Monarchy System in Malaysia

Nov 29, 2016 | Views: 1,119
Birthday Celebration of Yang di-Pertuan Agong in front of Istana Negara

Birthday Celebration of Yang di-Pertuan Agong (King) in front of Istana Negara (Royal National Palace)

Dear friends around the world,

I have lived in Malaysia for over 20 years. During this time, I have developed a great appreciation for the cultures and customs that exist in Malaysia, which has inspired me to write more about the aspects of Malaysia that enrich its culture. Here is another interesting post to give you more background and understanding of Malaysia.

Malaysia adopts a constitutional monarchy system that is a mixture of hereditary and elected monarchs. Malaysia consists of several administrative regions across thirteen states and three federal territories. Nine states are ruled by monarchs, four states are supervised by a Yang di-Pertua Negeri or Governor, and the Federal Government controls the remaining three federal territories.

For the purpose of this article, we will focus on the office of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong or the Head of State of Malaysia, and the nine states that are ruled by either hereditary or elective monarchs. These states are:

  1. Johor Darul Ta’zim
  2. Kedah Darul Aman
  3. Kelantan Darul Naim
  4. Negeri Sembilan Darul Khusus
  5. Pahang Darul Makmur
  6. Perak Darul Ridzuan
  7. Perlis Indera Kayangan
  8. Selangor Darul Ehsan
  9. Terengganu Darul Iman

I am pleased to present to you the monarchy in Malaysia, its history, and how these unique systems have been implemented successfully for many years. I do so with the greatest respect to the rulers and monarchy of Malaysia.

Tsem Rinpoche

 


 

Overview

Malaysia consists of several Malay kingdoms and regions that were previously part of British Protectorates and Colonial territories. After the unsuccessful attempt to set up the Malayan Union between 1946 and 1948, the British Administrators established the Federation of Malaya in 1948, which acknowledged the symbolic status of Malay’s rulers.

The Federation of Malaya consisted of nine Malay kingdoms: Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Negeri Sembilan, Perak, Perlis, Selangor, and Terengganu, and two British colonial territories, Penang and Malacca. The British High Commissioner, a senior British diplomat in charge of one Commonwealth region, presided over the Federation of Malaya, and was assisted by the Executive Council and the Legislative Council.

Opposition to the establishment of the Malayan Union (1946 – 1948)

Opposition to the establishment of the Malayan Union (1946 – 1948)

The Declaration of Independence from the British Empire on 31 August 1957

The Declaration of Independence from the British Empire on 31 August 1957

On 31 August 1957, the Federation of Malaya declared its independence from the British Empire. On 16 September 1963, the Federation of Malaysia, henceforth simply known as Malaysia, was established. Its members included the former members of the Federation of Malaya and three new members: North Borneo, Sarawak, and Singapore. Singapore exited the federation two years later.

List of states in Malaysia:

No. State Capital City Head of State
1. State Johor Darul Ta’zim (“Johor”) Johor Bahru Sultan
2. Kedah Darul Aman (“Kedah”) Alor Setar Sultan
3. Kelantan Darul Naim (“Kelantan”) Kota Bharu Sultan
4. Malacca Malacca City Yang di-Pertua Negeri (Governor)
5. Negeri Sembilan Darul Khusus (“Negeri Sembilan”) Seremban Yamtuan Besar (Yang di-Pertuan Besar)
6. Pahang Darul Makmur (“Pahang”) Kuantan Sultan
7. Penang George Town Yang di-Pertua Negeri (Governor)
8. Perak Darul Ridzuan (“Perak”) Ipoh Sultan
9. Perlis Indera Kayangan (“Perlis”) Kangar Raja
10. Sabah Kota Kinabalu Yang di-Pertua Negeri (Governor)
11. Sarawak Kuching Yang di-Pertua Negeri (Governor)
12. Selangor Darul Ehsan (“Selangor”) Shah Alam Sultan
13. Terengganu Darul Iman (“Terengganu”) Kuala Terengganu Sultan

Note: For the purpose of this article, we will focus more on the Yang di-Pertuan Agong office, and the states that adopt constitutional monarchy system (Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, Perak, Perlis, Selangor, and Terengganu)

 

Yang di-Pertuan Agong

 

Brief History

Tuanku Abdul Rahman of Negeri Sembilan, the 1st Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia

Tuanku Abdul Rahman of Negeri Sembilan, the 1st Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia

The office of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong was established after Malaysia gained its independence from Britain in 1957. The Yang di-Pertuan Agong is Malaysia’s head of state, and is elected by the Majlis Raja-Raja (the Conference of Rulers). The members of the Conference of Rulers play important roles in amending constitutions, especially those related to the rulers’ status, the rights of indigenous citizens, the national language, and other related policies. The first person elected by the Conference of Rulers to be Yang di-Pertuan Agong was Sultan Ibrahim of Johor (1873 – 1959; r. 1895 – 1959). However, the 84 year old ruler declined the position due to his old age. The Conference of Rulers then elected Tuanku Abdul Rahman from Negeri Sembilan (1895 – 1960; r. 1933 – 1960) as the first Yang di-Pertuan Agong instead.

 

The Election Process

Conference of Rulers meeting in 2010

The Conference of Rulers meeting in 2010

The Conference of Rulers is responsible for determining who will be Yang di-Pertuan Agong once every five years, or in the event the position is vacant either due to death or other reasons. The four state governors also attended the conference, but do not have the right to vote or stand for election for the office of Yang di-Pertuan Agong.

The following are the criteria of candidates to be eligible to become Yang di-Pertuan Agong:

  • The candidate is ruler of a sultanate or kingdom within Malaysia
  • The candidate has reached adulthood
  • The candidate has not previously notified the Keeper of the Rulers’ Seal that he does not wish to be considered for election to the office of Yang di-Pertuan Agong
  • The Conference of Rulers does not object to the candidate’s election for reasons that reflect reasonable doubt that the candidate is unsuitable to carry out the responsibilities of Yang di-Pertuan Agong.
The Coat of Arms of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong

The Coat of Arms of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong

During the election process, the Keeper of the Rulers’ Seal distributes a ballot with a candidate’s name. Each ruler is to specify his thoughts on whether the candidate is suitable for the office of Yang di-Pertuan Agong. The Keeper of the Rulers’ Seal and the most junior ruler, who does not stand for election, count the ballots together. The office of Yang di-Pertuan Agong will be offered to a candidate who obtains at least five votes.

If the candidate declines the offer, or does not manage to secure the majority of available votes, the election process is repeated with the next ruler on the list of Seniority of States as a candidate.

The List of Seniority of States:

  1. The Yamtuan Besar of Negeri Sembilan
  2. The Sultan of Selangor
  3. The Raja of Perlis
  4. The Sultan of Terengganu
  5. The Sultan of Kedah
  6. The Sultan of Kelantan
  7. The Sultan of Pahang
  8. The Sultan of Johor
  9. The Sultan of Perak

After the Yang di-Pertuan Agong is elected, the holder of the office appoints a regent to help perform his responsibilities in his home state, except for the role of the Head of Islam. The Yang di-Pertuan Agong retains the rights to be the Head of Islam in his home state.

