming through the windows makes both day and night distinguishable. The throne, on which the king sits, is made of gold, namely of jambunāda gold, and is studded with the aforementioned jewels. From the side of the throne, which is absolutely made of these precious objects, one sees a colourful game in a mirror of the best glass mirror at a great distance. The images of all living beings, even the fish in the water, are reflected in this mirror at fifty yojanas distance. Looking through the windowpanes of round glass sheets, one will see the palaces of the sun, moon, and the stars, the deities, magnificent parks and streets: how they divide and access to the twelve houses. A handrail, which is made of the best sandalwood that spreads fragrance, is built at a distance of one yojana around the throne; the valuable carpets of a mighty ruler and fabrics, of which the curtains and pillows are made, are worth more than one hundred million. In short, the wealth of each region of the city can be measured by the fact that the whole city is stacked with gold bars and not to mention all other things such as the jewel of the Kulika Majesty that consists of a crown jewel and is made of a gemstone, which has the colour of the lion’s mane, a crown barrette made of jambunāda gold, and bangles as well as foot rings studded with jewels, of which (43b) each one is worth one million gold ounces.

 

Page 73

The brilliance of the jewels reflects at the Kulika Majesty and always outshines all the cakravalās so that even Devendra cannot stand the brightness. The ministers, commanders, and an enormous group of women are his parivāra; he has endless types of vehicles for travelling: śarabhas, elephants, flying elephants that serve as state horses, carriages, and litters. His magic power is an addition to this natural wealth. Therefore, the nāgas, asuras, rākṣasas, kinnaras are subservient to him and they provide him all the pleasures and the most luxurious banquets that even Devendra does not have in his power to provide. His palace covers an area of twelve yojanas and next to it, there is a large Malaya Park located in a southerly direction. In the middle of this park, the mandala is built according to the Śrīkālacakra gained by King Sucandra. Other wonderful natural parks were also built there by the subsequent Kulika kings, such as the Lake of Wishes in the east of the park and the Pauṇḍarīka Lake in the west of the park. In the north of the palace, one million maidens from the city, who are as young as the eight-day moon, are at his disposal. The number of these maidens corresponds to the extent of the palace, including the parks with its lakes, which is twelve yojanas in width. Behind it, the Bodhisattvas, Maitreya and the rest live on ten mountains (44a) on which their statues are carved with their own attributes. The surface area of the ice mountains, which surround this centre point up to the glacier, has the width of five hundred yojanas. It has the form of a padma flower with eight petals. The water surrounding these petals is clear of ice. On each petal, there are twelve million human residences. Every million has a king and the residents also teach the Kālacakra. If one counts them up, one will have a total of ninety-six million cities, whose inhabitants speak the Sanskṛit language and wear white robes with turbans. They live in modest pleasure and possess about one hundred treasure houses full of gold.

 

Page 74

They mostly practice tantras, which deal with the eight ordinary siddhis, and many of them attain samādhi after understanding the prajñāpāramitā. They are under mild law and are completely free from captivity, physical punishment or anything that has to do with it, and are also free from disease and famine. There are four castes in the population; the bhikṣus belong to the first caste. Highly respecting the holy shrines, these bhikṣus make endless sacrificial offerings. Since they all serve the religion with the power of tantras, the supernaturals, nāgas, and asuras could be their submissive servants if desired.

A Third Version. In the mūlatantrarāja, it is stated that “n six hundred years from this year, the ruler Mañjughoṣayaśas will appear in the land called Śambhala to subdue the ṛṣis. The ruler’s wife will be the noble Tara, his son will be the universal ruler who holds the padma flower, O Sucandra, since you come from the Śākyas lineage, Mañjughoṣayaśas will be in his bloodline.” Moreover, “n this tantra, (44b) the propagators for the ṛṣis on the path of Buddha are sequentially: Candra, Devendra, Tejasvī, Candradatta, Deveśvara, Viśvarūpa, Yaśas, and Pauṇḍarīka.” “The succeeding King Sũryaprabha is a magical reincarnation of the “enemy of obstacles.” Vajrapāṇi, that is you, O Sucandra. The next to be mentioned successors are as follows: Bhūgarbha, Yamāntaka, the “Lord of Death”, Sarvanivaraṇaviṣkambhī, Jambha, and Mānaka. The following successors, namely, Gagaṇagarbha, Mañjughoṣa, and Lokanātha will establish the line of the ten wrath deities among Yamāntaka until the other Bodhisattvas finally succeeded one after another. They are the following thirteen successors who will descend from the Kulika lineage.

 

Page 75

Yaṣas (Mañjuśrīkīrti) is from the Kulikas lineage and is succeeded by Kulika Pauṇḍarīka. Kulika Bhadra is the third successor and Vijaya the forth. Then Mitrabhadra and Raktapāṇi succeed to the throne. Vishnugupta is the seventh successor, followed by Sūryakīrti, Subhadra, Sāgaravijaya, and Durjaya. They are the twelve27 sons of Kulika. Then they are succeeded by Viśvarūpa and Candraprabha, Ananta and Gopāla, Śrīpāla, Siṁha and Vikrama, Mahābala and Aniruddha, Narasiṁha and Maheśvara, Ananta, Vijaya and lastly, Kulika (Kalkī) Rudra28, the Kulika Yaśas’ great-great grandson and the Kulika of the new Golden Age. He will appear as the great wheel holder (cakrī). Through the meditation of Paramāśva, who is fluent in their language, he will put those who are attached to the religion of the Mlecchas to death. As it is mentioned here, (45a) King Sūryaprabha is considered the Tathāgata, who is from the Śākya lineage, and the illustrious descendant of Mahāsammatarāja from the family of the Śākya prince. Sucandra appears as his son and, as mentioned earlier, he requested the teaching of the tantras in the Great Caitya of Śrīdhanakaṭaka.


References:

  1. The names of the Kulikas’s son are enumerated and it is stated that they are the twelve sons of Kulika. When counting these names, one only comes up with eleven.
  2. This version is slightly different from the German translation as it is not clear which Kulika is meant; therefore, some information such as Kulika Yaśas’s great-great grandson and the Kulika of the new Golden Age had to be provided and they all refer to Kulika Rudra.

 

Page 76

When the mūlatantra was preached to Sucandra, he collected the tantra with all commentaries he received and after he had written twelve thousand commentaries of the basic tantra, preached it in Śambhala. During the two year preaching, he wrote the “spiritual exposition of the tantra” and then secluded himself in the kṣetra, where he had come, at the place of perfection sambhoga. Then, Dharmarājas Candra, Devendra, Tejasvī, Candradatta, Deveśvara, Viśvarūpa, and Deveśa sequentially preached the dharma. Deveśa, the seventh of these dharmarājas, has a wife named Viśvamātā. She gave birth to a son named Mañjuśrīkīrti. He had sat on the Lion Throne and had preached for a hundred years. On a full moon night of his one hundredth year reign, he spoke to the four and a half million ṛṣis of the sun’s chariot: “Listen, through me you may obtain the possibility of understanding all of my teachings!” After he had introduced his plan and had given the path of Vajrayāna to the whole population of the land at the following midnight, he told them: “Now give me any evidence of all your exact activities and actions as well as your achievements![“] (45b). However, that was by no means any satisfying achievements in many respects because they mainly let themselves be lead by the sun’s chariot, etc. with regards to their evidence. Upon hearing this, some of the ṛṣis collapsed. King Yaśas added: “What kind of advantage do you have from your spiritual achievement if there are no goal achievements in so many cases? In the following dark night, I want to grant abhiṣeka to the whole population of this land so that they would belong to the Vajra lineage. If you want to join this path of salvation, then you may stay here. However, if you do not want that, then leave this land, this is my word of command, go to another land because if you do not leave, all of your grandchildren will become barbarians.”

 

Page 77

As the king gave this command, they were struck with thunderbolts and lightning on their heads, the ṛṣis gathered in one place and conferred with each other, then they pleadingly said: “Since we all want to remain faithful to the sun’s chariot, we do not wish to give up our religion and join another. Since we cannot obey your orders, it would be best to abandon the ninety-six big cities here and head to Āryadeśa located in the south of the ice mountains and in the north of Lanka.[”] In this way, they prostrated themselves before his feet, headed in the southern direction after twelve days and again gathered to confer with each other in the enormous forest on the outskirts of the Śambhala. Then, King Yaśas meditated: “Now that those who have gone to Āryadeśa did not become the followers of Vajrayāna, they are the leaders among those living in the ninety-six major cities of Śambhala (46a). Therefore, one must try to contribute to the salvation of these ṛṣis because I want to keep an eye on those who do not follow the teaching of Vajrayāna and who think that they are devoted to the wrong religion. They therefore went to Āryadeśa and gave up the land due to my command, the Yaśas.[“] So King Yaśas continued meditating and put the ṛṣis and their gods into a deep sleep. Whilst the ṛṣis were asleep in the enormous forest that was under the influence of the magical image of hermits hunting, they were captured by malignant creatures in the form of garuḍas, wrapped in a linen cloth and carried them through the air. When they were laid down at the eastern doorway of the Mandala Palace in the middle of the park of the Malaya Forest, they were greatly surprised and were no longer sleepy. Then Minister Sāgaramati told them what had happened in the meantime. Sāgaramati had been chosen by the ṛṣis as an aspirant of the sun’s chariot. As he was looking forward to reciting the praṇidhi to the Golden Mandala, they were granted abhiṣeka in the Great Mandala to acquire an enlightened state of mind on the fifteenth dark night and the saṅgrahatantrarāja was composed based on the extensive mūlatantras.

 

Page 78

The ṛṣis meditated and on the following fifteenth night, they were bestowed knowledge. Then the great Pauṇḍarīka worked on the ṭīkā i.e. “Vimalaprabhā” and preached it for a hundred years. Bhadra, Vijaya, Mitrabhadra, Raktapāṇi or Ratnapāṇi, Vishnugupta, Sūryakīrti, Subhadra, Sāgaravijaya, Durjaya (46b), Sūrya, Viśvarūpa, Candraprabha, Ananta, Gopāla, Śrīpāla, and lastly Siṁha taught the Holy Scripture after him. Even after forty-nine full years, it was still taught by Mahābala, Aniruddha, Narasiṁha, Maheśvara, Ananta, and Vijaya, and lastly by Rudra, the wheel holder (cakrī), who finally sits on the Lion Throne. He teaches the dharma for a while. However, when he sees how the Mlecchas, who ignored the dharma, become powerful and dangerous in all countries located in the south part of the Sītā River, which are influenced by Makha and constitute a part of Āryadeśa, he remains immoveable as a mountain without trembling or shaking, as remarked as the most unchanging prajñā in the great ṭīkā of the sādhaka. He remains in undisturbed meditation behind the noblest horse. Thus, a mighty army, comprising of ninety-million soldiers from different countries and four hundred thousand beastly angry elephants, appears in the south of the Sītā River: there will be six armies and twenty-one thousand one hundred and ten soldier that belong to each troop. They will have a hundred thousand golden war chariots. There will be horsemen who come with mountain horses (śailāśva) which are as fast as the wind and are called daryā-ghorā by the Indians nowadays because they are the glorious ājānīya horses that were brought over the sea. They are as fast as lightnings. There will also be numerous footmen. With these armies, he fights a battle against the Mlecchas and the Kṛt-Mati who teaches the religion of the Mlecchas in the land of Rum. He beats them all at the end.

 

Page 79

So the united power of the Mlecchas will be shattered when the great general Hanu (47a) and the great minister Candrasuta as well as all the heroes, who can best put up resistance, conquer the chief Mleccha warrior: a ruler of the world to the other, one war elephant to the other, the best horse to the other steeds, and the twelve great deities to the deities of the dark side who are the tutelary deities of the Mleccha. If the teachings of Buddha appear in their full development, all people will definitely reach the age of one hundred years and the grains will grow in the meadows without any ploughing. When the hundred years of happiness is over, then those who wish to faithfully and truly listen to the religion of Kulika Rudra will gain—as proclaimed—the perfect magic power of the great Wheel of Time (Kālacakra). At the same time, Nātha Nāgārjuna will return from Sukhavatī to Āryadeśa, reincarnate in his former body and let the teachings of Buddha gloriously illuminate. So when the united power of the Mlecchas is completely defeated into rubble at that time, a wonderful, infinite spread of the teachings will set in. Then, this siddhapuruṣa will also reach the atoms of the great home. Considering the detailed testimony by mK’as grub C’os kyi rgyal po (Dharmarāja) of how the Chakrī king goes to the perfect place of sambhoga after he has crowned his sons, Brahmā and Devendra, in the lands located in the south and north of the Sītā River, these later events are not explained here. All people, who listen to the śāstras and ṭīkās in this land, convey the meaning of the sutras and tantras, and become familiar with many fields of the eighteen teaching institutions, will obtain fully extraordinary powers. They will be able to easily walk a distance of twelve yojanas everyday and be particularly familiar with all the fields of the cycle of life and wisdom.

 

Page 80

Now, I want to explain and explore how far this will go. In the mūlatantra, it is stated: “O Sucandra, your family is also from my Śākya lineage.” If the great Kulikas are referred to as the Śākya lineage, the impeccable lineage of Mahāsammata, then Lotsāba of sTag ts’an and his numerous followers will thus consider that Sucandra’s father is Sūryaprabha and he was the Śampaka, who comes from the mountains, when the evil Virūḍhaka was caught in war against the Śākyas according to the Vinaya. Hence, if one argues it, one has not provided a careful analysis of one’s hypothesis. Since our teacher has become a sublime Buddha in the lunar mansion, Viśākhā, Sucandra’s father, who counted twelve months as one year, was almost one hundred years old when he asked to be granted the tantra in the dark night of the fifteenth day of the month at the stupa of Śrīdhanakaṭaka. Another very remarkable event also occurred when Śākya was still a very young man that he was already able to preach the fundamental teachings, whilst his teacher could convert only a few people. If we now say that we do not set the time when to preach this tantra because an overstatement lies in your method, one must therefore describe it as unacceptably incorrect in the agreement between the tantrarāja and ṭīkā, which is usually considered good. Furthermore, one must assume that according to your method, Sucandra did not live for more than fifteen years (48a). He was certainly in Śambhala when a ray of light appeared in his dream. If one had the luck to be able to know the great Kulika Śrīpāla well, one can tell everything about the initiations of the Kālacakra: the succession of the kulikas and Rudra’s triumph over the Mlecchas, one will also able to utter something of the kind once in a while, and will surely reveal so many things in a way one can only praise during that period of time, yet the reason for this revelation can only be a mystery as with the gradual enlightenment of Bodhisattvas that one cannot grasp through meditation.

 

Go to Page 81 to 100

Back to Tabs

Page 81

If I ever had intentionally said to stop the further use of a book filled with such good information like the great ṭīkā of mK’as grub C’os kyi rgyal po, it was only because I could thereby vent my anger on a dreadful passage, which referred to the importance of the man who already possesses the quality of a nobleman through the status of his family. Thus, Vajrasattva’s name is intended to be indicated as the author of the tantra in the index. I should tell myself that you are similar to those who strike their father’s heads in order to chase a mosquito away and in admirable way, it would be considered as a joke, with which the entire kingdom amuse themselves because it would even come onto my head. Furthermore, our teacher has expressed in his great compassion the information that the barbarians are expected to increase their influence and something similar to that during the time when Nāgārjuna is spreading Buddhism in India: “Six hundred years from now, the world ruler Yaśas will appear in the city known as Śambhala. Then, within a hundred years of the snake, the followers of the religion of Mlecchas will always move forward to Makha.” as it was stated in the mūlatantra that was revealed to Śrīdhanakaṭaka. Whereupon, Mañjuśrīkīrti (Yaśas) is supposed to appear after six hundred years in general estimation. But because the religion of the Mlecchas firstly appeared in Makha and then in Āryadeśa (48b) eight hundred years later, the statements certainly defies the prophecies. If one reads old history books and one is able to correctly understand the ancient language of India or, if one talks to well-educated people from India about the question as to whether it is permitted that such an ambiguity in the words of Tathāgata existed, then all kinds of emerging names in terms of nicknames will soon exist for the Turuṣkas and then for the Mlecchas. The word Mogol or Turuṣka is also used for the living Sog in India—as far as the religious conditions of India are concerned—whilst one calls them Kelmaks, who live on the side of China.

 

Page 82

It is therefore an old classifying expression that Turuṣka as an honorary name referred to all tribes. Others followed those, who were mentioned before, in their footsteps and all these bloodlines became great, yet they devoutly return to their old, false way of life; they are the Mlecchas and they no longer divide themselves into various tribal groups. One must therefore clearly distinguish between the Turuṣkas, who fought with King Buddhapakṣa in a battle, and the Mlecchas, who made their invasion at the time of Lavasena. This is also just the point when C’os rje of bSam yas has achieved the highest level of wisdom from the time he was in bKra śis dpal ldan. According to the second Jina’s statement, C’os rje of bSam yas was certainly the best disciple who could have been born for him. He allowed himself to utter statements in his own interest, from which minor details did not comply with mK’as grub rje’s opinion. Therefore, he is not allowed to adapt the role of a successor of the incarnation. Since this matter had become great, it became an issue. That is, at least, how one judges it. With regards to the question of how one could reach this magical land, the city of Śrī Śambhala, one must work with tantras, which are faithful reliable in this respect (49a), otherwise it will be very difficult to reach this place. According to Paṇ c’en C’os kyi rgyal mts’an’s statement: “entering the splendid Śambhala, which is similar to the Tuṣita heaven of Trayastriṁśat on earth, to be with all one’s friends quickly and with the intention of gaining salvation for oneself,” one must live fully with one wish in mind and that one would reach the Vajradhara’s residence, this becomes remarkable when many reincarnations had already occurred in highly respected places. For instance, there is someone who was already born in Sukhavatī, took the wrong path and descended on living beings to appear in this earthy life in a form that is according to one’s karma. That is what happened because one’s disposition of incarnation was imposed upon oneself to appear in a lower caste of siddhi, which was desired to be the highest one.

 

Page 83

And what the Guhyasamājatantrarāja says with regards to India is also relevant here: “[he] was born as a prince in a land whose inhabitants live on milk.” It is the land where our teacher was born, turned the Dharma Wheel, and went to Nirvana. In the place where he was born, etc., one barely needs to recite the half of the whole tantra litany, samādhi takes place everywhere and the powers of faith work, whilst in other places, one must endure it for months and years and can hardly endure the penetration. Whoever had the destiny of becoming a Tibetan, has many reasons to perish there, one reason is merely due to reptiles and other vermin. In addition, the Tibetans have a bad habit of eating beef. Even when one grows up in a good family, but under such disgusting influences, then that is a time when one has to stop vajrakāya’s heart from beating because the difficulties in achieving salvation truly become endless. (49b) However, one should also heed that people lived before and still live today under such circumstances.

Whoever appears in the hall, where the circle of fate (mandala) lies in the voidness (śūnya) under the lucky stars (nakṣatra),

Shows up in the holy gathering of all miraculous forms (dharmas) that enticingly draw near the indestructible merit of all conquerors,

to speak one’s intention, dwindle to nothing because of the dharma that goes beyond words,

and since one’s noble blood really emerge, one’s karmic tendency goes back to the atom;

It will be one’s part to form one’s sphere in limited seclusion;

 

Page 84

because from the illusion (māyā) that arises in every complete as well as in every incomplete sphere, the characteristic of the illusion (māyā) becomes clear to one;

In that aspect lies the basic idea of what I said when I tried to describe the nature of Jambudvīpa in general and, more particularly, of the nature of the magical, glorious city of Kalāpa in Āryadeśa;

therefore, whoever is wise, will not let his bright head be confused by rash, pernicious rumours,

but will break many chains of the infatuation that repel false scruples;

May all living beings come closer to the infinite merit of our spiritual leader through the very absolute merit as large as the wide heavens above them

________________________

It is thus described how the great magic land Śambhala looks like and at the same time, it also tells us what we know about Āryadeśa. We were also motivated by many who took part in our community. We are provided with resources in the vast area of the land of snow as far as the land of Jagannātha in Āryadeśa29. The Khalkha C’iṅ su c’ug tu no min han gyi dge grub pa Er te ni C’os rje bLo bzaṅ dge odun, then sPi lig t’u t’on mgron gñer Ye śes bstan dar, the secretary C’en t’on bLo bzaṅ dpal obyor, the censor of sPi lig t’u bLo bzaṅ bkra śis, they all urge me to initiate a lam yig to Śambhala by indicating everything one requires for this journey and the purpose of the incarnation of dPal ldan bsTan pai rgyal mts’an as a Jina to attain the teachings by means of magic effects of frequently reciting the one’s praṇidhi as if it would not be enough to just motivate them in these bad times.


References:

  1. In general, only those that were written

 

Page 85

I take the following texts as a starting point: The lam yig to Ārya Amoghāṅkuśa and the commentaries that were written on Kālacakra by mK’as grub Yoṅs kyi gtsug rgyan, C’os kyi rgyal po dGe legs dpal bzaṅ po and rDo rje -oc’aṅ bLo bzaṅ c’os kyi rgyal mts’an dpal bzaṅ po. We thereby took a closer look at the description of the path that only contains the meaning of the dream and not to mention the holy Śambhala. Therefore, we examined the meaning of the great land and Āryadeśa. Furthermore, we gave a proper attention to the account of the times in which the great King Ashoka and Pratītasena had reigned, so that the counterfeit of all the false histories about the treasurer, which all bhikṣus are aware of, cannot be found at least with regard to the use of gold and treasure.

I, dPal ldan ye śes, had written this as a testimony of gratitude when Vikrama of the kulikas was fully forty years old, in the year of the female wood goat (1775) in the constellation of Āṣāḍha, on the second day of the month, in the great school of bKra śis lhun po, in the bDe c’en’s residence of the dvīpa surpassing all lands, in the palace of bKa dams.

And even the great Nātha, under whose protection we stand, would grant someone who moves one’s lips to the full extent of the effect of chanting to him as an embodiment that corresponds to an offering, whatever one desires. One will be a vāhana that will take oneself to the royal kingdom.

That yielding good fruits leads all living beings to the attainment of their most glorious salvation and their enlightenment in the Pure Land, the place of origin of merits, where the religion of Jina works. And to let this fully develop may increase the power of those even without bearing the offering of the religion in the great wonderful school of bKra śis lhun po!

 

Page 86

Bless you!

 

Page 87

Appendix

Abbreviations in the Annotations

Edelsteinmine30/ Edelsteinm.31: The German Translation of: Kah bab dun dan: the book of the seven mystic revelations compiled by Lama Tārā Nātha Kun dgah sñiṅ po, ed. S. Chandra Dás, Calcutta 1901, Bibliotheca Buddhica, St. Petersburg 1914.

IT: Index of the Tandschur32: Catalog du Fonds Tibétain de la Bibliothèque Nationale par P. Cordier. 11ème partie. Paris 909.

Vas: The Buddhism by W. Wassiljew33, St. Petersburg 1860.

Chara Choto: S. von Oldenburg, Матерiалы по Буддiйской Иконографiи Хара-Хото, C. IInd, 1914.

Sum pa: Pag sam jon zang, History of the Rise, Progress and Downfall of Buddhism in India by Sum pa Khan po Ye çe pal jor, ed. S. Chandra Dás. Calcutta 1908.

BB: Bibliotheca Buddhica.

VMV: Veröffentlichungen aus dem Museum für Völkerkunde34, Vol. I, 2, “Das Pantheon des Tschangtscha Hutuku35.

Grub t’.: Grub t’ob: Die Legenden der vierundachzig Māhasiddhas36. (German translation, Bäßler Newspaper, no. 4 in print, 1915.)37

2bff. this difficult opening prayer on which the explanatory comment is provided in the annotation 5b and following sentences is accompanied with a translation into Sanskrit, which has many mistakes, is badly transmitted, and was already appalling in the beginning. What is more important is the clear reference to the conclusion of the Kālacakratantrarāja (especially to 5, 253), whereby the only uncritical allusion to his own reincarnation is made by the author because the aforementioned Mañjughoṣa(kīrti) or Yaśas was the second pre-incarnation of the author (cf. preface). He even directly uses single words of the Tibetan translation:

The statement “May all living beings have the place to stay in the threefold world,” is equal to “yes so it will be done” with the blessing of the Kālacakra, and I, the King Mañjughoṣa, am King Yaśas, born of a descendant of Brahmin, practice the kālacakrayoga on my own in order to find reincarnation in the clan of the sun, which will not be surpassed by anyone. My beloved is the noble Tara, and Pauṇḍarīka, the ruler of a world of origin of the merit, has the feature of a lotus rose born in the water.”

On the tantric meaning of c’u skyes: abja cf. Louise de la Vallée Poussin. Bouddhism. London, 1898, p. 134 and annotation 1—one might also compare ekayogāt with the Tibetan interpretation: bsam pa las 0das mñam gžag gcig pu. Tara and her son, Csoma de Köröś, Tib. Grammar38 (193) (4).


References:

  1. Grünwedel, A., Tāranātha’s Edelsteinmine. Das Buch von den Vermittlern der sieben Inspiration. Bibliotheca Buddhica VXIII, Petersburg 1914
  2. The Mine of Precious Stones
  3. According to Duden, Tandschur means the Indian translated commentaries or hymns (Index of Bstan-Ḥgyur)
  4. (Vasily Pavlovich Vasilyev or Wassiljew)
  5. Publications from the Folklore Museum
  6. “The Pantheon of the Changtsch Hutuktu”
  7. The Legends of the Eighty-four Māhasiddhas, Tanjur
  8. (Gründwedel, A. “Die Geschichten der 84 Zauberer Mahāsiddhas)“. Baessler-Archiv. V, 4/5 (1916), S. 137-228.)
  9. A Grammar of the Tibetan Language

 

Page 88

5b 1. Vajradhara is in unison with Σοφια (prajñā = shakti), in opposition to ekavīras: dpa gcig = yab cig, the ascetic brilliant men of the church. They do not have the shakti. This is also the reason why there is only one Buddha painted on the left and right side each on the cover of folio 13 of The Tantras of the Berlin Kandschur, whose volume begins with the Ekavīratantrarāja.

6a 3. Kālacakratantrarāja I, 16: [Tibetan language]

6a6. “[D]aring hypotheses” literally: “with the siddhi sword”, one of the eight low-caste siddhis (cf. Tāranātha’s History of Buddhism in India39 p. 304 to 74/25, Edelsteinm., p. 120, below 31a 2), one cannot overcome any vajrakāyas. The sword corresponds to the mouth; it comes from the mouth: “thus with vague rumours . . .” The following comparison strongly recalls of the well-known daring attempt by each follower of Lao tsĕ, Confucius, and Buddha.

8b 5. On the miraculous phenomena in the Mahābodhi-Blätter40 because it is all about such phenomena in this case, cf. my commentaries, VMV, vol. V, 1897, p. 126f and the preface of Berthold Laufers to W. Filchner, Kumbum41, XI, Berlin, 1906.

10a 2. This naming of precious snails, which serve as trumpets, refers to the rare and extremely expensive paid specimen, whose spirals go from left to right and not as usual from right to left. Cf. to the interesting information of Arnould Locard. “Les coquilles sacrées dans les réligions indoues”. Annales du Musée Guimet, VII, 1884, pp. 291-306, and the notification in J.P. Rottler, Tamil Dictionary, Madras, 1841, s. v. valamburiśśaṅgu = Tib. g,yas su 0k’yil ba.

10b 3. This facility is known well enough from the Ashoka inscriptions, cf. Captain Henry Yule, A Narrative of the Mission to the Court of Ava, London, 1858, p. 63, pl. XIII and the version in the Berlin Museum. Even today, there is an old draw-well for ablution in every temple and mosque.

11b 1. Tāmradvīpa: Arakan, the Burmese name of Ra k’aiṅ, refers to rākṣasas. A. Phayre, History of Burma, London, 1883, p. 41.

11b 1-2. “[A]t the devil’s face (Yama)” refers to the big waterfall, cf. L. A. Waddell, “The Falls of the Tsang-Po and Identity of that river with the Brahmaputra”, The Geographical Journal, vol. 5, pp. 258-60. Also cf. Kālacakra I, 132 yamamukhe yatra yantraprahārāḥ.

12a 1. On the six pieces of bone jewellery of which I know some beautiful pieces displayed in the Berlin Museum and Museum Alexander III in St. Petersburg (one piece is also in Leiden), cf. my Mythology, no. 82, p. 100 and The Journal of the Buddhist Text Society of India III, VI, 1895. The rNam t’ar of Kṛṣṇacārī has its details. The bone jewellery of the Mincopis tribe on the Andaman Islands and of the dark-coloured tribe of the South Seas have a peculiar similarity with the six pieces of bone jewellery. Did the ancient native black inhabitants of India have similar things? A siddha told in the Grub t’. Kapāla (Kapālī) that Kṛṣṇacārī had taught him the usage of this bone jewellery.

12a 4. A small sacrificial house t’e is always written as sa t’e in Tāranātha, cf. Edelsteinm. See annotation to 30, 19.

12a 5. Mahākāla personally thinks of manifestation, how it became a part of Pāṇini or as it appeared at the time Khubilai was converted by 0P’ags pa, cf. my Mythology, p. 176 (fig.) and 177.