The List of Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia:

No. Name Term State
1. Tuanku Abdul Rahman 1957-1960 Negeri Sembilan
2. Sultan Hisamuddin Alam Shah 1960 Selangor
3. Raja Syed Putra 1960-1965 Perlis
4. Sultan Ismail Nasiruddin Shah 1965-1970 Terengganu
5. Tuanku Abdul Halim Muadzam Shah 1970 – 1975 Kedah
6. Sultan Yahya Petra 1975-1979 Kelantan
7. Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah Al-Mustain Billah 1979-1984 Pahang
8. Sultan Iskandar 1984-1989 Johor
9. Sultan Azlan Muhibbuddin Shah 1989-1994 Perak
10. Tuanku Jaafar 1994-1999 Negeri Sembilan
11. Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah 1999-2001 Selangor
12. Raja Sirajuddin 2001 – 2006 Perlis
13. Mizan Zainal Abidin 2006 – 2011 Terengganu
14. Tuanku Abdul Halim Muadzam Shah 2011 – 2016 Kedah
15. Sultan Muhammad V Elected in October 2016 Kelantan

 

Privileges and Responsibilities of Yang di-Pertuan Agong

The 14th Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia, Abdul Halim of Kedah and his wife, Raja Permaisuri Agong, Tuanku Hajah Haminah Binti Hamidun

The 14th Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia, Abdul Halim of Kedah and his wife, Raja Permaisuri Agong, Tuanku Hajah Haminah Binti Hamidun

The Yang di-Pertuan Agong must carry out the following responsibilities:

  • Appoint important government positions, including the Council of Ministers (i.e., Prime Minister, Deputy Prime Minister, Chief Secretary of the Government), commissions and committees (i.e., the Election Commission, the Judicial and Legal Service Commission, Malaysian Public Service Commission), judges (i.e., the Chief Justice of Malaysia, the Chief Judge of Malaya, and the Chief Judge of Sabah and Sarawak), senators, and governors
  • Become the Head of Islam in the four states governed by governors, the three Federal Territories, and his home state
  • Be the Commander-in-Chief, the highest ranking office in military chain of command

 

Removal of Immunity

In 1993, the Malaysian constitution was amended to remove the immunity of Yang di-Pertuan Agong and the state rulers in their personal capacity. The constitution also states that Yang di-Pertuan Agong or any rulers cannot pardon himself or his immediate family members. However, it is possible for them to request a pardon from the Conference of Rulers.

 

Monarchy Systems in various Malaysian states

Currently, there are nine states in Malaysia that adopt a constitutional monarchy system. The state constitutions specify that only men of royal descent and of Muslim faith are eligible to be the ruler of the state. Like other constitutional monarchies, the rulers are not involved in the day-to-day governance of their states. However, they retained the right to be the Head of Islam, and to appoint the Menteri Besar (Chief Minister), or the head of government of the state.

 

Kedah

Monarch009

 

Brief History

Kedah Sultanate’s Coat of Arms

Kedah’s Coat of Arms

Kedah sultanate is also known as Darul Aman or the ‘Abode of Peace’. Kedah was originally a Hindu kingdom founded in 630 BC by Maharaja Derbar Raja of Gemeron, also known as Bandar Abbas. A Persian King who was defeated in a battle, he escaped and was stranded in Kedah. Bandar Abbas developed a good rapport with the Kedah people, and they enthroned him as their king, Sri Paduka Maharaja Durbar Raja I.

 

Sri Paduka Maharaja Durbar Raja I

Sri Paduka Maharaja Durbar Raja I

By the end of the 11th century, Islam’s influence had reached Kedah. The 9th Maharaja of Kedah, Sri Paduka Maharaja Durbar Raja II converted to this new belief, and later changed his name and title into Sultan Mudzafar Shah I (r. 1136-1179). Since then, the Kedah kingdom became Kedah sultanate. Historically, Kedah has fallen under the control of the Srivijaya kingdom, Siam, Britain, and Japan. When Kedah was a tributary state of Siam, it had to regularly send Bunga Mas or Golden Flowers and other valuable gifts to the Siamese kingdom. In the 18th century, the Sultan of Kedah gave Penang and the Province of Wellesley to the British in exchange for their protection against Siam. However, the Siamese invaded Kedah in 1821 and regained control of that region. Siam also separated Perlis territory from Kedah sultanate. In 1909, the Anglo-Siamese Treaty was signed and Britain gained control over Kedah. Siam re-acquired control over Kedah briefly during the World War II as a reward for their alliance with Japan, but the state was returned to the British empire after the World War II. Kedah joined the Federation of Malaya in 1948 and later Malaysia in 1963.

 

Kedah Monarchy System

The Sultan Abdul Halim of Kedah and his wife, Sultanah Haminah

Sultan Abdul Halim of Kedah and his wife, Sultanah Haminah

Kedah sultanate adopts a hereditary and constitutional monarchy system. The current Sultan of Kedah is Sultan Abdul Halim Mu’adzam Shah (1927 – present; r. 1958 – present). He inherited the throne from his father, Sultan Badlishah (1894 – 1958; r. 1943 – 1958).

 

Kelantan

Monarch014

 

Brief History

Kelantan Sultanate’s Coat of Arms

Kelantan’s Coat of Arms

Kelantan State has a colourful, if not turbulent history. Chinese, Indian and Siamese traders have done trading in Kelantan throughout history, which made it attractive for foreign power to gain control of this region. In the 13th and 14th century, Kelantan sultanate became a tributary state to the Majapahit and Srivijaya kingdom respectively. In the 15th century, Kelantan became a tributary state to Siam and later Malacca. When Kelantan was a tributary state of Siam, it had to regularly send Bunga Mas or Golden Flowers and other valuable gifts to the Siamese kingdom. During the Portuguese occupation of Malacca, Kelantan sultanate was divided into several smaller regions under the authority of feudal lords. The Siamese regained control over this area and subjected them to the authority of the Pattani kingdom.

In 1760, a lord from Kubang Labu named Long Muhammad or Long Pandak reunited the former Kelantan territories and established himself as ruler. Several years later, a Pattani warlord, Long Yunus deposed Long Pandak and declared himself as the king or Raja of Kelantan (1734 – 1794; r. 1775 – 1794). After the passing of Raja Yunus, the authority over Kelantan was transferred to Terengganu under the authority of Yang di-Pertuan Muda Tengku Muhammad, the son of Sultan Mansur of Terengganu (r. 1794 – 1800). In 1800, the son of Raja Yunus, Long Muhammad, declared himself as the ruler of Kelantan under the title of Sultan Muhammad I (r. 1800 – 1835). Kelantan joined the Federation of Malaya in 1948 and the Federation of Malaysia in 1963.

 

Kelantan Monarchy System

Sultan Muhammad V of Kelantan and Mentri Besar Muhamad Yakob

Sultan Muhammad V of Kelantan and Menteri Besar Muhamad Yakob

Kelantan State adopts a hereditary and constitutional monarchy system. The holder of Sultan of Kelantan office is the designated leader of Kelantan state and the Head of Islam. The current ruler of Kelantan is Sultan Muhammad V (1969 – present; r. 2010 – present). He inherited the throne from his father, Sultan Ismail Petra (r. 1979 – 2010).

 

Johor

Monarch017

 

Brief History

Johor Sultanate’s Coat of Arms

Johor’s Coat of Arms

Johor was originally part of Malaccan sultanate. In 1511, Portuguese conquered Malacca and Sultan Mahmud Shah had to flee his kingdom to Bintan. He had made several unsuccessful attempts to re-occupy his kingdom before the Portuguese finally raided Bintan in 1526 and forced him to escape to Kampar, Sumatra. Sultan Mahmud Shah passed away in 1528, and his two sons formed their own sultanates. Sultan Muzaffar Shah (r. 1528 – 1549) established Perak sultanate, while Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah (1513 – 1564; r. 1528 – 1564) established Johor sultanate. For a period of time, the new Sultan and his descendants were harassed by both the Portuguese and the Acehnese, but they managed to retain his new territory.

The tomb of Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah, the founder of the Johor Sultanate

The tomb of Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah, the founder of Johor Sultanate

In the early 17th century, the Dutch arrived in Southeast Asia and signed two treaties of alliance with Johor sultanate in 1606. The Dutch and Johor sultanate then joined forces to defeat the Portuguese in Malacca. After the war, the Dutch took control of Malacca, and as per the previously signed treaties, the Dutch agreed to not occupy Johor sultanate territories.