12b 5. Cf. L. A. Waddell, “The ‘Tsam-cchô-ḍung’ rtsa mchog grong of the Lamas and their very erroneous identification of the site of Buddha’s death”, JASB, LXI, 1892, pp. 33-42. I can hardly imagine that the origin of the wrong definition was a false etymology; the great significance that the place of cult has, may probably lead to re-interpretation. Perhaps, it was a copy of an old building in the right place.


References:

  1. Schiefner, Anton transl. Tāranātha. Geschichte des Buddhismus in Indien. St. Petersburg: Eggers, 1869
  2. Mahābodhi-Blätter may refer to a journal
  3. W. Filchner. “Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des Klosters Kumbum“. Berlin, 1906.

 

Page 89

12b-13a. Vishnu with a face of a horse in Kuśinagara (Vasiljev. Географія Тибета42. St. Petersburg, 1895. p. 83, Journal of the Buddhist Text Society of India II. 1894, ext. II, Xff.).

13a 1. According to the Grub t’ob, Kṛṣṇacārī is gifted with these and other miraculous signs and a witch had thereby developed hatred towards him that she kills him in the end. As Guhya (according to the Grub t’ob: The Yoginī Bandhe) later finds the witch in the dust of a rotten tree, she pulls Kṛṣṇacārī’s hair and kills him with the magic sword. This story is also told in Edelsteinm. p. 71. The sādhakas, who belong to Mahākāla or Yamāntaka, always carry a sword like the Viramustis of South India nowadays, cf. E. Thurston. Castes and Tribes of South India. Madras, 1909, VII, 407f. s.v. This is also peculiarly connected to Theophrastus Paracelsus, who always carried a sword (even at night) with him. The passage with the drumbeat in Vasiljev’s Географія Тибета15 on page 88 does not seem to be correctly translated. This is probably about the passage in which Kṛṣṇacārī heard the drumming, but it is not about the repetitive drumbeat of the feast every now and then, although such an event may be promised to the pilgrims depending “on their karma.”

13b 4. 0dab c’ags pa “bordering without a gap” (Vasiljev p. 307).

14a-b. The Tāranātha text p. 204 (in its translation on page 268) offers a parallel passage that does not become quite clear in the translation. Instead of the foolish Ratnanagara, I wrote Ratnasāgara in the text; in Schiefner’s text, it is even Ratanagiri that is stated, whilst the i is a form of the genitive case again. Unfortunately, the names are often hopelessly corrupted. Therefore, instead of Mahodaḍhi, I gave the name mo ho dād! also cf. Vasiljev’s Географія Тибета43 on page 88. The name of Pañcadrāvidā might be derived from the corrupt name of Pañtsab’atāra. Otherwise, I did not change the names whenever I could not find a solution.

15a 2. Virūpa: Bhirva pa Edelsteinm. p. 28ff., 69, 82, 162-4, he is the third in the Grub t’. His legend is very different from the one in Tāranātha (fig. Chara Choto pl. IV, above left), the way he holds the sun.

15a 3. Referring to pañca-drāviḍā cf. Caldwell, Comparative Grammar Dravidian Language. London, 1875, p. 7, and Böhtlingk-Roth P.W. s.v. drāviḍā.

15a 5. The story of Saroruha to which is alluded here: Edelsteinm. p. 47ff. and also its annotation. He must also have a padminī because P. = Lakṣmī, Śrī is the Goddess of Fortune.

15a 6. The Tibetans always say Rā ma ṇa instead of Rā ma, which looks like a counterpart to Rāvaṇa; Rāmeśvara often 0ī is formed from the Tibetan genitive case and is translated into dGa bai ma mo by Sum pa I, 4 line 6. And the Grub t.’ provides an amusing etymology 14 A 6 (Berl. Tanj.), then Rā ma ṇa would have built a temple of lśvara there and it would have been called after that name! cf. Chandradás44Tibetan English Dictionary 460 A.

15b 4. One would almost believe that in this peculiar annotation, there is a faded memory of Bårå Buḍur whose lowest level (with the depiction of the hell) is concealed.

15b 4. Suvarṇadvīpī has an Indian name which is Dharmakīrti IT. 356; cf. Journal of the Buddhist Text Society of India I. 1893, p. 8-9, annotation xx; Bibliotheca Buddhica VI p. 40, 124, pl. 30.

16b 3. ya rjes “bird trail” asterisk ⨁ is often found in Tibetan manuscripts. A similar symbol is the Indian kākapāda for √, whilst in the Siamese manuscript, kakǎbãt + is an accented character (cf. O. Frankfurter. Elements of Siamese Grammar. Leipzig, 1900, p. 19).

17a 1. Hiṅgalācī is probably another alternative for Hiṅgalākṣī, cf. Tāranātha’s History of Buddhism in India p. 46; Wright. History of Nepal. Cambridge, 1877, p. 308, lV, line 3 (it is a form of devī there). According to Sum pa khan po I, 78: “at that time, a yakṣinī was called Hiṅgalācī who harmed the living beings in Sindhu, West Land, a sacrifice offering of six cattle and a horse carriage full of food must be made to her as a bali for every maiden: Sudarśana (Legs mt’oṅ) has overcome this.”

Abh. d. philos-philol. U.d. hist. Kl. XXIX, 3. Abh.45


References:

  1. The Geography of Tibet
  2. The Geography of Tibet
  3. This might be a spelling mistake. It might refer to [Sarat] Chandra Dás
  4. Treatises by the Philosophical-Philological class and the historical class of the Royal Bavarian Academy of Sciences. vol. XXIX, 3rd treatise.

 

Page 90

17a 6-b. “Ecstatic women were the prophetesses of the tribe” (G.W. Leitner, Dardistan in 1866-86 and 1893. London, 1893, p. 23). The information given here reminds us of the stories of Chider, the eternal Jew, and numerous similar phrases of the German Norgen46-legends, cf. e.g. E.L. Rochholz, Schweizersagen aus dem Aargau47 I, 354: Well, I know a lot about what happened there, my little finger has told me and ibid. I. 330: They floated like birds in the running water in front of him. The locality D’u ma la in the text is often called Dhumaṣṭhira in Udyāna (the dependent syllable -la like in Vikramalaśīla, Caṇḍalaaśoka, cf. Edelsteinm. p. 165). It is where the ḍākinīs take the great sādhakas to the air from time to time.

17b 3. The detailed and adventurous story of Kambala as well as King Indrabhūti, and the King’s wife’s journey through the air onto the Ilora Mountain (in Tāranātha I-lo-yi-ri) to bring him turnip soup Edelsteinm. p. 49-59 and also cf. 40, 43, 169; Tāranātha’s History of Buddhism in India 324, 325; Sum pa I, 126. Kambala is the 30th siddha in the Grub t’., where his legend is told even more adventurously, whilst Indrabhūti is the 42nd siddha. It is peculiar that both siddhas appear with Tilo, Naro, Virūpa, and Ḍombhiheruka on the paintings of Chara Choto: Chara Choto pl. IV left: before our Indrabhūti, R courtesy of Kambala, and the witch mountain reaching for the sky.

18a 1. The passage refers to the vision of dGe legs dpal bzaṅ (Journal of the Buddhist Text Society of India III, 1893, ext. II, 4) and the tablet. Nevertheless, there were some information that would not have been clear to me if I had not gained access to a torn old block print courtesy of Miss. Dr. A. H. Francke years ago, which stipulates the demonstration of the manifestation of Sumatikīrti (Tsoṅ k’a pa) like our text. From the remnants of this image, I provide some typical siddha sculptures and the image of the Tsoṅ k’a pa. Unfortunately, it is no longer possible to determine from these fragments whether eighty or eighty-four siddhas constitute the surroundings. A. Schiefner makes Tāranātha aware of this difference with his annotation no. 2 in Tāranātha’s History of Buddhism in India p. 182 and says that there is an abbreviation. In fact, this might be possible because one also uses gnas bcu for gnas brtan bcu brgyad, etc. However, the reason for this is that there are four feminine forms which are left out due to prudery. I provided further details in my translation of the Grub t’. cf. annotation 29a 2ff.

18a 4. Here, one observes the deliberate use of the Tibetan translation of the name Tāranātha in contrast to the Hindu. P. repeatedly complains that the Tibetans would not fully be considered in the Hindu’s pride caste (cf. 14a 6, 33a) and in the modest conclusion of the book which was aimed at his own people (49a 5). It is similar with the name dīpaṅkara written below, which is translated into Tibetan in order to indicate that Dol po did not seek knowledge beyond his own level and that he did not know the Indian precursor of his heresy (31b 4). The indication of the word a tsa rya (e.g. 9a 1) also belongs here when one speaks of Brahmins. The slob dpon will be translated in hon.(honourable) form with the name, for instance in 15a 5. The way the Tibetans use Indian name forms for Tibetan ones and vice versa almost always refers to an emphasis with a secondary idea (cf. Bäßler-Zeitschrift III. 1, 1912, p. 8). With regards to the teaching of Dol pos cf. Vasiljevs’ annotation in A. Schiefner’s preface of the translation of Tāranātha’s History of Buddhism in India VI-VII.

18b 5. Cf. Desgodins, Tib. Dict. p. 1083B ar ba syn. pro vulg. jag pa latro and according to Jäschke ar la gtar pa in ultimam miseriam dejectus, sine medio (operandi, vivendi). Apparently, it is a malicious pun of the word ār ya skad. The persiflage is created by the word “in Sanskrit” further below, which I cited using quotation marks in order to indicate the connection to the word mentioned above.

19b 5. The uncertainty about the situation of Zahor is conspicuous (cf. Kovalevskij. A Mongolian Chrestomathy. Kazan, 1837, II, 355).

20a 6. The place where the fire emerges between water and rock (cf. Edelsteinm. p. 59 and Vasiljev’s Географія Тибета48 p. 90).

21b 3. The construction of a stupa by Ashoka at the place where Śāriputra was born (Sum pa I, 84, 3).

21b 5. This is the form of the goddess dMag zor Iha mo, whose name she received from Vajrasattva, sitting diagonally on the yellow mule which is her vāhana, armed with the weapons of all deities. However, she is holding a bludgeon instead of the sword in her right hand, which she received from Vajrapāṇi. With this form, the Four Goddesses of Seasons create their parivāra, (on this information cf. my Mythology p. 173; Journal of the Buddhist Text Society of India III. 1893, ext. II, 6; H.C. Walsh. “Tibetan books from Lhasa”, JASB. LXXIII. 1904, p. 157, no. 51; Gr. Sandberg. Tibet and the Tibetans. London, 1906, p. 211f.; in JASB LVI, 1887, p. 14, S. Chandra Dás provides the pleasing information for the Buddhist mythology that the goddess had a monkey that still exists in Tibet. Thus, the word monkey replaced the word donkey. For this case, Vasiljev used the word лошакъ (mule) in the parallel passage of the improved Russian translation (Географія Тибета49 C. IInd. 1895, p. 24). In Śiṅ sdoṅ dkar, this vāhana could stay so that the goddess could sit on it; cf. Musei Asiatici Petropolitani Notitiae VII. Petropoli, 1905, 083 (94).


References:

  1. The information about the word of norgen is nowhere to be found.
  2. The Switzerland legends from Aargau I
  3. The Geography of Tibet
  4. The Geography of Tibet

 

Page 91

21b 6. P. omits the reincarnation of Ashoka as a serpent because of his former vices. At the same time, I would like to point out that there were some information in the parallel passage of Tāranātha, which were not correctly understood by the translators. I would like to mention here only one passage, namely on page 32, 7, of the Tibetan text: bya daṅ srog c’ags rgyu ba za bar rtsoms pai ts’e (Ashoka who was reincarnated as a serpent immediately approaches the saint; he does not only have his love for the church, but also his greed). Vasiljev translates this as follows: когда онъ хотѣлъ ѣсть проходившихъ мимо птицъ и другихъ животныхъ50 (p. 40); whilst A. Schiefner obviously refers to the Russian version again: “when he . . . was preparing to devour birds and other creatures passing by,” but rgyu ba does not mean “passing by,” but “running back and forth”. It is the disgusting occurrence of the devouring of a serpent that is still alive. Although the preys come out of its mouth again, “he saw how the serpent exerted itself to eat up birds, which flew again out of love for living (out of the mouth)”. Furthermore, P. omits the aspect of the deficiency of funds and he also pointed out at the end (50, 2-3) that he avoided this gossip.

22b 2-3. The name bDud rtsi 0k’yil pa was translated as Amṛtāvartta by A. Schiefner. Tāranātha’s Geschichte53 des Buddhismus in Indien p. 103; however, it is translated as Amṛtakuṇḍali in his dhāraṇī (500 deities of sNar t’aṅ). Thus, A. Schiefner corrects it in the index of Kanjur on p. 315.

22b 5. An incident which upsets King Khunimasda (this form seems to be the correct one as compared to Khunimapta etc. because the Tibetan “p” has been very easily confused with “s”; therefore, the name of the siddha Paṅkaja became “Saṅkaja”) is told in the Tāranātha’s Geschichte51 p. 74, l.14: d’ar ma tsan dras zab c’en gyi gos srubs med pa stag gzig gi rgyal po la bskur ba la t’ags ris la sñiṅ gai t’ad du rkaṅ rjes 0dra ba žig byuṅ bas ṅan sṅags byed do sñam nas …, which Vasiljev vaguely translates as follows: Д. отправилъ кь персидскому парю парчевое безъ швовъ платъе, на немь оказался вытканнымъ противъ (самаго) сердца слѣдъ лошадинаго копыта52. And Schiefner, who often translated solely the Russian version, follows suit: “When Dh. sent a garment without a stitch that is made of heavy silk, something similar to a horse footprint on the chest was shown on the same garment.” As a matter of fact, there is no statement about this horse in the text. It is simply about the traces of the footstep: śrīpādas, which are significant here: the way they are depicted with other Vishnuite emblems and inscriptions on the unstitched cloths even today, with which not only the living beings who sacrifice themselves or being sacrificed, but also the sacrificial equipment are wrapped during the cold weather in pūjā, which bear the inscription Rām Rām, the so-called Nāmavallīs. With regards to Vaiṣṇavas’ great dependence on Buddhist equipments, about which I cannot go into detail here, it is almost certain that such garments were also known to the Indian Bauddhas. It is surely no coincidence that a Tibetan garment of such kind exists, often beautifully made from silk with gold and that such garments, which are embroidered—certainly with Buddhist emblems: Landsa inscriptions and so on—or printed by bKra śis lhun po, will be sent. The importance of a footstep on the chest for a Persian does not require any further explanation. Therefore: “[h]e imagined that there was an evil magic because something that resembled a footstep on the cloths . . . was noticeable.” He interpreted the form of the śrīpāda as if he should thereby have become the subject of the Indian king.

23b 5. I know nothing about the gÑos family, except for the image of a riding Mahākāla Trak ṣad accompanied by the riding devī and surrounded by six dog-head ḍākinīs, who manifested themselves as iṣṭadevatās in accordance with “the 500 deities of sNar t’aṅ” and as a member of the family.

25a 2-3 Through the parallel passage in Tāranātha’s Geschichte , it becomes clear that the illegible word must have been the indication of Antarvedī; in the manuscript, the word “ma stab” k’aṅ” or something similar to it is used, which might lead to a misunderstanding of the word an tar ve dī. In the text, Tāranātha used the word an tar bhi dai yul du on folio 193, whereby the i was formed from e and its aspiration was often merely a misplaced accent that belongs to the last syllable. It is well-known that the forms in were often derived from the ending of genitive -ai, and also that the long i incorrectly splits again into -ai because it was assumed that the genitive case is formed here. The locality is Pratiṣṭhāna54 by the great Pīṭhasthāna at the confluence of Ganges and Jumna (in Ilāhābād55). The prophecy about the hot-tempered Candra is mentioned in Mañjuśrīmūlatantra, Berl. Kanjur folio 114, pl. 328ff.: [Tibetan Quotation]


References:

  1. If he respects the lives of all birds and animals that he encounters
  2. Tāranātha’s history
  3. He sent a garment made of brocade, without even a single stitch of the Persian peer and a shape of the horse footprint was embroidered on the garment, where the heart is.
  4. Tāranātha’s history
  5. Nowadays Pratiṣṭhāna is known as Paithan
  6. Ilāhābād is officially known as Prayagraj or Allahabad

 

Page 92

“He came into existence and lives according to the norms of the Kshatriya caste, he recognised the value of the dharma, and attained enlightenment. Those were the reasons why he was bumptious and furious, killed many creatures that cling to life and had great pleasure judging those who harm their fellow creatures; thus, carrying the consequences of his evil karma, he fell under the name Candra the Destructor. When he passed away as a Candra, the seed-letters HA returned again because he was a monk in his early life and he received honour from the Mleccha king. Through the merit, which is expressed through the seed-letters HA, and through the good karma as the result of his merits, he could also attain enlightenment and he was free to go wherever he wished. Through his accomplishments, he enjoyed the kingdom. He had given alms to Buddha in his early existence, and then as an asura, he donated and gave an ornament from a hanging carpet. Through the effect of this karma, he became a ruler of deities and human beings; all the glories of the groups of deities and humans were at his disposal for enjoyment. A candra from the Brahmin caste provided all those who bear the name Brahmin, with whatever they desired in order to achieve that divine pleasure; then, he had taken measures against the king for ten full years and then for another seven years. He forced the other candra to howl day and night, became infected with a mouth disease, and worms ate him up; he ended his life and disappeared into the ground. When he raged like an asura, the city perished, and through the curse that he was an asura, he howled with the growing horrible pains. Since his death was caused by using magic, the king stepped out of life. There is a hell called Avīcī and it is where those negatively charged beings experience bad karma as the result of their evil deeds. He is born there and he will suffer as a miserable creature in this hell during a great age of the world.”

According to Schiltberger (ed V. Langmantel. Stuttgart Literature Association, Tübingen 1885, p 33, 16), one can hear Tamerlan howling in his crypt even today. One knows nothing about the place and spot

 

Page 93

28a 2. rol pa is an evident allusion to the Lalitavistara, a biography of Tathāgata.

28a 6. In the original text of Kālacakra, the king whose name the Tibetans translate as Zla (ba) bzaṅ (po), is always Sucandra and never Candrabhadra or Somabhadra, as Csoma de Köröś in his Tibetan Grammar (192) (4), later on E. Schlagintweit, and Sureçamati (606) write.

28b 2. It is remarkable that the nakṣatras are mentioned as decorations of a vault, cf. also to 49b, as in the surroundings of Kutscha, Qarashahr, and Turfan. Here I give the Tibetan images according to Vaiḍūrya dkar po56, cf. A. Csoma de Köröś, Tibetan Grammar. p. 181, 191. They are regarded as the daughters of the four lokapālas and are as follow: 1. dbyug gu or t’a skar (skin colour: blue), 2. bra ñe or gsal bai bu mo (greenish yellow), 3. smin drug (greenish white), 4. snar ma or be rdsi (green), 5. mgo sna (dark red), 6. lhag (greenish yellow), 7. nabs so (greenish white), 8. rgyal (greenish yellow), 9. skag (the same), 10. mc’u (dark red), 11. gre (red?), 12. dbo (dark red), 13. me bži (flesh coloured), 14. nag pa (red?), 15. sa ri (red?), 16. sa ga (red), 17. lha mts’ams (white), 18. snron (light yellow), 19. snrubs (light green), 20. c’u stod (white), 21. c’u smad (white), 22. gro bžin (light yellow), 23. byi bžin (yellow), 24. mon dre, mon gre (greenish blue), 25. mon gru (red?), 26. k’rums stod (dark red), 27. k’rums smad (dark green), 28. nam gru (blue). The Sanskrit Equations in Chandra Dás, Dictionary. s. v. rgyu skar. Cf. B. Laufer, Der Roman einer tibetischen Königin. Tibetischer Text und Übersetzung57 p. 144. The Indian names: 1. Aśvinī, 2. Bharaṇī, 3. Karttrikā, 4. Rohiṇī, 5. Mṛgaśiras, 6. Ārdrā, 7. Punarvasu, 8. Puṣya, 9. Aśleṣā, 10. Maghā, 11. Pūrvaphālgunī, 12. Uttaraphalgunī, 13. Hasta, 14. Citrā, 15. Svātī, 16. Viśākhā, 17. Anurādhā, 18. Jyeṣthā, 19. Nirrti (Mūla), 20. Pūrvāṣāḍhā, 21. Uttarāṣāḍhā, 22. Śravaṇā, 23. Abhijit, 24. Śatabhiṣā, 25. Dhaniṣṭhā, 26. Pūrvabhādrapāda, 27. Uttarabhādrapāda, 28. Revatī, cf. “Divyavadāna” ed. Cowell XXXIII, 649, JRAS N.S. 5, 1871, p. 87f. and with some names cf. A. Schiefner, Lebensbeschreibung d. Çākyamuni58 98.

28b 5. Madhyāhnika cf. A. Schiefner, Tāranātha Translation, 9 (7), rTsibs logs: Pārśva Ders. Lebensbeschreibung des Çākyamunis59 p.100.

28b 5-6. Upagupta and Māra; The legend in which Upagupta forced the great evil to show himself as a Buddha and which Māra certainly did, under the condition that Māra would not worship him. How the story ended can be read in A. Schiefner’s translation of Tāranātha p. 16-17. The parallel story to this is “Valens und der Teufel”60 . Zeitschrift für Missionskunde und Religionswissenschaft61 , ed. Dr. A. Kind, 29, Issue 10, 1914.

29a 2ff. For the following figures I have the following quotations: also for Śaraha. Sarahapāda, Rāhulabhadra, mDa snun is the 6th siddha in the Grub t’. Tāranātha’s Geschichte62 69, 105, 275, 301; Edelsteinm. 11, 157; Sum pa I, 124; IT. 232, 11 and 230, 5; 64; fig. BB V, 4, No. 11; VMV No. 11. Nāgārjuna, also dPal ldan bzaṅ po Vas. 294; Ind. Streif. I63, 274; Sum pa I, 124; Tāranātha’s Geschichte64 81-6 and 301-303; IT. 238, 56; fig. BB V, 2 No. 5; VMV no. 5; my Mythology p. 30, cf. to the literature that was compiled there. He is the 16th siddha in the Grub t’. Asaṅga Tāranātha’s Geschichte65 107ff.; Edelsteinm. 106; fig. BB V. 2 No. 6; VMV No. 6; Mythology p. 31. The information that I know about P’am t’iṅ is in Edelsteinm. 79, 174. Guṇaprabha Sum pa 100, Tāranātha’s Geschichte66 126ff. Śākyaprabha Sum pa 100, Tāranātha’s Geschichte67 204. Vinītadeva Vas. 266, Tāranātha’s Geschichte68 192, 272. Śavari, Śāvāri (!), Savara pa, Mahāśavara, Ri k’rod pa, Ri k’rod dbaṅ p’yug is the 5th in the Grub t’., IT. 235, 36, 39; Sum pa I, 124; Edelsteinm. 19, 20ff. ; Tāranātha’s Geschichte69 83, 105; fig. BB V, 4, No. 10; VMV No. 10. Maitrī Edelsteinm. 23ff.; fig. BB V, 6 No. 18; VMV No. 18. Lohi, Luipā (Lohitapāda?), Lū yi pa, Dṣigasun tečigeltü, Ña Ito ba, Ñai rgyu ma za ba, Matsyāntrāda IT. 33, 8; Edelsteinm. 20, 84, 120, 179; Tāranātha’s Geschichte70 106 annotation, 315, 319; Sum pa I, 124 (several times in the index!); fig. BB V, 4 No. 12, VI and 31 No. 0265, No. 1 in the Grub t’. The iconography of the mahāsiddhas is extremely confusing; a particular occurrence is the steady separation of the new kinds of siddhas. Kālidāsa mentions the siddhas in Meghadūta 14, 22, 46, 56. In Maṅgalāṣṭaka, he presents Mācchindra as the 1st siddha: S. Pet. Chin. Tanj. Vol. LU of the tantras pl. 229B V. 5 and it states: Ña lto ba sogs dam ts’ig grub pai skyes bu rnams: Mācchindrādisamayasiddhapuruṣāḥ is mentioned below. Dārika, Dhārika pa, sMad 0ts’on mai g,yog IT. 237, 48; Edelsteinm. 20, 22; Tāranātha’s Geschichte71 319, he is No. 77 in the Grub t’.―Ḍeṅki, 0Bras rduṅ pa, Sum pa I, 124, Edelsteinm. 23, 160, Myth. p. 41; he is No. 31 in the Grub t’. Vajraghaṇṭa, Ghaṇṭa pa, Dril bu pa, dPal dril bu No. 52 in the Grub t’.; IT. 242, 78; Sum pa I, 102; Edelsteinm. 49-52, Tāranātha’s Geschichte72 170, 177, 322; fig. BB V, 5 No.14; VMV No. 14. Kacchapapāda, Kūrmapāda Edelsteinm. 59, 168.


References:

  1. It is a manuscript which contains ninety-four exceptional illustrations of the Tibetan system of elemental divination known as the White Beryl astrological treatise.
  2. The Novel of a Tibetan Queen. Tibetan Text and Translation
  3. Biography of Çākyamuni
  4. The Novel of a Tibetan Queen. Tibetan Text and Translation
  5. Valens and the Devil”
  6. Magazine for Missionary Science and Religious Studies
  7. Tāranātha’s history
  8. There is no reference for this abbreviation in the German translation
  9. Tāranātha’s history
  10. Tāranātha’s history
  11. Tāranātha’s history
  12. Tāranātha’s history
  13. Tāranātha’s history
  14. Tāranātha’s history
  15. Tāranātha’s history
  16. Tāranātha’s history
  17. Tāranātha’s history

 

Page 94

Jālandhari, Bālapāda, Haḍi, Dra ba 0dsin žabs IT. 241, 73; Edelsteinm. 58ff.; he is No. 46 in the Grub t’. Kṛṣṇacārī, Kāla, Kāla pa, Kṛṣṇa, Kāṇhāpāda, Kahna pa, rTul žugs spyod pa IT. 235, 41; 37, 28; 139; Edelsteinm. 68ff., 82f., 168-71: the most adventurous guru of all siddhas No. 17 in the Grub t’.; fig. BB V, 5 No. 15; VMV No. 15. Guhya Edelsteinm. 44, 71. Ḍombi is probably identical to Ḍombiheruka gYu mo can, gYuṅ mo can No. 4 in the Grub t’.; Sum pa I, 124; Edelsteinm. 7, 34, 40, 50f.; fig. BB V, 7 No. 20; VMV No. 20; Journ. Buddh. T. Soc. I, llI, 1893, tablet to ext. II, 4. Tailo, Tilo, Te lo pa, Tailika, Til brduṅ mk’an, Prajñābhadra, Śes rab bzaṅ po No. 22 in the Grub t’.; The teacher of Nā ro IT. 239, 59; 244, 88; 43; Tāranātha’s Geschichte73 328; Edelsteinm. 20, 71-8; fig. Chara Choto pl. IV left centre as a cook. BB V, 6 No. 17; VMV No. 17. Nā ro ta pa, Nā ro, Nāḍapāda, Śrīnāḍa, rTsa bśad pa, Jñānasiddhi, Jñānasiṁha, Yaśobhadra, Dsa ba sa pa, Undusun nomlakči No. 20 in the Grub t’.; the main representative of Kālacakra IT. 238, 57; Tāranātha’s Geschichte74 239, 328; Edelsteinm, 73-78; fig. BB V, 6 No. 16; VMV No. 16. Mañjuśrīmitra Edelsteinm. 103; fig. BB V, 7 No. 21; VMV No. 21. Padmākara Edelsteinm. 7, 49, 94. Sai sñiṅ po Sum pa 120. Nyāyakokila’s translation is uncertain, Vas. 358. Vimuktasena Sum pa 99 and Muktasena are also two different figures and this is how Vasiljev wanted them to be (A. Schiefner, Tāranātha’s Geschichte75 p. 322). Kusali = Ku su lu and Ka so ri cf. Edelsteinm. 20, 28, 40, 43, 80, 83. Suvarṇadvīpī cf. 15b 4. Diṅnāga Sum pa 62; fig. BB V, 3 No. 8. Dharmakīrti Sum pa 62; fig. BB V, 3 No. 9; VMV No. 8-9. Abhayākara (gupta) Tāranātha’s Geschichte76 250ff., 261ff.; Edelsteinm. 102, 109ff., 176-7; JASB LI, 1882, 16f.; a massive numbers of book titles in IT and the fourth pre-incarnation of the Paṇ c’en, fig. JASB LI, 1882, pl. IV. Buddhaśrī Tāranātha’s Geschichte 252. Vāgīśvara Sum pa 117. Narāditya Sum pa 123. Macchindranātha Edelsteinm. 178, 121, 122; Sum pa 105. Oṁkaranātha Edelsteinm. 125, 153. Nanda Sum pa 65, 123. Bhūmipāla Sum pa 111. Asitaghana Edelsteinm. 83-6, 126, 134. Ye śes bśes gñen Edelsteinm. 28, 84, 129. Śāntigupta Edelsteinm. 4, 115-37, fig. ibid. Buddhaguptanātha Edelsteinm. 9, 116. In the translation, I have usually selected the forms of the name which have become known through Schiefner among others. I did not dare to reconstruct words; therefore, I did not change all the names that the original provided in the text. I used Lui pā, for instance, because it has a vulgar form, which Sanskrit paradigm I have never seen before.