Between 1666 and 1673, Jambi, a part of Johor sultanate, became a prosperous region and tried to break free from Johor. This separatist intention created a civil war. During this time, Sultan of Johor strived to keep his sultanate together and was forced to shift his capital city several times. In the 17th century, Johor became a trading hub with more influence than Malacca. The Dutch were not happy about this, but they continued to honour the previously signed treaties. The last Sultan of the original Malaccan Dynasty was Sultan Mahmud Shah II (1675 – 1699; r. 1685 – 1699) of Johor. He died without a son, and therefore, the dominant faction of his court selected Bendahara Abdul Jalil (r. 1699 – 1720) to succeed him as Sultan Abdul Jalil IV.

The throne was later usurped by Raja Kecil, who claimed to be the son of Sultan Mahmud Shah II. Raja Kecil hired an assassin to kill Sultan Abdul Jalil IV and enthroned himself as Sultan of Johor. However, Raja Kecil’s reign was short lived, as Sultan Abdul Jalil’s son, Sultan Sulaiman (r. 1722 – 1760) reclaimed the throne with the help of the influential Bugis personality, Daeng Parani. After Sultan Sulaiman had been enthroned as the Sultan of Johor, Daeng Merewah, Daeng Parani’s brother, was appointed as the Yam Tuan Muda or the heir presumptive to the throne. In 1819, Johor sultanate was divided into Johor mainland and Riau-Lingga territory. Sultan of Johor maintained their control over Johor mainland, while Riau-Lingga territory was given to the Bugis clan.

Riau Lingga Noblemen and Sultan Sulaiman II of Johor

Riau-Lingga Noblemen and Sultan Sulaiman II of Johor

After the loss of Riau-Lingga, Johor continued to evolve into a modern sultanate. During the reign of Sultan Abu Bakar of Johor (1833 – 1895; r. 1862 – 1895), he established a British-style administration and a state constitution, and therefore was known as the Father of Modern Johor. Johor joined the Federation of Malaya in 1948 and the Federation of Malaysia in 1963.

 

Johor Monarchy System

Sultan Ibrahim Ismail of Johor and his wife, Raja Zarith Sofia

Sultan Ibrahim Ismail of Johor and his wife, Raja Zarith Sofia

Johor adopts a hereditary and constitutional monarchy system. The current Sultan of Johor is Sultan Ibrahim Ismail (1958 – present; r. 2010 – present). He inherited the throne from his father, Sultan Iskandar (1932 – 2010; r. 1981 – 2010).

 

Negeri Sembilan

Monarch022

 

Brief History

Negeri Sembilan's Coat of Arms

Negeri Sembilan’s Coat of Arms

Negeri Sembilan was a tributary state of Malaccan sultanate. After Malacca fell to Portuguese power, the state came under the protection of Johor sultanate. In the 14th century, citizens from Minangkabau in Sumatra migrated to Negeri Sembilan. Therefore, unlike other states, the majority of people in the Negeri Sembilan adopted a matrilineal system, which is a characteristic of Minangkabau society. In the 18th century, Johor sultanate had to deal with internal matters, and could not protect Negeri Sembilan from the Bugis attacks. Therefore, Negeri Sembilan sought protection from Sultan Abdul Jalil Pagar Ruyung in Minangkabau, who later sent his son Raja Melewar as his representative.

Raja Melewar, the first ruler of Negeri Sembilan

Raja Melewar, the first ruler of Negeri Sembilan

However, when Raja Melewar arrived in Negeri Sembilan, he found that another party called Raja Khatib had declared himself as the ruler of Negeri Sembilan. Raja Melewar declared war on the new king, dethroned Raja Khatib, and enthroned himself as the ruler of Negeri Sembilan. Johor sultanate recognised Raja Melewar (r. 1773 – 1795) as Negeri Sembilan’s ruler and granted him the title Yamtuan Seri Menanti or ‘He Who is the Highest Lord of Seri Menanti’. After the passing of Raja Melewar, the selection of the subsequent rulers often resulted in civil war and instability, as there were competing interests and supports to various claimants to the throne. In 1873, the British decided to protect their interests in Negeri Sembilan by intervening in the civil war. Subsequently, the region fell under British occupation. Negeri Sembilan joined the Federation of Malaya in 1948 and the Federation of Malaysia in 1963.

 

Negeri Sembilan Monarchy System

The current Yang di-Pertuan Besar Negeri Sembilan, Tuanku Muhriz, and his wife Tuanku Aishah Rohani

The current Yang di-Pertuan Besar Negeri Sembilan, Tuanku Muhriz, and his wife Tuanku Aishah Rohani

Negeri Sembilan adopts an elective and constitutional monarchy system. The ruler of Negeri Sembilan is called Yang di-Pertuan Besar or ‘He Who Is Made Great’. He is elected by the Ruling Chiefs of Negeri Sembilan, also known as Undang, for life. The following are the list of Undang who have the right to vote, but do not have the right to stand for election:

  • The Undang of Sungai Ujong
  • The Undang of Jelebu
  • The Undang of Johol
  • The Undang of Rembau

In order for a candidate to be eligible for Yang di-Pertuan Besar office, the candidate must be male, Muslim, and recognised as the descendant of Raja Radin Ibni Raja Lenggang. The current Yang di-Pertuan Besar of Negeri Sembilan is Tuanku Muhriz (1948 – present; r. 2008 – present).

 

Pahang

Monarch026

 

Brief History

Pahang Sultanate’s Coat of Arms

Pahang’s Coat of Arms

The first Sultan of Pahang was Muhammad Shah (r. 1470 – 1475). He was the heir presumptive to the Malaccan throne before being banished to Pahang by his father, Sultan Mansyur Syah (r. 1459 – 1477) for committing a murder. Pahang was under the authority of several kingdoms, namely, Srivijaya, Majapahit, Siam, and Malacca. In the 16th century, Pahang became a subject of interest for the Portuguese, Dutch, Johor, and Aceh. In the 17th century, Pahang became one of Johor sultanate’s territories. However, considering that the rulers of Pahang are descended from the Malaccan and Johor royal families, they managed to gain some degree of autonomy from Johor sultanate. During the reign of Bendahara Tun Ali of Pahang (r. 1806-1847), peace and stability were maintained. Unfortunately, after he passed away, his sons, Tun Mutahir (r. 1858 – 1863) and Tun Ahmad argued about who had the right to inherit the throne and initiated a civil war. Tun Ahmad (r. 1863 – 1881) was later enthroned as the new sultan, but his authority was significantly reduced because he was forced to submit to the British administration.

After Johor sultanate lost the Riau-Lingga region to the Bugis, Temenggung Ibrahim of Johor signed a treaty with Bendahara Tun Mutahir of Pahang (r. 1858 – 1863), which stated that Temenggung Ibrahim and his descendants reserved the rights to rule over the state of Johor, while Bendahara Tun Mutahir and his descendants reserved the rights to rule over the state of Pahang. After the treaty was signed, Pahang became independent of Johor. Pahang joined the Federation of Malaya in 1948 and the Federation of Malaysia in 1963.

 

Pahang Monarchy System

The current Sultan of Pahang, Ahmad Syah and his wife Sultanah Kasom Binti Abdullah

The current Sultan of Pahang, Ahmad Syah and his wife Sultanah Kasom Binti Abdullah

Pahang is currently the 3rd largest state in Malaysia. Pahang adopts a hereditary and constitutional monarchy system. The current ruler of Pahang state is Sultan Ahmad Shah (r. 1974 – present). He inherited the throne from his father, the late Sultan Abu Bakar of Pahang (1904 – 1974; r. 1932 – 1974).