29b 2ff. The list of schools is quite similar to the list in Vasiljev’s translation p. 294 (267). Vatsiputra (vatsiputrīya) is apparently in accordance with sMra ba p’u ba, without clearly seeing how it approaches; perhaps smra ba is understood as vāc, and p’u is corrupted from bu as in putra. Thus, rtsi ka (“a special juice between the teeth”): tāmbūla, for this mater cf. Edelsteinm. p. 121.

30a-b. Cf. Vas. 301f., who entirely follows the Grub mt’a of Lalitavajra like the Paṇ c’en. Lalitavajra was present at the reception of the Chinese Emperor. His portrait cf. Handbuch der buddhistischen Kunst in Indien77 p. 55, 2nd ed. p. 179, Mythologie78 p. 89.

31a 4. Central consciousness etc.: dhūti, cf. the detailed annotation to 49b 5.

31b 1. “Blessing of the Moonlight,” is an allusion to the legend in the Grub t’ob (Berl. Tanj. Tantra 86, 20A 6), according to which a passage tells of a shining moonlight visible from afar, where Nāgabodhi stays, who has been meditating for centuries and is declared by Nāgārjuna as his successor.

31b 2. [G],yu mo is a joke about monks, “Lapislazuli maiden” for the unpleasant g,yuṅ mo: Mātaṅgī, Caṇḍālī. They are particularly suitable for a sādhaka if they have the colour of the utpala flower, cf. Edelsteinm. 98.

32a 6. Bhikhila (sic!) cf. A. Schiefner, Tāranātha. Geshichte Übersetzung79 79, 305. Characteristic for the Tibetans’ reluctance towards the dark magical power of the word is the orthography, with which the evil word ‘satan’ is purified to a certain extent. Śel bstan (a possible pronunciation would be Ṣai tan) as bahuvrīhi means: “having a crystal clear religion.” Śel (crystal, glass) is often found in the book titles. For the same reasons, the words with a bad meaning are restructured by adding a group of words with a good meaning in the vernacular dictionary. It is also comprehensible that the beginning of the dictionary starts with the word “lucky” in the glossary and has to end with blessing sayings.

33a 4. “Magic cage,” it is obviously about a fairy tale that is unknown to us. The cage for demons is covered with the so-called mDos cross lines, cf. E. Schlagintweit, Le Bouddhisme au Tibet pl. XXXVII, 20 “thal”; it apparently prevents the king from going into the cage (castle). We would ask: “Do you have any blinkers?’ also cf. A. Waddell, The Buddhism of Tibet, London 1899, p. 484, Rev. Ahmad Shah, Pictures of Tibetan Life, Benares 1906, pl. 29, 2, pl. 40 middle and Jäschke s.v.


References:

  1. Tāranātha’s history
  2. Tāranātha’s history
  3. Tāranātha’s history
  4. Tāranātha’s history
  5. Handbook of Buddhist Art in India
  6. Mythology
  7. Tāranātha, History Translation

 

Page 95

33b 2. [N]or is often found as paśu in Sanskrit. So Rājā Pratāpamalla also said in his “reinterpreted” inscription: t’va āk’ara vāṅāva śloka yā art’a yāya ma p’a ta o hma d’āya paśujanma, whoever reads this inscription and cannot find the meaning of śloka has to be called paśujanma”. D. Wright, History of Nepal, pl. XIII.

36b 3. The boiling of the milk-containing plants strikingly commemorates the ritual drink soma “sacrifice” of the Vedic period: the tantras are just the continuation of the Vedic teaching.

42a 3. [Tibetan text]

44a 1. Berthold Laufer points out (Der Roman einer tibetischen Königin80 Leipzig 1911, p. 137 annotation) that from a high mountain, the surrounding mountains look like petals which are arranged in the lotus chalice and he quotes our text at the same time. The dKar c’ag written by Lha sa (Blockdruck Asiat. Mus.81 St. Petersburg, 3 B 4ff.) shows the most beautiful version of the image and a text, which A. Waddell used in a very inadequate form (JASB LXV, 1896, p. 275ff.). The short text is a poem with annotations. It is said in 1.c: [Tibetan text] “All ice mountains surrounding the receptacle form an eight-spoked divine wheel, a lotus on dried earth with eight sepals: the umbrella (chatra) rises on the peak of Byaṅ ñan bun bal po, the fish (matsya) is in the eye (lake) of Mal groṅ, the lotus (padma) is in the point (tongue) of the mDoṅ k’ar, the conch shell trumpet (śaṅkha) is in the voice (echo?) of Ñan bran pad dkar, the vessel (kalāśa) is in the little frost of the mountain pass of La grib, at the rDsoṅ btsan Mountain, and the śrīvatsa is at the heart of Yug Ma, on the bKa 0k’ol mar gdugs in the North. It is now called rMog lcog and creates the whole design of the banner (dhvajā) and at the sTod luṅ bran p’u, the foot and the arms form the wheel (cakra).” So the mountains surrounding the ancient 0P’rul snaṅ temple are like the eight shrines standing on the Buddhist altar, cf. Pallas, Mongolische Völker82, St. Petersburg. 1801, II, 158 (the so-called naiman takil) and the attached tablet, A. Pozdnĕev, Очерки C. Ilnd. 1887, pp. 86-87, etc. Also cf. the goddesses holding these symbols: Veröff. d. Mus. f. VölkerK. I, 1890, 2/3, p. 105, No. 292-99 = Bibliotheca Buddhica V, No. 292-99, p. 98-100.

45b 3. The religious conversion of the ṛṣis of the sun’s chariots: Kālacakratantrarāja V, 252ff. V. 258: [Tibetan text]

smin pai don du: pācanārtham. In the final prayer 50, there is an allusion to which fruits are supposed to be ripen.

46b 5. rdo yi rta: śailāśva Kālacakra I, 158 śailāśvārūḍhacakrī, where the battle between the kalkī (kulika) and the Mlecchas is also prophesied in the following verses; and this probably refers to the narrative of the “Kélan” that was described by Huc and Gabet, cf. Jäschke s.v. Dict. 4B.

46b 6. Kṛt-Mati, cf. to this matter A. Schiefner, Tāranātha. Geschichte Übersetzung83 p. 310 annotation to p. 82, line 13. In this case, there is also a new variant of “byed pai blo gros,” which is otherwise considered as an inexplicable name.

46b 6. Ha nu for Hanumān, a strong reminiscence of the Rāmāyana and the mythology of Vishnu. Cf. Tāranātha. Geschichte Übersetzung12 p. 310 annotation to p. 82, line 13.


References:

  1. The Novel of a Tibetan Queen
  2. Block printing Asian Museum
  3. Mongolian People
  4. Tāranātha History Translation

 

Page 96

49b 5. “What was only written.” This passage refers to the figures of the “All-powerful in ten syllables,” which Cilu wrote on the door of the vihara of Nālanda, cf. to this matter A. Csoma de Köröś, JASB II, 1833, p. 57-58. These “ten guardians of the world” have often been reproduced, once with an incorrect explanation by E. Schlagintweit, Le Bouddhisme au Tibet (I quote according to the French translation), Ann. Mus. Guimet, Paris 1881, p. 73, pl. XV, and more often with no explanation at all. L. A. Waddell, The Buddhism of Tibet, London 1899, p. 386 (142), 415. This figure is known as rNam bcu dbaṅ ldan and reasonably speaking, he represents the interrelation between the microcosm to the macrocosm, for instance. Without the knowledge of this matter, the first book of the Kālacakra is utterly impossible to understand. As unpleasant as it may seem to concern ourselves with these matters, it has to be done because without these efforts, we should have to forbid ourselves from understanding a whole series of highly important matters. Now I dare to say that the archeology, above all, must construct thereon. Since the study of the human body was quite insignificant to the Hindu, schematisations like this were more important. The tantras are the theatre of the “Indian art” and it is the tantras which provide the corresponding aesthetic rules. Indeed, we find the whole figurative mythology of the system based on the structure of this scheme in the later book of the Kālacakra. Where this evolutionary structure is originated, is of course a different issue that will still bring some surprise to the friends of the “National Indian Art” (sic!). Spreading rumours is more comfortable. The followers of Jainism also have such issues: I hope to be able to return to this matter. I still have to thank Mr. Salemann, a university graduate, for sending the photographs of a short manuscript Musei Asiatici Petropolitani Collectio Baradiin 1903-4, No. 11-(97) vide Bull. de l’Acad. XXII, 1905, p. 083, which a Lama compiled for himself in order to understand the Kālacakra. This short manuscript was very useful to me. The text is written in Tibetan and Mongolian and is provided with images. Because of all sorts of allusions in the Lam yig, I provide a German translation beforehand here and a more detailed analysis later:

“I lie at the feet of the sublime guru Śrī Kālacakra, with whom there is no longer a difference (between puṇya and pāpa); may he grant that through his blessing I shall remain under his protection. Here, I would like to explain about the “All-powerful ten,” namely their effect on the foundation (dhātu) of the external world, then their influence on the vajrakāya in the inner world and the impact of their connection to the wheel (cakra) of the other mandalas.[“] First: all the dhātus of the external world lie completely under the influence of the “All-powerful ten” of the Wheel of Time (Kālacakra), so that YA is the mandala of the Wind, RA of the Fire, VA of the Water, LA of the Earth, MA is the Mountain Meru, KṢA is kāmadhātu and rūpadhātu, HA is arūpadhātu, and the three channels: half moon, sun drops (bindu, tilaka), and the nāda that correspond to the sun, the moon and Rāhu. Their colours corresponds to this meaning: YA is black, RA red, VA white, LA yellow, MA blue in the East, red in the South, yellow in the West, white in the North, green in the middle84, KṢA is green, HA is blue, the crescent red, the drop white, the nāda green (as in the picture; however, the text states that it is black). Second: the vajrakāya in the inner world lies also under the power of the All-powerful ten syllables: YA is planta pedis85 , RA the shinbone, VA the thigh, LA the hip area (sphic86), MA the spine, KṢA the area from the nape of the neck to the forehead, HA the vertebra, the half moon and the drops are the arteries rasa (ro ma) and lāla (rkaṅ ma), the nāda is the vein of life (dhūti: dbu ma: srog rtsa)87. Third: the wheel (cakra) of the other mandalas also lies under the influence of the “ten powers.” YA, RA, VA, LA, MA are the four elements, ascending in layers (0byuṅ, ba bži rim brtsegs), and the Mountain Meru, KṢA are the flocks of gods of the kāyacakra and vākcakra, HA is the syllable of the cittacakra and the three channels: half moon, drops, and nāda are kāya, vāc, and citta of the god of cittamandala. The tattva of the “All-powerful ten” discloses that these ten are endowed with the following signs of their kinds. The “All-powerful ten” are twofold in connection with their kinds: first, the perception towards the Mlecchas and the second, the dhātu of the external world. If the vajrakāya obtained utpannakrama and sampannakrama of the tattva through the Mlecchas in the inner world and if the vajrakāya overcame the external world whilst resting in the four kramas, so to speak, then he is the A resting in all life. The dhātus of heaven that emerged from the four stages (krama) YA RA VA LA are equal to the mandalas of Wind, Fire, Water and Earth, whilst MA creates the Meru in ātman which now has five dhātus.


References:

  1. Kālacakra 5, 169 [Tibetan text] The following verses also refer to this passage
  2. The sole of the foot
  3. It might be a spelling mistake in the German translation and it might refer to sphinx
  4. Cf. Jäschke, Tib. Dict. s. v. gtum po

 

Page 97

Now if KṢA, the kāmadhātus as well as rūpadhātus, HA, arūpadhātu, and the half-moon, the drop, and the nāda (these three are lokadhātu and one should imagine Rāhu as the jewel of the moon) are in the power of the vajrakāya, the four substances, YA, RA, VA, LA, correspond to the planta pedis, the shinbone, the thigh, the hip area, the cakra of the four substances, the spine of MA, Mountain Meru, the space from the neck up to the forehead KṢA, the kāmadhātus and rūpadhātus, the head HA, and the arūpadhātu. The half moon, drop, and nāda are the arteries rasa as well as lāla and the avadhūti; Rāhu makes the sun and moon shine. The series of the four substances of mandala, YA, RA, VA, LA, thereby lie in the emerging power of the sampannakrama through the Mlecchas. The Mountain Meru with its incomparable palaces, the divine flocks of the kāyamandala and vāgmandala KṢA, the divine flocks of cittamandala HA, and the three channels (moon, drop, nāda), which represent kāya, vāc and citta of the god of cittamandala, thus, describe the mahāsukhamandala. When the power of the sampannakrama over tattva is there, the function works reciprocally in the six members every time in tens, for instance, when one does two things at the same time: one puts the fingers together and concentrates one’s mind. When in spite of the appearance of the ten signs such as weeping, etc., the peculiarity in how the inhaled breath is held, the wind will take the signs away as they ascend right and left from the mandala. By following the trail, an inner warmth blazes up (caṇḍa, gtum po, the Mongolian translation is caṇḍālī!). Dhātu becomes fluid, ten opportunities come to the spirit, where it can repose in bliss (beginning with samādhi). Thus, the influence of the ten “All-powerful” works when the separation from the darkness is completed in the five dhātus of the five skandhas.

50 2-3. At the end, it is a slap to Tāranātha’s face due to the mistake he told on page 38 of the translation. Cf. annotation to 21b 6.

Click to enlarge

Click to enlarge

50 4. This refers to Nātha Nāgārjuna. The passage is incomprehensible without the narration in the Grub t’ob (Berl. Tanjur Tantra folio 86 Bl.18B). Nāgārjuna comes to a river and wants to traverse it. On the bank, some abhīras are loitering and are idly watching. Only one of them, who is standing aside, wants to carry Nāgārjuna across the river. In the middle of the river, the śiśumāras appear and the abhīra however told N. that he should not be afraid because he would carry him across the river. Having arrived on the other side of the river, N. summoned the abhīra and sat on the root of a sala tree, which lies in the water. He transforms into an elephant. When the elephant trumpets, the royal retinue gathers, and the abhīra becomes the great king Śālabhaṇḍa, cf. Edelsteinm. p.158.

According to the Mañjuśrīnāmasaṅgītī on folio 12a of the bilingual Beijing edition, the Sanskrit word for this figure is daśākāro vaśī. The dhāraṇī e vaṁ, which appears in the introductory verses of the present text, are often positioned next to each other so that the syllable e stands before the syllable vaṁ in a smaller figure.