 

Perlis

Monarch029

 

Brief History

Perlis's Coat of Arms

Perlis’s Coat of Arms

Perlis was originally part of Kedah sultanate. In the 19th century, when Kedah was under Siamese rule, Siam separated Perlis from Kedah and installed its governor and deputy governor. On 20th May 1843, the Siamese enthroned Sayyid Hussain Jamalulail as Raja of Perlis (r. 1843 – 1873), an equivalent of a king or ruler. The new Raja was the maternal grandson of the Sultan of Kedah. Similar to Kedah sultanate, in the early 20th century, Siam was forced to give up some of its territories to the British’s authority, including Perlis. Perlis was returned to Siamese rule temporarily during the World War II as a reward for Siam’s alliance with Japan. After Japan lost the war, Perlis was returned to Britain. Perlis joined the Federation of Malaya in 1948 and the Federation of Malaysia in 1963.

 

Perlis Monarchy System

The current Raja Sirajuddin of Perlis and his wife, Tuanku Fauziah

The current Raja Sirajuddin of Perlis and his wife, Tuanku Fauziah

Perlis adopts a hereditary and constitutional monarchy system. Unlike most the other Malaysian states, the monarchs of Perlis are called Raja instead of Sultan. The current Raja of Perlis is Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin Jamalullail (1943 – present; r. 2000 – present). He inherited the throne from his father, the late Tuanku Syed Putra Jamalullail (1920 – 2000; r. 1945 – 2000).

 

Perak

Monarch032

 

Brief History

Perak’s Coat of Arms

Perak’s Coat of Arms

After Malacca had fallen into Portuguese control in 1511, the son of the Malaccan Sultan Mahmud Syah I, Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah II, established Perak sultanate in 1528, and enthroned himself as the first Sultan of Perak. The Dutch arrived in Perak in the mid-17th century and used their connection with Aceh to force the Sultan of Perak to sign a treaty that would allow the Dutch to build plants and trade in Perak. However, since the Dutch failed to establish a good rapport with the Perak residents, the people of Perak destroyed the plant and forced the Dutch to leave. In 1670, the Dutch managed to gain the Perak ruler’s permission to build a Fortress on Pangkor Island known as Kota Belanda. However, 15 years later, the people of Perak attacked the fortress and forced the Dutch to close their operations in Perak once again.

In the 19th century, the British forced Perak to submit to its authority and installed Sultan Abdullah as the new king of Perak, and a British official, James W. W. Birch was commissioned to administer the sultanate. Unfortunately for Mr. Birch, he was murdered by the Perak people. The British, unhappy with the incident, exiled Sultan Abdullah to Seychelles, and installed a new king, Sultan Yusuf Sharifudin Mudzaffar Shah in 1877. The British installed a new official who was proficient in the Malay language and familiar with local culture, Sir Hugh Low. He was more successful as the administrator of Perak than his predecessor. Perak joined the Federation of Malaya in 1948 and the Federation of Malaysia in 1963.

Sultan Yusuf Sharifudin Mudzaffar Shah with Sir Hugh Low

Sultan Yusuf Sharifudin Mudzaffar Shah with Sir Hugh Low

 

Perak Monarchy System

Sultan Nazrin Muizzuddin Shah of Perak and his wife, Tuanku Zara Salim

Sultan Nazrin Muizzuddin Shah of Perak and his wife, Tuanku Zara Salim

Perak adopts an elective and constitutional monarchy system. The ruler is elected among the most senior princes who are the descendants of Sultan Ahmaddin (r. 1786- 1806), the 18th Sultan of Pahang. Therefore, the male descendants from the previous Sultan are also eligible to be the reigning monarch of Perak. The current Sultan is Nazrin Muizzuddin Shah of Perak (1956 – present; r. 2014 – present).

 

Selangor

Monarch036

 

Brief History

Selangor Sultanate’s Coat of Arms

Selangor’s Coat of Arms

Selangor was part of the Malaccan kingdom. After the Portuguese annexed Malacca, Johor, Aceh and Siam attempted to claim Selangor territory, but they were unsuccessful. When the Dutch arrived in Malacca, they invited Bugis settlers to come to Selangor, and the newcomers displaced the existing Minangkabau settlers. The rulers of Selangor sultanate were descended from the Bugis settlers who claimed to be related to the Luwu rulers in Sulawesi. The first Sultan of Selangor was Sultan Sallehuddin Shah, also known as Raja Lumu (1705 – 1778; r. 1756 – 1778), the son of a Bugis warrior, Daeng Chelak. The rulers of Perak and Johor initially challenged the enthronement of Sultan Sallehuddin Shah, but he managed to gain some level of legitimacy through the marriage with a member of the Perak royal family. In the 19th century, the exploitation of tin resources in Selangor resulted in economic prosperity. During the reign of Sultan Muhammad Shah (r. 1826 – 1857), Selangor was divided into five territories: Bernam, Kuala Selangor, Kelang, Langat, and Lukut, each with their individual leaders.

Sultan Abdul Samad of Selangor (1804 – 1898; r. 1857 – 1898)

Sultan Abdul Samad of Selangor (1804 – 1898; r. 1857 – 1898)

In 1866, Sultan Abdul Samad, also known as Raja Abdul Samad (1804 – 1898; r. 1857 – 1898), favoured Raja Abdulah as the ruler of Klang instead of Raja Mahadi, the son of the previous ruler. This appointment triggered the Klang War. Sultan Abdul Samad’s son-in-law, Tengku Kudin, was given the task to manage the situation. Tengku Kudin enlisted the help of mercenaries, Pahang sultanate, and Sir Andrew Clarke from Britain. Because of this, unlike other states, Selangor invited and welcomed British involvement. Sultan Abdul Samad also accepted a British resident, Frank Swettenham, as his adviser. The stability that followed under the British administration resulted in prosperity for the state of Selangor. Selangor joined the Federation of Malaya in 1948 and the Federation of Malaysia 1963. Sultan Salahuddin of Selangor (1926 – 2001; r. 1960 – 2001) consented to hand over Kuala Lumpur to the Federal Government in 1974, and Putrajaya in 2001.

 

Selangor Monarchy system

Sultan Sharafuddin of Selangor (centre)

Sultan Sharafuddin of Selangor (centre)

Selangor state adopts a hereditary and constitutional monarchy system. The current Sultan is Sharafuddin of Selangor (1945 – present; r. 2001 – present). He inherited the throne from his father, the late Sultan Salahuddin of Selangor.

 

Terengganu

Monarch040

 

Brief History

Terengganu’s Coat of Arms

Terengganu’s Coat of Arms

Terengganu was originally a vassal state of Malaccan sultanate and later of Johor sultanate. It also stood out as the first state in the Malay region to accept Islam as its religion, as recorded in the Terengganu Inscription Stone. In 1725, Terengganu became an independent sultanate under Tun Zainal Abidin (r. 1725 – 1733), a relative of Sultan of Johor. In the 19th century, the political power shifted, and Terengganu became a tributary state of Siam and had to regularly send Bunga Mas or Golden Flowers and other valuable gifts to the Siamese kingdom. Terengganu prospered during this period, since the Siamese gave them considerable autonomy to govern themselves. In the 20th century, Terengganu became a tributary state of Britain. The British empire forced Terengganu sultanate to accept a British adviser. However, this manoeuvre was unpopular amongst the locals. Siam re-acquired control over Terengganu briefly during the Japanese occupation, but the state was returned to the British empire after World War II. Terengganu joined the Federation of Malaya in 1948 and later Malaysia in 1963.

Bunga Mas, a gift from tributary state to Siam in the 19th century

Bunga Mas, a gift from tributary state to Siam in the 19th century

 

Terengganu Monarchy System

The current Sultan of Teregganu, Tuanku Mizan Zainal Abidin, and his family

The current Sultan of Teregganu, Tuanku Mizan Zainal Abidin, and his family

Terengganu adopts a hereditary and constitutional monarchy system. The current Sultan is Tuanku Mizan Zainal Abidin of Terengganu (1962 – present; r. 1998 – present). He inherited the throne upon the death of his father, the late Sultan Mahmud (1930 – 1998; r. 1979 – 1998).