______________________

 

Page 98

INDEX I

Note from translator: only indexes that contain German language in the original book are included in this section.

Note zu (number) means annotation to (number)

Note from translator: only indexes that contain German language in the original book are included in this section.

Apabhraṁśa T. 0p’ral skad 12b 3 T. to c’ag 29b 4, 32b 4

Abhayākara, Abhayākara-gupta T. A bhyā ka ra! T. 0Jigs med 0byuṅ gnas 29a 5 and annotation

Abheda, the Sthavira (the Sanskṛit name is uncertain)

ārya rje, ā0 jina: […] Ārya lineage 29b 5 ārya = saṁskṛta’s annotation to 18b 5, 0p’ags pa is the title in the following names: Amoghāṅkuśa, Avalokiteśvara, Asaṅga, Ānanda, Upagupta, Ekajaṭī, Kāla, Nāgārjuna, Mañjuśrī, Mahākāśyapa, Rāhulī, Śāṇavāsika, Śāriputtra.

 

Page 99

Kambala T. Wa va pa 17b 3, he belongs to 29a 5, the aforementioned annotation

Udyāna T. U rgyan, O rgyan supposedly S. Oḍiyana 7b1, 16a 4, 17a 3, 19a 3, annotation to 17a 6

Urisa 12a 6, 14b 1, 25b 3, also Uruviśa

 

Page 100

Kumārabhūta a form of Mañjuśrī 7a 5

kharbuja watermelon 38b 4,6

Guhyasamāja a form of Mañjuśrī T. gSaṅ bai 0dus 49a 4, 0tantra 0rgyud 24a 1

Caṇaka 22a 3, a king: Cāṇakya 24b 5.

 

Go to Page 101 to 120

Back to Tabs

Page 101

Candra T. Zla ba, Candra lineage 23b 6, Kulika Candra 44b 1, 45b 3, Turuṣka Candra 25a 1, 32a 5, annotation to 25a 2-3.

caryā T. spyod pa termination 31a 1

Jambudvīpa 0Dsam bui gliṅ 6a 1, 3, 6, 14b 3, 21b 1, 26b 3, 34b 1, 35b 5, 37b 4, 40a 6, 41b 4, 49b 2, the little Jambudvīpa 0Dsam bui gliṅ cuṅ ṅu 6b 5, 42a 1

Jina T. rGyal ba for Buddha: 21a 1, 23b 4, 50; the Buddha of the three times 33b 4, opp88. to Paṇ c’en: the Dalai Lama 5b 1-2, 6b 3. 26a 6 (rGyal dbaṅ); the Second Dalai Lama 16a 2, 17b 6, 19a 2, 30a 5.

tilaka 36a 2 a plant

Tīrthaṅkara never in a precise sense but = tīrthika T. mu stegs byed 26a 4, 27a 2, 5, 31b 5, 32b 4


References:

  1. opp. opera: more than one work.

 

Page 102

dharma T. c’os Teachings of Buddha 20b 6, 25a 5, 28b 1, 45a 4, 46b 2, 49a 4, Mleccha-dharma T. kla kloi c’os 48a 6, 48b 1; dharma: forma 4b. 17b 1, 49b 1.

Dhuma for Dhumaṣṭhira 17a 6, annotation to 17a 6

Nālanda T. Nā len dra, but sometimes as Nā lan da v. Śrī0 9b 2, 21b 4, 24b 1, annotation to 49b 5

 

Page 103-104

N/A

 

Page 105

Yamāntaka T. gŚin rje gśed 22a 3, 38a 3, annotation to 13a 1, a kulika 44b 2

Yaśas: Mañjuśrīkīrti T. Grags pa 44b 1, 5, 45b1, 48a 5, 6, arhat 29a1, Asoka’s teacher 21a 6

 

Page 106

Vilyānagara for Vijayanagara 14b 1, 17b, 33b 6

Virūḍhaka T. 0P’ags skyes po 39a 4, King Virūḍhaka 47b 3

 

Page 107

Vishnu T. K’yab 0jug 12b 2, 28b 2, King Vishnu. 23a 6

Vīra 29a 1 Vīra’s son T. yab sras

śarabha probably means camel here 43b 2

 

Page 108

Sumatikalpabhadrasamudra T. bLo bzaṅ bskal bzaṅ rgya mts’o of Dalai Lama 2a.
sthavira T. gnas brtan pa 29b 6, 30a 3 (cult), otherwise T. gnas brtan 24a 3, 37b1

_______________________

 

Page 109

 

Index II.

Notes from translator:

  • Only indexes that contain German language in the original book are included in this section.
  • The Tibetan Index; the quotations, which are already provided in the Index I, would not be repeated here.

 

Page 110

mc’od rten: caitya, stupas are meant here

 

Page 111

gños 25b 1 and annotation
gnas bcu: the eighteen arhats (annotation to 18a 1)

 

Page 112

pad mo footprint 5b 3, 26a 6

p’ur bu: spikes, magical bludgeon 36a; Bṛhaspati 31a 5

fu kiaṅ (Chinese) the f is pronounced through the prefix h (before) p’ in the Tibetan writing

 

Page 113

mya ṅan med: Ashoka n. pr., a tree
_____________________

 

Page 114

N/A

 

Page 115

German Index III

Note from translator: only indexes that contain German language in the original book are included in this section.

Abfallen (Falling off) of hands and feet of a statue to explain the raw image of Jagannātha referring to Purī 12b

Ablutionen ablutions 9b

Acht (eight) altar offerings, the so-called “naiman takil” in Mongolian, to 44a 1

Ackerbau (field crops) prosper through magic 14a; thriving without farming 47a

Asketen (ascetic) 18a of yogi, sādhaka

Bau (construction) of a stupa of Śāriputra; Buddhist constructions: 21b, 23a, 24a, 25ab

Baum (tree) of arjuna, ashoka, baila, bradara, kambita, kapittha, kataka, patuśa, sal, tāla: Jasmin 37a; Bodhi tree shows formation and figures on its leaves etc. 8b (cf. Guhya, Bandhe)

Berg (Mountains) surround Lha sa to 44a 1; artificial mountains in the parks 11a; Mountain Meru to 49a; of Ratnagiri, Ds’a mi gi ri, Lohita, Rāsa, Kakā, Candrakalā, Kailāsa, Ketaka, Himālaya. Ilora, Suk’em, Ka ma ru, Yavadvīpa, Pañcaśīrṣaparvata

Bettfuss (staff) of a khaṭvāṅga

Bittgebet (prayer of supplication) of a praṇidhi

Blendwerk (deception) of a māyā

Blumen (flowers) of ashoka, puṇḍarīka (41a), kunda, kusumbha, utpala, padma, tāmbūla, udumvara, tujanaya, tilaka. Flowers in the kings’ parks 10b. A rain of flowers when the siddhi appears 9b, 21b

Blut (blood) blood and meat were consumed by witches 17a; vomiting blood is the punishment for unveiling the Heruka’s image

Brücke (bridge) to Ceylon 14b

Buchv (book/manuscript) incorrect manuscripts 33b; the buried books cf. Guhyatantra.

China (China) 6b-7a, 8a; Chinese monks 22b; Elephants were brought to China 13b

Dämonen (demons) of Hiṅgalācī, asura, yakṣa, yaksinī, rāksasa, kinnara, nāga.

Donnerkeil (thunderbolt) of vajra; Thunder dragon 12a

Dreizack (trident) of trisūla

Dummheit (stupidity) Tibetans’ stupidity 32b, Hindus’ stupidity with regards to paśu, nor

Edelsteine (gems) 10a, 32a, 43a of indranīla, ketana, cintāmani, candrakānta

Eis (ice) 37b, 38b, 41a, 42b; ice mountains 42a, 44a

Elefant (elephant) Elephants were brought to China; on the root of a sala tree Nāgārjuna transforms into an elephant annotation to 50, flying elephant 43b: goddess devours an elephant 38a

Elfenbeinarbeiten (figures made of ivory)

Erde (earth); earth element in Jambudvīpa 6b, to 49b 3; buried under the ground 24a89; the earth 8b; mud 37a


References:

  1. It is should be on 24a not 24b as written in the German translation.

 

Page 116

Essen (food) of a kulika 43b: of the ascetics 18a90; of Tibetans is beef meat; of demons is human flesh; of the ḍākinīs 17b; of the Indian kings 10a; watermelon 38b

Europäer (Europeans) from Engeraichi, Holandhaisai, Phereng, Pāṇḍava, Priyaṅgudvīpa, U-ru-su

Euter-ähnliche Pflanze (udder-like plant) 36a

Fadenkreuz (cross lines) T. mdos to 33a 4

Feldkapelle (field chapel) of t’e

Feuer (fire) bone jewellery emit sparks of fire 12a; fire during caṇḍa’s meditation; between water and rock 20a 6 and also its annotation; fire element in Jambudvīpa 6b and to 49b 3; fire offering of homa

Finger (finger) threatening sign 31b

Fish (fish) of Matsya, Macchindranātha, Lūipā, Lūhipāda, śiśumāra; fish with heads of other species 40a; Fish King 39b

Flechte (lichen) of Ekajaṭī; her white lichen 41b

Fleisch (meat) of human flesh (17a); beef meat 49a.

Fliegen (fly) against the wind

Fuß (foot); path91 of Nāgārjuna 31b; of Buddha 5b: of Khunimasda, Śrīpāduka, Padma (cf. to 22b 5)

Gazelle (gazelle); magical gazelle 36b; gazelle park 9b92

Gefangene (prisoner) were freed 32a

Gemüsesuppe (vegetable soup) of Kambala

Geschlechtsglied (reproductive limb); circumcision 33a; hermaphrodite 41b; of padma, lotus rose, abja, vajra

Gesprenster (ghost) 39a; preta

Gewürznelke (clove) 16b

Gift (poison); was saved 36b; the three poisons 17a

Glas (glass) 11a

Glück (luck) Lakṣmī, Mahāśrī, Padminī, to 15a 5.

Gold (gold); gold shipped to China 23a; gold pieces 21b; gold in the mountain interior 39a; golden water 40b; gold in Kalāpa 44a; golden mandala 45b, 46a; of jambunāda, Suvarṇadvīpa

Gott (deity); twelve great deities 47a; Buddhist deities: Trayastriṁśat, Mahākāla, Mārīcī, Amrtakuṇḍalī, Vidyuccalā, Yamāntaka, Cundā, Tārā, Ekajaṭī, Mandeha, Yama, Lokapāla, Virūḍhaka, Vaiśrāvaṇa, Mañjuśrī, Hālāhalāvalokiteśvara, Khasarpaṇa, Jagaddali, Śrīvajra: Heruka; Brahmin deities: Brahmā, Bṛhaspati Kapila, Umā, Jagannātha, Somanātha, Mātṛkā, Kāmākhyā, devī, Mahāśrī, Rāhulī; Supreme Deity (Adhideva) 35a, 36a, S9b; Vaiṣṇava elements in Kālacakra from Vishnu, Hanu(mān), Narasiṁha avatar,
Śailāśva, Kalkī, Chakrī

Gras (grass); kuśa 5b

Hand (hand); they do not eat the food that is touched by hands 33a; the deities have many hands, e.g. Mārīcī, Yamāntaka

Hauptader (aorta) in the dhūti and avadhūti meditation

Heilkräuter (medicinal herb) 11a, 36b

Hetäre (hetaera) of g,yu mo, g,yuṅ mo; joyful yoginis 33b

Heterodoxe (heterodoxy) of Brahmin, Kapila, Aiśvara, Vaibhāṣika, tīrthika

Heulen (cry/howl) as a punishment for acts of violence 25a

Hexe (witch) 15a-b, 20b; died 13a; the witch’s mountain 17b 3; Udyāna, Kaboka, Dhumaṣthira

Hinterindien (Farther India) from Ra k’aṅ, Ma rko, Paigudvīpa, Suvarṇadvīpa

Höhle (caves) of the sādhakas 38a; of Kambala 17b

Hölle (hell) 22a, 25b; of Candra, Cāṇakya, Mleccha; demons 37b of preta

Inseln (islands) 13b, 15b, 22a, 27a; Siṁhaladvīpa, Tāmradvīpa, Yavadvīpa, Sirkodhana, Priyaṅgudvīpa

Kaste (caste): Pride in India’s caste as opposed to the Tibetan’s 14a; sectarian castes of Upāli, Kātyāyana, Rāhula

Kehrer (sweeper) 10b

Klostertempel (monastery temple) of vihara, gtsug lag k’aṅ, bSam yas, rJe P’uṅ ts’ogs, Nālanda, Vikramaśīla, Otantapurī, Devīkoti

Knochenschmuck (bone jewellery) 12a


References:

  1. It is should be on 18a not 16b as written in the German translation.
  2. Füßspuren literally means footprint.
  3. It is should be on 9b not 8b as written in the German translation.

 

Page 117

Lebensexilir (elixir of life) 41a of amrit

Ledersack (leather bag) 37a

Lehramt (teaching post) 20b, 28b

Leichenacker (mortuaries) 24b

Lieder (songs) 39b, 41a; dohā’s songs

Linnen (linens) 10a

Literatur-Notizen (literature notes): 5b, 17b, 22b, 23a, 34a, 35b, 42b, 45a, 47ab; of Bu ston, Tāranātha

Lotus (lotus) of abja, padma, utpala, udumvara: E on the abja 2b; Lotus feet 26b of pad mo; lotus leaf 42a = mountains to 44a

Löwen (lion) with eight paws 36b

Luft (air); walking in the air 31a93 , wife is caught in the air 15a, of s.v. shoulder; air element in Jambudvīpa 6b, to 49b 3; drum sound in the air 13a

Meditation (meditation) of samādhi, lāla, rasa, avadhūti, Rāhu

Melone (melon) watermelon of kharbuja 88b.

Mensch (human); human flesh 11b, 13a; rākṣasa (Tibetan śa za); fish with human head 40a; human with woollen fleece 34b

Messer (knife) of kartrikā

Mönch (monk) of bhikṣu, Saindhava, Hīnayāna, saṅgha, Vinaya, sects; round dance of yellow robes 5b

Mond (moon); white moon light 5b; moon light in 31b 1; moon cf. 49b 3

Mongolen (Mongols) 7b

Moral (morals) 12a, 24a

Moschee (mosque) of māsita

Motten (moths) people like moths 9b

Mücke (mosquitos) strike 48a

Musik (music) 39b, 41a

Mutter (mother) of Mātṛkā, Viśvamātā, ma rgyud; mother of the Ashoka 20b

Opfer (sacrifice) of homa

Papageien (parrots) in India 10b; fish with the head of parrots 40a

Park (park) 10b, 43b

Pfeil (arrow) Indras’ arrow 5b

Pferd (horse) of śailāśva, kalkī, daryāghorā, ājānīya; demons with the heads of a horse 39b; Vishnu with a head of a horse 12b 6

Pilger (pilgrim) 27b

Rad (wheel) of cakra; wheels appear in the air 36a

Reliquien (relics) 21b

Rindfleisch (beef meat) eat 49a

Sandel (sandalwood) 13b, 14b, 39b, 43a; of padminī 15a

Satan (satan); mocking name for Buddha 32b and appendix

Schädel (skull/head); striking the head whilst chasing mosquitos away 48a; skullcap 17b, 38b; mudra skull 37a

Schiff (ship) 11a

Schlange (serpents) 20b; of nāga, Ashoka 21b 6.

Schmucksachen (jewellery) 10a; made out of bones 12a

Schnecke (snail) of śankha, g,yas su 0k’yil pa 10a

Schulter (shoulder), lifted to the shoulder and taken into the air 37b, 41a

Schwarz (black) of Yamāntaka; black mountain 39a, black fleece 34b, black native inhabitants 12a 1

Schwein (pig) T. p’yag: st. stag 36a

Schwert (sword); Vidyā sword 31a, to 6a 6; 13a 1, 17b

Schwimmen (swim) the witches fly away like birds 17a

Seide (silk) 10a

Sekten (sects); Buddhist sects 29b, 30a b, 33b; sect of rÑiṅ ma pa, Kar ma pa; heterodox sect 31b

Silber (silver); silver in the mountain 39a, silver water 40a

Sonne (sun) holding the sun 15a 2; Sun’s chariot 45a; sun of sūrya; sun declination 16a; sun of t’ig le, bindu 49b 3

Speiseangebot (dietary laws); of the Hindus 33a; of the kings 10a.


References:

  1. There is no reference to ”in der Luft gehen” on annotation 31a

 

Page 118

Spuk (ghostly figures) 12a

Statuen (statues) of the Bodhisattvas 44a

Steinfiguren (figures are carved in stones) 10b

Sterne (stars) of nakṣatra

Störche (storks) grey; the emblem of India 5b

Tanz (dance), mystical round dance of the incarnation of the hierarch high priest 5b; dance in South India 15a

Tempel (temple) of Somanātha, Jagannātha; temple servants 24a

Teufel (devil) shows Buddhist figure 28b 8-6; people look like devil 13a; devil’s face (Yama)

Tibet (Tibetan) 7b, 13a, 18b; not interesting 33a; Tibetan rNam t’ar 33b; stupid Tibetan 32b; heretic Tibetan 31b; only reincarnated as a Tibetan 49a; highly praised Tibetan 26a; Tibetan close to the holy sites 20a; Tibetans in India 14a, 23a; of gÑos, Lha mt’oṅ, Kīrtinātha, gTsaṅ po etc.; Tibetan and Sanskrit 18a 4.

Tiger (tiger); is it supposed to be a pig? 36a; tiger of sādhaka 18a 1; warlocks turn into tigers 17b

Tod (death) taken away 3b; death of Candra: from vomiting blood, howling

Traum (dream) 48a, 50

Trommel-Schall (drum beat) in the air 13a and annotation

Verwandlung (transformation) of a tiger, gazelle, bird 17a

Vogel (bird); fish with a bird head 40a; birds in the parks 10b; the witches fly away like birds 17a; bird trace to 16b 3; white raven 6b

Wagen (carriage) war chariots 46b; Rathika’s nomads; Jambudvīpa resembles a carriage 5b; yakṣa’s carriage 21b

Wasser (water); water cup 6b; water element in Jambudvīpa 6b (to 49b 3); Brahmaputra’s waterfall of Yama

Weib (wife); bad wife causes Mathora’s death 27a; wife converts a king 25b; wife of Padminī, Śakti, g,yumo, g,yuṅ mo, witch, yogini, ḍākinī, vajra0, kṣetra0, mudra, Viśvamātā, Tara, Mātrkā, dūtī, prajñā

Wiedergeburten (reincarnation) to 2b 1; of Sa skya Pandit; a bad reincarnation as a Tibetan 49a; of kulikas 44b ff.; of Candra (to 25a 2-3); of Kīrtinātha and 17b, 19a; of Ashoka 21b

Wollgewand (woollen garment) of Kambala 17b 3 (to 29a 5)

Wurzel (roots) to dig out the roots with a magic spike 36a

Zauber (magic) of mahāmudrāsiddhi, siddhi; magic schools 9a, 12a, 14a; magic spike 36a; magic power 14a, 23b, 30b, 41a; magical body v. vajrakāya; magic cage (to 33a 4); magic tricks 17a; of rain of flower, sword, drums, yogi, sādhaka, ḍākinī, tantra, dhāraṇī, anuttarayoga.

Zeichnen (drawing) of deities’ image 36a, 37a, 38a.

___________________________

 

Page 119

Annotation to 18a 1

The Appearance of Tsoṅ k’a (pa) as a yogi riding a wild tiger (click to enlarge)

The Appearance of Tsoṅ k’a (pa) as a yogi riding a wild tiger (click to enlarge)

 

Page 120

N/A

 

Go to Page 121 to finish

Back to Tabs

Page 121

Annotation to 28b 2

The characters of Nakṣatras according to Vaiḍūrya dkar po (click to enlarge)

The characters of Nakṣatras according to Vaiḍūrya dkar po (click to enlarge)

 

Page 122

N/A

 

Page 123

Annotation to 15a 2

Virupa (click to enlarge)

Virupa (click to enlarge)

Annotation to 29a 2

Darika (click to enlarge)

Darika (click to enlarge)

Amrtakundali (click to enlarge)

Amrtakundali (click to enlarge)

 

Page 124

N/A

 

Page 125

Annotation to 29a 2

Tailo stamps sesame using the ḍenki (click to enlarge)

Tailo stamps sesame using the ḍenki (click to enlarge)

Annotation to 29a 2

Vajraghaṇṭa takes the form of Heruka (click to enlarge)

Vajraghaṇṭa takes the form of Heruka (click to enlarge)

Back to Tabs

Go to top

 

The Journey to Śambhala for Download

The Journey to Sambhala (English) (click to download PDF)

The Journey to Sambhala (German) (click to download PDF)

 

Go to English Page 1-61

Back to Tabs

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

 

Go to English Page 62-Finish

Back to Tabs

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

 

Go to German Page 1-60

Back to Tabs

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

 

Go to German Page 61 to Finish

Back to Tabs

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

Click on image to enlarge

 

Back to Tabs

Go to top

 

Recommended Reading (Free Download)

Kalachakra and the Twenty-Five Kulika Kings (click to download PDF)

The Shambhala Myth and the West (click to download PDF)

Guide to Shambhala in an Unique Manuscript (click to download PDF)

Studies in the Kalachakra Tantra (click to download PDF)

The texts above were sourced from legitimate book-hosting services offering these texts for free download. They are made available here for purely educational, non-commercial purposes.

 

Sources:

  • “Kalachakra”, Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, 5 February 2019, [website], https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kalachakra (accessed 10 February 2019).
  • “Shambhala”, Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, 14 February 2019, [website], https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shambhala (accessed 15 February 2019).
  • “Lobsang Palden Yeshe, 6th Panchen Lama”, Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, 23 June 2017, [website], https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lobsang_Palden_Yeshe,_6th_Panchen_Lama (accessed 10 February 2019).
  • “Panchen Lama”, Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, 12 January 2019, [website], https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panchen_Lama (accessed 10 February 2019).
  • “Tashi Lhunpo Monastery”, Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, 10 January 2019, [website], https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tashi_Lhunpo_Monastery (accessed 10 February 2019).
  • “Kings of Shambhala”, Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, 05 January 2019, [website], https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kings_of_Shambhala, (accessed 10 February 2019).
  • Lai, David, “Historic First Kalachakra Initiation by the 11th Panchen Lama”, 25 July 2016, [website], https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/?p=105553, (accessed 10 February 2019).
  • “Powerful Kalachakra”, 27 November 2018, [website], https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/?p=179689, (accessed 10 February 2019).
  • “House of Shambhala”, 8 September 2018, [website], https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/?p=171817, (accessed 10 February 2019).
  • “Introduction to the Kalachakra”, His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama of Tibet, [website], https://www.dalailama.com/teachings/kalachakra-initiations, (accessed 10 February 2019).
  • “The Kalachakra Initiation Explained”, [website], http://www.buddhanet.net/kalini.htm, (accessed 10 February 2019).
  • Watt, Jeff, “Buddhist Deity: Kalachakra Main Page”, Himalayan Art Resources, May 2017, [website], https://www.himalayanart.org/search/set.cfm?setID=167, (accessed 10 February 2019).
  • Watt, Jeff, “Buddhist Deity: Kalachakra (4 faces, 24 arms)”, Himalayan Art Resources, [website], https://www.himalayanart.org/search/set.cfm?setID=1810, (accessed 10 February 2019).
  • Watt, Jeff, “Buddhist Deity: Kalachakra, Heruka”, Himalayan Art Resources, November 2000, [website], https://www.himalayanart.org/search/set.cfm?setID=1528, (accessed 10 February 2019).
  • Watt, Jeff, “Kings: Shambhala Kings Main Page”, Himalayan Art Resources, April 2007, [website], https://www.himalayanart.org/search/set.cfm?setID=1111, (accessed 10 February 2019).
  • Watt, Jeff, “Subject: Shambhala Battle & King Rudracharin”, Himalayan Art Resources, July 2006, [website], https://www.himalayanart.org/search/set.cfm?setID=2381, (accessed 10 February 2019).
  • Berzin, Dr. Alexander, “What Is Kalachakra?”, Study Buddhism by Berzin Archives, [website], https://studybuddhism.com/en/tibetan-buddhism/tantra/kalachakra/what-is-kalachakra, (accessed 10 February 2019).
  • Berzin, Dr. Alexander, “Shambhala: Myths and Reality”, Study Buddhism by Berzin Archives, [website], https://studybuddhism.com/en/advanced-studies/history-culture/shambhala/shambhala-myths-and-reality, (accessed 10 February 2019).
  • LePage, Victoria, “Shambhala: The Fascinating Truth Behind the Myth of Shangri-la, Google Books, https://books.google.com.my/books?id=oUIum8H_9qgC&redir_esc=y, (accessed 10 February 2019).
  • Holloway, April, “Mysteries of the Kingdom of Shambhala”, Anchient Origins, 5 April 2014, [website], https://www.ancient-origins.net/ancient-places-asia/mysteries-kingdom-shambhala-001529, (accessed 10 February 2019).
  • Wood, Michael, “Shangri-la” BBC, 17 February 2011, [website], http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/cultures/shangri_la_01.shtml, (accessed 10 February 2019).
  • “Shambhala”, Chinese Buddhist Encyclopedia, 9 October 2017, [website], http://www.chinabuddhismencyclopedia.com/en/index.php/Shambhala, (accessed 10 February 2019).
  • “6th Panchen Lama, first “Panchen Erdeni” Conferred by Chinese Emperor”, TIBET.CN, 3 December 2015, [website], http://eng.tibet.cn/eng/culture/arts/201512/t20151203_5776981.html, (accessed 10 February 2019).
  • Horst, Kristen Nehemiah, “Lobsang Palden Yeshe, 6th Panchen Lama”, Better World Books, [website], https://www.betterworldbooks.com/product/detail/lobsang-palden-yeshe-6th-panchen-lama-6135942697, (accessed 10 February 2019).
  • “Tashilhunpo Monastery – Official Seat of the Panchen Lama”, 2019 China Discovery, [webite], https://www.chinadiscovery.com/tibet/shigatse/tashilhunpo-monastery.html, (accessed 10 February 2019).
  • Roerich, Nicholas, “Shambhala: In Search of the New Era”, Vermont, Inner Traditions, 1990.
  • Grunwedel, Albert, “The Journey to Sambhala”, Munich, Royal Bavarian Academy of Sciences, 2010.

 

For more interesting information:

Tags: , , , , , , ,

Please support us so that we can continue to bring you more Dharma:

If you are in the United States, please note that your offerings and contributions are tax deductible. ~ the tsemrinpoche.com blog team

5 Responses to The Mystical Land of Shambhala

DISCLAIMER IN RELATION TO COMMENTS OR POSTS GIVEN BY THIRD PARTIES BELOW

Kindly note that the comments or posts given by third parties in the comment section below do not represent the views of the owner and/or host of this Blog, save for responses specifically given by the owner and/or host. All other comments or posts or any other opinions, discussions or views given below under the comment section do not represent our views and should not be regarded as such. We reserve the right to remove any comments/views which we may find offensive but due to the volume of such comments, the non removal and/or non detection of any such comments/views does not mean that we condone the same.

We do hope that the participants of any comments, posts, opinions, discussions or views below will act responsibly and do not engage nor make any statements which are defamatory in nature or which may incite and contempt or ridicule of any party, individual or their beliefs or to contravene any laws.

  1. Jeffry William on Jun 10, 2019 at 5:24 pm

    I was believe that Shambala paradise is only a myth not knowing it is physically exists on earth and it’s possible to reach depends on karmic affinity of a person. What surprising me is this mystical paradise could be discovered by the result of committing higher tantric practice. Thank you Rinpoche and all team who made this rich, extensive article about Shambala accessible for the benefit of many people.

  2. Cc on May 21, 2019 at 4:28 am

    🙏🙏🙏🙏🙏🙏🙏🙏🙏🙏 Thank you Rinpoche for sharing.

    Shambala is associate to a place which are peaceful, calm, high lattitute and many researcher referred it as paradise on earth.

  3. Samfoonheei on May 11, 2019 at 6:45 am

    Shambhala is an ancient kingdom believed to be hidden somewhere in Central Asia, undiscovered. A mystical, harmonious valley, gently guided from a lamasery, enclosed in the western end of the Kunlun Mountains. Shambhala gradually came to be seen as a Buddhist Pure Land as in ancient texts. Its known as the land with a thousand names to many as mention in both Hindu as well as Tibetan Buddhist literature. It is a believed to be a place filled with happiness, peace and tranquillity . It is even referred to some scholars, philosopher and researcher as a paradise on Earth . There is a legend behind this beautiful kingdom. The myths of Shambhala were part of the inspiration for the story of Shangri-La. The exact location is still remains unknown to many. In the past many Yogis, lamas have taken the journey to this mythical paradise of peace. Those with special affiliation may actually be able to go there through their karmic connection as mentioned by H H 14th Dalai Lama .
    Interesting read ……the history of Tashi Lhunpo Monastery and the quest Laurence Brahm embarked on an expedition to search for Shangri-La. He encounters “The Journey to Śambhala” by the 6th Panchen Lama leads him to seek an audience with the incarnation of Shambhala’s king, the 11th Panchen Lama from whom he received this precious advice about where Shangri-La . We are fortunate able to see some of the rare pictures, murals of the lost city of Guge. Truly enjoyed the 2 videos .
    Thank you Rinpoche for this interesting sharing.