 
Sources:

  • http://thecommonwealth.org/our-member-countries/malaysia/history
  • http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/malaysia.htm
  • http://www.countryreports.org/country/Malaysia.htm
  • http://www.countryreports.org/country/Malaysia/government.htm
  • http://www.countryreports.org/country/Malaysia.htm
  • http://www.wonderfulmalaysia.com/malaysia-history-and-historical-facts.htm
  • http://www.kln.gov.my/web/guest/history
  • http://www.thestar.com.my/news/nation/2016/10/11/rulers-to-choose-next-yang-dipertuan-agong/
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yang_di-Pertuan_Agong
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monarchies_of_Malaysia
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kedah_Sultanate
  • http://factsanddetails.com/southeast-asia/Malaysia/sub5_4c/entry-3672.html
  • http://www.malaysianbar.org.my/constitutional_law/powers_and_functions_of_state_rulers.html
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johor_Sultanate\
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johor
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kedah_Sultanate
  • https://www.facebook.com/notes/dravidian-keyboard-warriors/kesultanan-negeri-kedah-kedah-sultanate-invasion-of-chola-kadaram-kondan-conquer/1085195028161653/
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Kedah
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kelantan
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sultan_of_Kelantan
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Negeri_Sembilan
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pahang
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sultan_of_Pahang
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abu_Bakar_of_Pahang
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ahmad_Shah_of_Pahang
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perak
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abdul_Samad_of_Selangor
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salahuddin_of_Selangor
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahmud_of_Terengganu
  • http://www.terengganu.gov.my
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elective_monarchy

 
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6 Responses to Monarchy System in Malaysia

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  1. Samfoonheei on May 18, 2017 at 4:51 pm

    Wonderful write up….which i do enjoyed reading.It refreshed my history subject of all the Malaysian states which i studied during my school days. A very comprehensive details of all the Sultans in Malaysia and their monarchy system.
    I am proud to be from the state of Pahang.Pahang is currently the 3rd largest state in Malaysia with so many beautiful place of interest.A state with beautiful beaches and green forest where Kechara Forest Retreat is situated.
    Thank you Rinpoche for sharing this article so more to know and understand about monarchy system in Malaysia.

  2. wan wai meng on Jan 20, 2017 at 3:13 am

    I really enjoyed reading about the Sultan in each state, and the development of their own unique systems of ascending to power. If Thailand is any guess, then having a King that is forward thinking and works hard for the people can contribute a lot to the country. I suppose unlike the olden days, the monarchy system is non existent except from a handful of countries on this planet. So the monarchy system is no longer the norm and is a unique feature in any country now.

  3. Fong on Dec 19, 2016 at 11:36 am

    As a Kedahan, i like all Kedahans love our Sultan and Sultanah very much. They were the kindest and nicest royalty I have ever met. Even in a small town school, they always found the time to visit every year on prize giving day and were always gracious during their visits. These visits on prize giving day really inspired us to work harder so that we were able to receive a prize from the hands of the Sultan – such a highlight of our year in school.

    Thank you for this wonderful write-up. It brought back so much beautiful memories. All these information were taught to us in our school day but have forgotten some along the way.

  4. Sharon Ong on Dec 6, 2016 at 11:16 am

    Thank you for this comprehensive compilation on all the Sultans in Malaysia, Rinpoche. This post is very useful for students and all who need information about Malaysia’s monarchy system. Interesting to note that the Sultan of Kedah, Tuanku Abdul Halim Muadzam Shah, become our Agung twice in his lifetime.

    As a Malaccan, it is a bit sad that our own Sultanate did not survive to this day. After all, Parameswara did make Malacca into a very prosperous port and had good relations with China with the spice and silk trade.

  5. Datuk May on Dec 3, 2016 at 5:18 pm

    Thank you Rinpoche for this very informative article on the Monarchy System in Malaysia.

    The system of electing the constitutional monarch as Head of State in Malaysia is very democratic and every member of the royal household or sultanate gets an opportunity to be the king or Yang diPertuan Agong of Malaysia. This also makes the Monarchy like the presidents of other countries which have a specific duration of tenure. For the Malaysian Monarch the tenure is 5 years.

    I noticed from this article the current King (sultan of Kedah) had been king before during the period 1970 to 1975. He is also the nephew of Malaysia’s First Prime Minister, Tengku Abdul Rahman, an outstanding statesman and politician who fought for and gained independence for Malaysia in 1957.

  6. Stella Cheang on Dec 2, 2016 at 3:54 pm

    This article is apposite as some of our overseas friends would be interested to find out about the rulers of this beautiful land of Malaysia. The colorful and multi-cultural Malaysia has its roots embedded in the evolution of the Malay Kingdoms since the 15th century when these kingdoms were the trading hub of the region. Today, with the moving of times, the monarchy system in Malaysia had taken a modern form, nonetheless the rulers are respected by the nation. Thank you Rinpoche for this informative article.

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    Let’s face it. The struggle for Tibet’s independence has been on-going for 60 years but there is no progress at all. Now, even His Holiness the Dalai Lama is telling the Tibetans to go for Umaylam instead of Rangzen. However, Umaylam requires their cooperation with the Chinese government.

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3 months ago
Mahapajapati Gotami, who was the first nun ordained by Lord Buddha. She was his step-mother and aunt. Buddha's mother had passed away at his birth so he was raised by Gotami.
Another nun disciple of Lord Buddha\'s. She had achieved great spiritual abilities and high attainments. She would be a proper object of refuge. This image of the eminent bhikkhuni (nun) disciple of the Buddha, Uppalavanna Theri.
3 months ago
Another nun disciple of Lord Buddha's. She had achieved great spiritual abilities and high attainments. She would be a proper object of refuge. This image of the eminent bhikkhuni (nun) disciple of the Buddha, Uppalavanna Theri.
Wandering Ascetic Painting by Nirdesha Munasinghe
3 months ago
Wandering Ascetic Painting by Nirdesha Munasinghe
High Sri Lankan monks visit Kechara to bless our land, temple, Buddha and Dorje Shugden images. They were very kind-see pictures- https://bit.ly/2HQie2M
3 months ago
High Sri Lankan monks visit Kechara to bless our land, temple, Buddha and Dorje Shugden images. They were very kind-see pictures- https://bit.ly/2HQie2M
This is pretty amazing!

First Sri Lankan Buddhist temple opened in Dubai!!!
3 months ago
This is pretty amazing! First Sri Lankan Buddhist temple opened in Dubai!!!
My Dharma boy (left) and Oser girl loves to laze around on the veranda in the mornings. They enjoy all the trees, grass and relaxing under the hot sun. Sunbathing is a favorite daily activity. I care about these two doggies of mine very much and I enjoy seeing them happy. They are with me always. Tsem Rinpoche

Always be kind to animals and eat vegetarian- https://bit.ly/2Psp8h2
3 months ago
My Dharma boy (left) and Oser girl loves to laze around on the veranda in the mornings. They enjoy all the trees, grass and relaxing under the hot sun. Sunbathing is a favorite daily activity. I care about these two doggies of mine very much and I enjoy seeing them happy. They are with me always. Tsem Rinpoche Always be kind to animals and eat vegetarian- https://bit.ly/2Psp8h2
After you left me Mumu, I was alone. I have no family or kin. You were my family. I can\'t stop thinking of you and I can\'t forget you. My bond and connection with you is so strong. I wish you were by my side. Tsem Rinpoche
3 months ago
After you left me Mumu, I was alone. I have no family or kin. You were my family. I can't stop thinking of you and I can't forget you. My bond and connection with you is so strong. I wish you were by my side. Tsem Rinpoche
This story is a life-changer. Learn about the incredible Forest Man of India | 印度“森林之子”- https://bit.ly/2Eh4vRS
3 months ago
This story is a life-changer. Learn about the incredible Forest Man of India | 印度“森林之子”- https://bit.ly/2Eh4vRS
Part 2-Beautiful billboard in Malaysia of a powerful Tibetan hero whose life serves as a great inspiration- https://bit.ly/2UltNE4
3 months ago
Part 2-Beautiful billboard in Malaysia of a powerful Tibetan hero whose life serves as a great inspiration- https://bit.ly/2UltNE4
Part 1-Beautiful billboard in Malaysia of a powerful Tibetan hero whose life serves as a great inspiration- https://bit.ly/2UltNE4
3 months ago
Part 1-Beautiful billboard in Malaysia of a powerful Tibetan hero whose life serves as a great inspiration- https://bit.ly/2UltNE4
The great Protector Manjushri Dorje Shugden depicted in the beautiful Mongolian style. To download a high resolution file: https://bit.ly/2Nt3FHz
3 months ago
The great Protector Manjushri Dorje Shugden depicted in the beautiful Mongolian style. To download a high resolution file: https://bit.ly/2Nt3FHz
The Mystical land of Shambhala is finally ready for everyone to feast their eyes and be blessed. A beautiful post with information, art work, history, spirituality and a beautiful book composed by His Holiness the 6th Panchen Rinpoche. ~ https://bit.ly/309MHBi
3 months ago
The Mystical land of Shambhala is finally ready for everyone to feast their eyes and be blessed. A beautiful post with information, art work, history, spirituality and a beautiful book composed by His Holiness the 6th Panchen Rinpoche. ~ https://bit.ly/309MHBi
Beautiful pictures of the huge Buddha in Longkou Nanshan- https://bit.ly/2LsBxVb
3 months ago
Beautiful pictures of the huge Buddha in Longkou Nanshan- https://bit.ly/2LsBxVb
The reason-Very interesting thought- https://bit.ly/2V7VT5r
3 months ago
The reason-Very interesting thought- https://bit.ly/2V7VT5r
NEW Bigfoot cafe in Malaysia! Food is delicious!- https://bit.ly/2VxdGau
3 months ago
NEW Bigfoot cafe in Malaysia! Food is delicious!- https://bit.ly/2VxdGau
DON\'T MISS THIS!~How brave Bonnie survived by living with a herd of deer~ https://bit.ly/2Lre2eY
3 months ago
DON'T MISS THIS!~How brave Bonnie survived by living with a herd of deer~ https://bit.ly/2Lre2eY
Global Superpower China Will Cut Meat Consumption by 50%! Very interesting, find out more- https://bit.ly/2V1sJFh
3 months ago
Global Superpower China Will Cut Meat Consumption by 50%! Very interesting, find out more- https://bit.ly/2V1sJFh
You can download this beautiful Egyptian style Dorje Shugden Free- https://bit.ly/2Nt3FHz
3 months ago
You can download this beautiful Egyptian style Dorje Shugden Free- https://bit.ly/2Nt3FHz
Beautiful high file for print of Lord Manjushri. May you be blessed- https://bit.ly/2V8mwZe
3 months ago
Beautiful high file for print of Lord Manjushri. May you be blessed- https://bit.ly/2V8mwZe
Mongolian (Oymiakon) Shaman in Siberia, Russia. That is his real outfit he wears. Very unique. TR
3 months ago
Mongolian (Oymiakon) Shaman in Siberia, Russia. That is his real outfit he wears. Very unique. TR
Find one of the most beautiful temples in the world in Nara, Japan. It is the 1,267 year old Todai-ji temple that houses a 15 meter Buddha Vairocana statue who is a cosmic and timeless Buddha. Emperor Shomu who sponsored this beautiful temple eventually abdicated and ordained as a Buddhist monk. Very interesting history and story. One of the places everyone should visit- https://bit.ly/2VgsHhK
3 months ago
Find one of the most beautiful temples in the world in Nara, Japan. It is the 1,267 year old Todai-ji temple that houses a 15 meter Buddha Vairocana statue who is a cosmic and timeless Buddha. Emperor Shomu who sponsored this beautiful temple eventually abdicated and ordained as a Buddhist monk. Very interesting history and story. One of the places everyone should visit- https://bit.ly/2VgsHhK
Manjusri Kumara (bodhisattva of wisdom), India, Pala dynesty, 9th century, stone, Honolulu Academy of Arts
4 months ago
Manjusri Kumara (bodhisattva of wisdom), India, Pala dynesty, 9th century, stone, Honolulu Academy of Arts
Silver Manjusri figure from Ngemplak Semongan (Indonesia). Apparently during the Shailendra Dynasty, Mahayana Buddhism was very strong in Indonesia. This Dynasty promoted Mahayana Buddhism and Manjushri was a principal Buddha of worship.
4 months ago
Silver Manjusri figure from Ngemplak Semongan (Indonesia). Apparently during the Shailendra Dynasty, Mahayana Buddhism was very strong in Indonesia. This Dynasty promoted Mahayana Buddhism and Manjushri was a principal Buddha of worship.
In Buddhism: The Importance of Having a Clean Room- https://bit.ly/2ZgrbKS
4 months ago
In Buddhism: The Importance of Having a Clean Room- https://bit.ly/2ZgrbKS
There is an area near Lumbini, Nepal, they have sightings of Yeti for hundreds of years. So they have signages in the area with Yeti artwork to highlight this. Interesting. TR
4 months ago
There is an area near Lumbini, Nepal, they have sightings of Yeti for hundreds of years. So they have signages in the area with Yeti artwork to highlight this. Interesting. TR
Photos of footprints (Yeti) are from a high altitude pass (Darwa Pass) connecting Gangotri valley to Yamunotri valley through old pilgrim route.
4 months ago
Photos of footprints (Yeti) are from a high altitude pass (Darwa Pass) connecting Gangotri valley to Yamunotri valley through old pilgrim route.
Beautiful picture. Rare. Three holy beings.
4 months ago
Beautiful picture. Rare. Three holy beings.
May 1, 2019-I really enjoy this picture of these visitors visiting Dorje Shugden\'s grotto in Kechara Forest Retreat today. They look happy, light and blessed after doing their prayers to Dorje Shugden. I wanted to share this picture.- https://bit.ly/2UltNE4
4 months ago
May 1, 2019-I really enjoy this picture of these visitors visiting Dorje Shugden's grotto in Kechara Forest Retreat today. They look happy, light and blessed after doing their prayers to Dorje Shugden. I wanted to share this picture.- https://bit.ly/2UltNE4
A postcard of my great grand aunt Princess Nirgidma of Torghut-Tsem Rinpoche
4 months ago
A postcard of my great grand aunt Princess Nirgidma of Torghut-Tsem Rinpoche
Rei Kawakubo – Grand Dame of ‘Hiroshima Chic’- https://bit.ly/2Vz4N06
4 months ago
Rei Kawakubo – Grand Dame of ‘Hiroshima Chic’- https://bit.ly/2Vz4N06
Just now, this beautiful grape and orange infused water drink with a blue glass was brought in for me. I was amazed at the colors. Tsem Rinpoche
4 months ago
Just now, this beautiful grape and orange infused water drink with a blue glass was brought in for me. I was amazed at the colors. Tsem Rinpoche
We have to look in and change from within to find the way out of all that makes us unhappy.~Tsem Rinpoche 

www.tsemrinpoche.com
4 months ago
We have to look in and change from within to find the way out of all that makes us unhappy.~Tsem Rinpoche http://www.tsemrinpoche.com
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Videos On The Go