  4. Tsa Tsa Ong on May 10, 2019 at 2:37 pm

    This article about Shambala really blew my mind away the whole night ,and i really can’t resist commenting on it!😍 As for my understanding, this place actually exsist on earth, but we need to have an enlightened mind through higher tantric practice in order to discover it. If that is the case, then it is truly amazing!😍🔥🔥🌈 Thank you so much Rinpoche and blog team for spending invaluable time for this great article!🙏🙏👏👍👍🔥☘️🌈

  5. Wei on May 10, 2019 at 8:47 am

    My goodness this blog post is so rich in information on Shambhala. It will be a gem of a read for anyone interested in these kinds of mystical places.

    ‘In 1833, a renowned Hungarian scholar, Sandor Korosi Csoma (1784-1842), who was one of the first Europeans to learn the Tibetan language, read the Kangyur, and put together the first Tibetan-English dictionary. After this, he wrote an article about Kalachakra, and in this article he mentioned Shambhala. According to Csoma, this mystical land was located between 45′ – 50′ north latitude, which pointed to an area of low mountains, lakes, and green hills in eastern Kazakhstan.’

    I found this part particularly interesting because there is the Eurasian Pole of Inaccessibility (or the area of land furthest from the ocean) which is also located near the east of Kazakhstan. It sort of matches the theme of hidden/mystical city.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pole_of_inaccessibility#Eurasia

    Thank you to everyone who contributed to the production of this article.

Leave a Reply

Maximum file size: 15MB each
Allowed file types: jpg, jpeg, gif, png

 

Maximum file size: 50MB
Allowed file type: mp4
Maximum file size: 15MB each
Allowed file types: pdf, docx

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Blog Chat

BLOG CHAT

Dear blog friends,

I’ve created this section for all of you to share your opinions, thoughts and feelings about whatever interests you.

Everyone has a different perspective, so this section is for you.

Tsem Rinpoche


SCHEDULED CHAT SESSIONS / 中文聊天室时间表

THURSDAY
10 - 11PM (GMT +8)
5 - 6AM (PST)
(除了每个月的第一个星期五)
SATURDAY
11AM - 12PM (GMT +8)
FRIDAY 7 - 8PM (PST)

UPCOMING TOPICS FOR JUNE / 六月份讨论主题

Please come and join in the chat for a fun time and support. See you all there.


Blog Chat Etiquette

These are some simple guidelines to make the blog chat room a positive, enjoyable and enlightening experience for everyone. Please note that as this is a chat room, we chat! Do not flood the chat room, or post without interacting with others.

EXPAND
Be friendly

Remember that these are real people you are chatting with. They may have different opinions to you and come from different cultures. Treat them as you would face to face, and respect their opinions, and they will treat you the same.

Be Patient

Give the room a chance to answer you. Patience is a virtue. And if after awhile, people don't respond, perhaps they don't know the answer or they did not see your question. Do ask again or address someone directly. Do not be offended if people do not or are unable to respond to you.

Be Relevant

This is the blog of H.E. Tsem Rinpoche. Please respect this space. We request that all participants here are respectful of H.E. Tsem Rinpoche and his organisation, Kechara.

Be polite

Avoid the use of language or attitudes which may be offensive to others. If someone is disrespectful to you, ignore them instead of arguing with them.

Please be advised that anyone who contravenes these guidelines may be banned from the chatroom. Banning is at the complete discretion of the administrator of this blog. Should anyone wish to make an appeal or complaint about the behaviour of someone in the chatroom, please copy paste the relevant chat in an email to us at care@kechara.com and state the date and time of the respective conversation.

Please let this be a conducive space for discussions, both light and profound.

KECHARA FOREST RETREAT PROGRESS UPDATES

Here is the latest news and pictorial updates, as it happens, of our upcoming forest retreat project.

The Kechara Forest Retreat is a unique holistic retreat centre focused on the total wellness of body, mind and spirit. This is a place where families and individuals will find peace, nourishment and inspiration in a natural forest environment. At Kechara Forest Retreat, we are committed to give back to society through instilling the next generation with universal positive values such as kindness and compassion.

For more information, please read here (english), here (chinese), or the official site: retreat.kechara.com.

Noticeboard

Name: Email:
For:  
Mail will not be published
  • S.Prathap
    Thursday, Jun 20. 2019 04:25 PM
    Thank you for sharing this article.Training is a way to break us from our comfort zone. If we do not open up our mind to be trained, how would we see and understand deeper. Of course, training does not usually come easy.

    With hard work and consistency, we will surely see results. If we fail, we must examine what went wrong and why.If we are not committed in our training, it is very hard for us to get the result

    Read more : https://bit.ly/2RdiPj8
  • Balachandran
    Thursday, Jun 20. 2019 02:24 PM
    மந்திரச் சொற்கள் அனைத்தும் புனிதமானவை. புத்தரை மந்திரங்கள் வழி வழிபடுகிறோம். மந்திரங்கள் தெய்வ வழிபாட்டிற்கு மிக முக்கியமானவையாக கருதப்படுகிறது. அவற்றை அடிக்கடி உச்சரிப்பதன் வழி மனதில் சந்தோசம் ஏற்படும், பாதுகாப்பு அதிகரிக்கும், அவருடைய ஆசியும் கிட்டும். ஆகவே மகா காப்பாளரான டோர்ஜே ஷுக்டேனின் மந்திரங்களை உச்சரித்து நன்மை பெறுங்கள். அவருடைய பல்வேறு மந்திரங்கள் கீழ்வருமாறு கொடுக்கப்பட்டுள்ளது.

    டோஜே ஷுக்டேனின் தலையாய மந்திரம்:
    ஓம் பென்சா விகி பிதானா சோஹா.

    மனம் அமைதி பெற
    ஓம் பென்சா விகி பிதானா சாந்தி சித்தி ஹங்

    ஆரோக்கியத்துடன் இருக்க
    ஓம் பென்சா விகி பிதானா ஆயுள் சித்தி ஹங்

    தேவையான நல்லதைப் பெற
    ஓம் பென்சா விகி பிதானா புன்னிய சித்தி ஹங்

    நற்குணங்களை வழங்குவதற்கு
    ஓம் பென்சா விகி பிதானா வாஷம் குரு ஹோ

    சகல பாதுகாப்புக்காகவும்
    ஓம் பென்சா விகி பிதானா ரக்ய ரக்ய ஹங்

    அதிகம் தெரிந்துகொள்ள:https://bit.ly/2XsAdGo
  • Ummamageswari
    Thursday, Jun 20. 2019 02:10 PM
    Thank you so much for this article. Based on the story it is a bizarre tale of supernatural phenomena that occurred after the historic battle of Dan-no-ura which took place in 1185. It is said that Hoichi the Earless One is a well known Japanese folktale character who lived during the feudal era.

    What terrified me is Hoichi alone playing his biwa in the pouring rain in front of the memorial tomb of Antoku Tenno while loudly chanting the song about the Battle of Dan-no-ura. Thank you.

    Read more: https://bit.ly/2NgJUAs
  • Ummamageswari
    Thursday, Jun 20. 2019 01:40 PM
    Thank you so much for this article. By reading this article, i get to know Chinese Buddhist scholars which are Master Yinguang, Venerable Hongyi, Venerable Nenghai, Venerable Fazun, Venerable Yinshun, Zhao Puchu, Venerable Longlian, Master Nan Huai-Chin, Professor Fang Litian and Professor Wang Bangwei’s backgrounds.

    The availability of large quantities of Buddhist scriptures in the Chinese language and the introduction of translations over the centuries made China an important proponent of Buddhism in the world, having disseminated Buddhism to Korea, Japan, Vietnam and other places. Thank you.

    Read more: https://bit.ly/2Bz8c42
  • Sofi
    Thursday, Jun 20. 2019 01:31 PM
    Thailand’s ‘Renegade’ Yet Powerful Buddhist Nuns

    According to the Buddha, women are just as capable as men in the practice of the Dharma and have the potential to achieve enlightenment. Records of sayings and deeds of pre-eminent Buddhist nuns can be found in the early Buddhist schools, such as the collection of famous poems composed by the elder nuns about enlightenment that are preserved in the Pali Canon.

    If they were recognised as equal by Buddha, find out why are the female nuns considered renegades now: http://bit.ly/RenegadeNuns1
  • Sofi
    Thursday, Jun 20. 2019 01:15 PM
    Psychic Kids (4)

    Another episode of Psychic Kids I thought my friends would enjoy. Notice how the senior psychics train up the younger ones. Reminds me of the Monastery where senior monks train up the younger one. Nice episode. Take a watch. ~ Tsem Rinpoche

    Watch it here: http://bit.ly/PsychicKids4
  • Sofi
    Thursday, Jun 20. 2019 01:11 PM
    Miyolangsangma, the Goddess of Inexhaustible Giving

    Tengboche Rinpoche, the Abbot of Tengboche Monastery, tells of how the Sherpas fleeing Tibet brought books that described the mountain and valley that would provide them with a place of refuge. In particular, the Sherpas believe that the south side of Mount Everest is a beyul, one of several hidden valleys designated by Guru Rinpoche.

    Both Sherpas and Tibetans also believe that Mount Everest is the abode of the goddess Jomo Miyolangsangma.

    Read more of this interesting article here: http://bit.ly/Miyolangsangma
  • Ummamageswari
    Thursday, Jun 20. 2019 12:29 PM
    Thank you so much for this article. Choyang Kuten Lama who came from humble beginnings, has experienced his first trance when he was seventeen years old. Choyang Kuten Lama’s life story and deeds are an example of someone who had a special relationship with Dorje Shugden where he spent most of his life in doing services to others.

    In the world today, there are many, many qualified oracles where they able to take full trance of an entity that can use that person and use that person’s body to do work. Thank you.

    Read more: https://bit.ly/2EdMD9p
  • Yee Yin
    Thursday, Jun 20. 2019 11:53 AM
    We don’t have to be egoistic, we are actually quite small if you look at how big the universe is. We may have seen and experienced many things but there are even more things that we have not seen and experienced before. Different people will have different perceptions of us. Their perception is based on their own experience with us, with life and their brought up as well. Therefore, as long as we know we are doing the right things and conduct ourselves in the right way, we don’t have to argue or justify with others just to prove ourselves right. We can prove to them the real us through or action, which is more important.

    https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/one-minute-story/tales-with-my-lama-laugh-away-your-ego
  • Yee Yin
    Thursday, Jun 20. 2019 11:33 AM
    Because of my parents, I could become a nun. And I prayed for them to be happy in the next life. Even today, when I see something beautiful, or make or see beautiful food, I thank my parents for their energy and virtue. The food I prepare is an expression of gratitude to my parents. They let me become who I am. ~ Ven. Jeong Kwan

    http://bit.ly/2ScxevA
  • Yee Yin
    Thursday, Jun 20. 2019 11:33 AM
    Nagarjuna was a famous teacher of the Mahayana and was known as Acharya (instructor in religious matters). His teachings and writings on sunyata (emptiness) and other Buddhist topics are still considered as authoritative guides for many Buddhist practitioners and monasteries.

    http://bit.ly/2P2nfqD
  • Samfoonheei
    Thursday, Jun 20. 2019 11:12 AM
    Thank you Rinpoche for this precise teachings from this book Snakes, Pigs and Rooster. Very detailed book which we could learn and inspired by those teachings. Rinpoche has used Buddhist philosophy and psychology, guiding us to transform our mind to distract us from all those unnecessary attachments. I have not get hold of the book yet but reading through blogs gave me a better view . A good book for our reading and learning from all the teachings to reach that ultimate level of an Enlightened Mind. It will inspired us to live our lives meaningfully.
    Thank you again Rinpoche with folded hands and thanks to Pastor Han Nee for this sharing.

    https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/buddhas-dharma/snakes-roosters-and-pigs-by-tsem-rinpoche.html
  • Samfoonheei
    Thursday, Jun 20. 2019 11:11 AM
    Stephen Hawking is a world-renowned British theoretical physicist, known for his contributions to the fields of cosmology, general relativity and quantum gravity. Watching his amazing videos , I concluded the world is a vast of the last centuries and there are things which cannot be seen within our eyes. He was known for his ground breaking work with black holes and was the author of several popular science books. Interesting to watch these videos to understand better of the universe, galaxy, stars, milky ways, gravity , black holes and so forth. All these exists billion of years ago. Some new knowledge to know for many of us.
    Thank you Rinpoche for sharing.

    https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/science-mysteries/into-the-universe-with-stephen-hawking-the-story-of-everything.html
  • Samfoonheei
    Thursday, Jun 20. 2019 11:09 AM
    According to the Tibetan Buddhist belief, Dalai Lama is considered to be the incarnation of Avalokiteśvara, while Panchen Lama is the incarnation of Amitābha. The Panchen Lama is the second most important figure in Tibetan Buddhism. The Panchen Lama’s collection of sadhanas so called Rinjung Lhantab which is a tantric liturgical ‘manual’ of instructions for achieving Enlightenment. Trying to understand more and still reading to get a better view all about this . More suitable for advanced disciples but glad to read a little of it.
    Thank you Pastor David for this sharing.

    https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/buddhas-dharma/rinjung-lhantab-the-panchen-lamas-collection-of-sadhanas.html
  • Chris
    Thursday, Jun 20. 2019 09:39 AM
    Thank you, Rinpoche and the blog team to share about the history of the Jews and their similarity with Dorje Shugden practitioners at this age. Discrimination and segregation have been used throughout the past as a tool to oppress a smaller group of people whom the larger group of people deemed unworthy or wrong.

    It has happened to all societies and all cultural backgrounds just at a different level. However, that does not mean it is okay, and we should accept it. It is not okay for another group of people to cause suffering to another group of people.

    On top of that, the people who are discriminating Dorje Shugden practitioners are mostly Buddhist. Lord Buddha’s teaching teaches us to be patient, kind, and tolerant. They are clearly not practising the teachings, and they are destroying the Buddha’s teaching by behaving barbarically and unreasonably.

    http://bit.ly/2IUkC9w

1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · »

Messages from Rinpoche

Scroll down within the box to view more messages from Rinpoche. Click on the images to enlarge. Click on 'older messages' to view archived messages. Use 'prev' and 'next' links to navigate between pages

Use this URL to link to this section directly: https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/#messages-from-rinpoche

Previous Live Videos