Please click on the images to watch video
  • Always be kind to animals-They deserve to live just like us.
    1 month ago
    Always be kind to animals-They deserve to live just like us.
    Whales and dolphins playing with each other in the Pacific sea. Nature is truly incredible!
  • Bodha stupa July 2019-
    1 month ago
    Bodha stupa July 2019-
    Rainy period
  • Cute Tara girl having a snack. She is one of Kechara Forest Retreat’s resident doggies.
    2 months ago
    Cute Tara girl having a snack. She is one of Kechara Forest Retreat’s resident doggies.
  • Your Next Meal!
    2 months ago
    Your Next Meal!
    Yummy? Tasty? Behind the scenes of the meat on your plates. Meat is a killing industry.
  • This is Daw
    2 months ago
    This is Daw
    This is what they do to get meat on tables, and to produce belts and jackets. Think twice before your next purchase.
  • Don’t Take My Mummy Away!
    2 months ago
    Don’t Take My Mummy Away!
    Look at the poor baby chasing after the mother. Why do we do that to them? It's time to seriously think about our choices in life and how they affect others. Be kind. Don't break up families.
  • They do this every day!
    2 months ago
    They do this every day!
    This is how they are being treated every day of their lives. Please do something to stop the brutality. Listen to their cries for help!
  • What happened at Fair Oaks Farm?
    2 months ago
    What happened at Fair Oaks Farm?
    The largest undercover dairy investigation of all time. See what they found out at Fair Oaks Farm.
  • She’s going to spend her whole life here without being able to move correctly. Like a machine. They are the slaves of the people and are viewed as a product. It’s immoral. Billions of terrestrial animals die annually. Billions. You can’t even imagine it. And all that because people don’t want to give up meat, even though there are so many alternatives. ~ Gabriel Azimov
    2 months ago
    She’s going to spend her whole life here without being able to move correctly. Like a machine. They are the slaves of the people and are viewed as a product. It’s immoral. Billions of terrestrial animals die annually. Billions. You can’t even imagine it. And all that because people don’t want to give up meat, even though there are so many alternatives. ~ Gabriel Azimov
  • Our Malaysian Prime Minister Dr. Mahathir speaks so well, logically and regarding our country’s collaboration with China for growth. It is refreshing to listen to Dr. Mahathir’s thoughts. He said our country can look to China for many more things such as technology and so on. Tsem Rinpoche
    4 months ago
    Our Malaysian Prime Minister Dr. Mahathir speaks so well, logically and regarding our country’s collaboration with China for growth. It is refreshing to listen to Dr. Mahathir’s thoughts. He said our country can look to China for many more things such as technology and so on. Tsem Rinpoche
  • This is the first time His Holiness Dalai Lama mentions he had some very serious illness. Very worrying. This video is captured April 2019.
    4 months ago
    This is the first time His Holiness Dalai Lama mentions he had some very serious illness. Very worrying. This video is captured April 2019.
  • Beautiful Monastery in Hong Kong
    4 months ago
    Beautiful Monastery in Hong Kong
  • This dog thanks his hero in such a touching way. Tsem Rinpoche
    4 months ago
    This dog thanks his hero in such a touching way. Tsem Rinpoche
  • Join Tsem Rinpoche in prayer for H.H. Dalai Lama’s long life~ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gYy7JcveikU&feature=youtu.be
    4 months ago
    Join Tsem Rinpoche in prayer for H.H. Dalai Lama’s long life~ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gYy7JcveikU&feature=youtu.be
  • These people going on pilgrimage to a holy mountain and prostrating out of devotion and for pilgrimage in Tibet. Such determination for spiritual practice. Tsem Rinpoche
    4 months ago
    These people going on pilgrimage to a holy mountain and prostrating out of devotion and for pilgrimage in Tibet. Such determination for spiritual practice. Tsem Rinpoche
  • Beautiful new casing in Kechara for Vajra Yogini. Tsem Rinpoche
    5 months ago
    Beautiful new casing in Kechara for Vajra Yogini. Tsem Rinpoche
  • Get ready to laugh real hard. This is Kechara’s version of “Whatever Happened to Baby Jane!” We have some real talents in this video clip.
    5 months ago
    Get ready to laugh real hard. This is Kechara’s version of “Whatever Happened to Baby Jane!” We have some real talents in this video clip.
  • Recitation of Dorje Dermo‘s mantra or the Dharani of Glorious Vajra Claws. This powerful mantra is meant to destroy all obstacles that come in our way. Beneficial to play this mantra in our environments.
    5 months ago
    Recitation of Dorje Dermo‘s mantra or the Dharani of Glorious Vajra Claws. This powerful mantra is meant to destroy all obstacles that come in our way. Beneficial to play this mantra in our environments.
  • Beautiful
    5 months ago
    Beautiful
    Beautiful sacred Severed Head Vajra Yogini from Tsem Rinpoche's personal shrine.
  • My little monster cute babies Dharma and Oser. Take a look and get a cute attack for the day! Tsem Rinpoche
    5 months ago
    My little monster cute babies Dharma and Oser. Take a look and get a cute attack for the day! Tsem Rinpoche
  • Plse watch this short video and see how all sentient beings are capable of tenderness and love. We should never hurt animals nor should we eat them. Tsem Rinpoche
    5 months ago
    Plse watch this short video and see how all sentient beings are capable of tenderness and love. We should never hurt animals nor should we eat them. Tsem Rinpoche
  • Cruelty of some people have no limits and it’s heartbreaking. Being kind cost nothing. Tsem Rinpoche
    6 months ago
    Cruelty of some people have no limits and it’s heartbreaking. Being kind cost nothing. Tsem Rinpoche
  • SUPER ADORABLE and must see
    7 months ago
    SUPER ADORABLE and must see
    Tsem Rinpoche's dog Oser girl enjoying her snack in her play pen.
  • Cute!
    7 months ago
    Cute!
    Oser girl loves the balcony so much. - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RTcoWpKJm2c
  • Uncle Wong
    7 months ago
    Uncle Wong
    We were told by Uncle Wong he is very faithful toward Dorje Shugden. Dorje Shugden has extended help to him on several occasions and now Uncle Wong comes daily to make incense offerings to Dorje Shugden. He is grateful towards the help he was given.
  • Tsem Rinpoche’s Schnauzer Dharma boy fights Robot sphere from Arkonide!
    7 months ago
    Tsem Rinpoche’s Schnauzer Dharma boy fights Robot sphere from Arkonide!
  • Cute baby owl found and rescued
    8 months ago
    Cute baby owl found and rescued
    We rescued a lost baby owl in Kechara Forest Retreat.
  • Nice cups from Kechara!!
    8 months ago
    Nice cups from Kechara!!
    Dorje Shugden people's lives matter!
  • Enjoy a peaceful morning at Kechara Forest Retreat
    8 months ago
    Enjoy a peaceful morning at Kechara Forest Retreat
    Chirping birds and other forest animals create a joyful melody at the Vajrayogini stupa in Kechara Forest Retreat (Bentong, Malaysia).
  • His Holiness Kyabje Trijang Rinpoche makes offering of khata to Dorje Shugden.
    8 months ago
    His Holiness Kyabje Trijang Rinpoche makes offering of khata to Dorje Shugden.
    Trijang Rinpoche never gave up his devotion to Dorje Shugden no matter how much Tibetan government in exile pressured him to give up. He stayed loyal inspiring so many of us.
  • This topic is so hot in many circles right now.
    2 yearss ago
    This topic is so hot in many circles right now.
    This video is thought-provoking and very interesting. Watch! Thanks so much to our friends at LIVEKINDLY.
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    Lovely gift for my 52nd Birthday. Tsem Rinpoche
  • This 59-year-old chimpanzee was refusing food and ready to die until...
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    This 59-year-old chimpanzee was refusing food and ready to die until...
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  • Bigfoot sighted again and made it to the news.
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    Bigfoot sighted again and made it to the news.
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  • Dorje Shugden Monastery Amarbayasgalant  Mongolia's Ancient Hidden Gem
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    Don't you love Hamburgers? See how 'delicious' it is here!
  • Such a beautiful and powerful message from a person who knows the meaning of life. Tsem Rinpoche
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    Such a beautiful and powerful message from a person who knows the meaning of life. Tsem Rinpoche
  • What the meat industry figured out is that you don't need healthy animals to make a profit.
    2 yearss ago
    What the meat industry figured out is that you don't need healthy animals to make a profit.
    Sick animals are more profitable... farms calculate how close to death they can keep animals without killing them. That's the business model. How quickly they can be made to grow, how tightly they can be packed, how much or how little can they eat, how sick they can get without dying... We live in a world in which it's conventional to treat an animal like a block of wood. ~ Jonathan Safran Foer
  • This video went viral and it's a must watch!!
    2 yearss ago
    This video went viral and it's a must watch!!
  • SEE HOW THIS ANIMAL SERIAL KILLER HAS NO ISSUE BLUDGEONING THIS DEFENSELESS BEING.
    2 yearss ago
    SEE HOW THIS ANIMAL SERIAL KILLER HAS NO ISSUE BLUDGEONING THIS DEFENSELESS BEING.
    This happens daily in slaughterhouse so you can get your pork and Bak ku teh. Stop eating meat.

ASK A PASTOR


Ask the Pastors

A section for you to clarify your Dharma questions with Kechara’s esteemed pastors.

Just post your name and your question below and one of our pastors will provide you with an answer.

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CHAT PICTURES

Children recite Migtsema and Manjushri mantra before the start of dharma class. Lin Mun KSDS
yesterday
Children recite Migtsema and Manjushri mantra before the start of dharma class. Lin Mun KSDS
Student do full prostration before the start of dharma class. Lin Mun KSDS
yesterday
Student do full prostration before the start of dharma class. Lin Mun KSDS
Wen Yue led students to do key chain as part of art and craft activity. Lin Mun KSDS
yesterday
Wen Yue led students to do key chain as part of art and craft activity. Lin Mun KSDS
Teacher Kien shared some photos of sangha members. Lin Mun KSDS
yesterday
Teacher Kien shared some photos of sangha members. Lin Mun KSDS
Throwback- close bonding during WOAH camp. Lin Mun KSDS
yesterday
Throwback- close bonding during WOAH camp. Lin Mun KSDS
Teenage dharma class in Kechara House . Lin Mun KSDS
yesterday
Teenage dharma class in Kechara House . Lin Mun KSDS
Throwback- Chinese New Year activity, calligraphy with best wishes words. Lin Mun KSDS
yesterday
Throwback- Chinese New Year activity, calligraphy with best wishes words. Lin Mun KSDS
KISG has been performing White Tara and Dorje Shugden puja for 4 consecutive nights. So Kin Hoe (KISG)
3 days ago
KISG has been performing White Tara and Dorje Shugden puja for 4 consecutive nights. So Kin Hoe (KISG)
KISG members travelled to KFR for Ullambana today. So Kin Hoe (KISG)
1 week ago
KISG members travelled to KFR for Ullambana today. So Kin Hoe (KISG)
After the Bird Liberation, we proceeded with Dorje Shugden puja. Just before we started our puja, Pastor Patsy gave us a short Dharma Sharing. Pastor spoke about Dharma practice in these days and reminded us to always keep our samaya with Guru intact. To honour our promises, reduce our worldly activities and practice Dharma strongly. Thank you Pastor for the valuable advice~Jacinta, KPSG
1 week ago
After the Bird Liberation, we proceeded with Dorje Shugden puja. Just before we started our puja, Pastor Patsy gave us a short Dharma Sharing. Pastor spoke about Dharma practice in these days and reminded us to always keep our samaya with Guru intact. To honour our promises, reduce our worldly activities and practice Dharma strongly. Thank you Pastor for the valuable advice~Jacinta, KPSG
We chanted Medicine Buddha's mantra before we blessed them. May they be connected with Buddha always. ~Jacinta , monthly Bird Liberation Kechara Penang Study Group
1 week ago
We chanted Medicine Buddha's mantra before we blessed them. May they be connected with Buddha always. ~Jacinta , monthly Bird Liberation Kechara Penang Study Group
Special thanks to Linny Neoh and her friend for joining our Kechara Penang Study Group Bird Liberation. ~Jacinta, KPSG
1 week ago
Special thanks to Linny Neoh and her friend for joining our Kechara Penang Study Group Bird Liberation. ~Jacinta, KPSG
Birds were blessed before their departure to freedom. They deserved love & freedom too ~Jacinta,KPSG
1 week ago
Birds were blessed before their departure to freedom. They deserved love & freedom too ~Jacinta,KPSG
Pastor Patsy giving explanation during Bird Liberation event. Kechara Penang Study Group's monthly bird liberation - Jacinta
1 week ago
Pastor Patsy giving explanation during Bird Liberation event. Kechara Penang Study Group's monthly bird liberation - Jacinta
Re: Kechara Sunday Dharma Class every Sunday morning, Teachers and students start dharma learning at this blissful morning ~By KSDS Jayce Goh
2 weeks ago
Re: Kechara Sunday Dharma Class every Sunday morning, Teachers and students start dharma learning at this blissful morning ~By KSDS Jayce Goh
Kechara Sunday Dharma Class every Sunday morning, Teacher Lin Mun start class with Manjusri prayers after prostration ~By KSDS Jayce Goh
2 weeks ago
Kechara Sunday Dharma Class every Sunday morning, Teacher Lin Mun start class with Manjusri prayers after prostration ~By KSDS Jayce Goh
Mdm Glian Sim offered Serkym on behalf of KISG today. So Kin Hoe (KISG)
2 weeks ago
Mdm Glian Sim offered Serkym on behalf of KISG today. So Kin Hoe (KISG)
Janice So offered water to Lama Tsongkhapa, Mother Tara, Dorje Shugden and all Buddhas. So Kin Hoe (KISG)
2 weeks ago
Janice So offered water to Lama Tsongkhapa, Mother Tara, Dorje Shugden and all Buddhas. So Kin Hoe (KISG)
Ms. Leow offered lights and incense prior to the prayer session in Ipoh today. So Kin Hoe (KISG)
2 weeks ago
Ms. Leow offered lights and incense prior to the prayer session in Ipoh today. So Kin Hoe (KISG)
KISG has carried out a session of 21 Praises to Taras prayer recitations today in Ipoh. So Kin Hoe (KISG)
2 weeks ago
KISG has carried out a session of 21 Praises to Taras prayer recitations today in Ipoh. So Kin Hoe (KISG)
Children were very excited to participate in the quiz. Lin Mun KSDS
2 weeks ago
Children were very excited to participate in the quiz. Lin Mun KSDS
We will do dedication before we end the dharma class. Lin Mun KSDS
2 weeks ago
We will do dedication before we end the dharma class. Lin Mun KSDS
It’s wonderful for parents and children to attend animal liberation together and recite mantra before releasing the birds. Lin Mun KSDS
2 weeks ago
It’s wonderful for parents and children to attend animal liberation together and recite mantra before releasing the birds. Lin Mun KSDS
Bigfoot cafe in Bentong. Lin Mun KSDS
2 weeks ago
Bigfoot cafe in Bentong. Lin Mun KSDS
Rejoice ! Children getting blessing from pastor on Wesak Day. Lin Mun KSDS
2 weeks ago
Rejoice ! Children getting blessing from pastor on Wesak Day. Lin Mun KSDS
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Dorje Shugden
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