Sistem Beraja di Malaysia

Mar 15, 2017 | Views: 482
Birthday Celebration of Yang di-Pertuan Agong in front of Istana Negara

Sambutan Keputeraan Yang di-Pertuan Agong di hadapan Istana Negara

Sahabat-sahabat di seluruh dunia sekalian,

Saya telah tinggal di Malaysia lebih 20 tahun. Dalam jangka masa itu, saya telah memupuk satu penghargaan yang besar terhadap budaya dan adat yang wujud di Malaysia, yang telah memberi inspirasi kepada saya untuk lebih banyak menulis tentang aspek-aspek Malaysi yang memperkayakan kebudayaannya. Ini adalah salah satu lagi artikel untuk memberi anda pemahaman dan latar belakang Malaysia.

Malaysia telah mengambil sistem raja berpelembagaan yang merupakan satu campuran antara raja-raja terpilih dan keturunan. Malaysia terdiri daripada beberapa kawasan pentadbiran merentasi tiga belas buah negeri dan tiga buah wilayah persekutuan.

Bagi tujuan artikel ini, kita akan menumpukan kepada jawatan Yang di-Pertuan Agong atau Ketua Kerajaan Malaysia, dan sembilan negeri yang diperintah sama ada melalui raja-raja terpilih atau keturunan. Negeri-negeri tersebut adalah:

  1. Johor Darul Ta’zim
  2. Kedah darul Aman
  3. Kelantan Darul Naim
  4. Negeri Sembilan Darul Khusus
  5. Pahang Darul Makmur
  6. Perak Darul Ridzuan
  7. Perlis Indera Kayangan
  8. Selangor Darul Ehsan
  9. Terengganu Darul Iman

Saya dengan sukacitanya menyampaikan kepada anda, sistem beraja di Malaysia, sejarahnya, dan bagaimana sistem unik ini telah dilaksanakan dengan jayanya selama bertahun-tahun. Saya sampaikannya dengah penuh rasa hormatnya kepada raja-raja dan monarki Malaysia.

Tsem Rinpoche

 


 

Ringkasan

Malaysia terdiri daripada beberapa kerajaan Melayu dan wilayah yang terdahulunya merupakan sebahagian daripada wilayah kolonial dan negeri lindungan British. Selepas kegagalan menubuhkan Malayan Union antara tahun 1946 dan 1948, Pentadbiran British telah menubuhkan Persekutuan Tanah Melayu pada tahun 1948, yang mengakui status simbolik raja-raja Melayu.

Persekutuan Tanah Melayu terdiri daripada sembilan kerajaan Melayu: Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Negeri Sembilan, Perak, Perlis, Selangor dan Terengganu, serta dua wilayah kolonial British, iaitu Pulau Pinang dan Melaka. Pesuruhjaya Tinggi British, seorang penjawat diplomat kanan British yang bertanggungjawab terhadap sebuah wilayah Komanwel, telah mempengerusikan Persekutuan Tanah Melayu dan dibantu oleh Majlis Mesyuarat Kerja dan Majlis Mesyuarat Undangan.

Opposition to the establishment of the Malayan Union (1946 – 1948)

Tentangan kepada penubuhan Malayan Union (tahun 1946 – 1948)

The Declaration of Independence from the British Empire on 31 August 1957

Pengisytiharan Kemerdekaan daripada Empayar British pada 31 Ogos 1957

Pada 31 Ogos 1957, Persekutuan Tanah Melayu telah mengisytiharkan kemerdekaan daripada Empayar British. Pada 16 September 1963, Persekutuan Malaysia, kemudiannya hanya dikenali sebagai Malaysia, telah ditubuhkan. Anggotanya termasuklah bekas anggota Persekutuan Tanah Melayu dan tiga anggota baru: Borneo Utara, Sarawak dan Singapura. Dua tahun kemudia, Singapura telah meninggalkan persekutuan tersebut.

Senarai negeri-negeri di Malaysia:

No. Negeri Ibu Negeri Ketua Negeri
1. Johor Darul Ta’zim (“Johor”) Johor Bahru Sultan
2. Kedah Darul Aman (“Kedah”) Alor Setar Sultan
3. Kelantan Darul Naim (“Kelantan”) Kota Bharu Sultan
4. Melaka Bandaraya Melaka Yang di-Pertua Negeri (Governor)
5. Negeri Sembilan Darul Khusus (“Negeri Sembilan”) Seremban Yamtuan Besar (Yang di-Pertuan Besar)
6. Pahang Darul Makmur (“Pahang”) Kuantan Sultan
7. Pulau Pinang George Town Yang di-Pertua Negeri (Governor)
8. Perak Darul Ridzuan (“Perak”) Ipoh Sultan
9. Perlis Indera Kayangan (“Perlis”) Kangar Raja
10. Sabah Kota Kinabalu Yang di-Pertua Negeri (Governor)
11. Sarawak Kuching Yang di-Pertua Negeri (Governor)
12. Selangor Darul Ehsan (“Selangor”) Shah Alam Sultan
13. Terengganu Darul Iman (“Terengganu”) Kuala Terengganu Sultan

Nota: Bagi tujuan artikel ini, kita akan lebih menumpukan kepada jawatan Yang di-Pertuan Agong, dan negeri-negeri yang menjalankan sistem raja berpelembagaan (Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, Perak, Perlis, Selangor dan Terengganu)

 

Yang di-Pertuan Agong

 

Sejarah Ringkas

Tuanku Abdul Rahman of Negeri Sembilan, the 1st Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia

Tuanku Abdul Rahman dari Negeri Sembilan, Yang di-Pertuan Agong pertama di Malaysia

Jawatan Yang di-Pertuan Agong telah diwujudkan selepas Malaysia mendapat kemerdekaannya daripada Britain pada tahun 1957. Yang di-Pertuan Agong adalah ketua negara, dan dilantik oleh Majlis Raja-Raja (the Conference of Rulers). Anggota Majlis Raja-Raja memainkan peranan penting dalam pemindaan perlembagaan, terutamanya yang berkaitan dengan status raja-raja, hak-hak bumiputera, bahasa kebangsaan dan polisi-polisi lain yang berkaitan. Orang pertama yang dilantik oleh Majlis Raja-Raja untuk menjadi Yang di-Pertuan Agong adalah Sultan Ibrahim dari Johor (tahun 1873 – 1959; memerintah: tahun 1933 -1960). Namun begitu, raja yang berumur 84 tahun itu menolak jawatan tersebut kerana usia tuanya. Majlis Raja-Raja kemudiannya memilih Tuanku Abdul Rahman dari Negeri Sembilan (tahun 1895 – 1960; memerintah: tahun 1933 – 1960) sebagai Yang di-Pertuan Agong yang pertama selepas itu.

 

Proses Pengundian

Conference of Rulers meeting in 2010

Mesyuarat Majlis Raja-Raja bersidang pada tahun 2010

Majlis Raja-Raja dipertanggungjawabkan untuk menentukan siapa yang akan menjadi Yang di-Pertuan Agong, setiap lima tahun sekali, atau jika jawatan itu dikosongkan akibat kemangkatan atau sebab-sebab yang lain. Keempat-empat gabenor negeri juga turut menghadiri persidangan tersebut, tetapi tidak mempunyai hak untuk terpilih atau mengundi bagi jawatan Yang di-Pertuan Agong.

Berikut merupakan ciri-ciri bagi calon untuk layak menjadi Yang di-Pertuan Agong:

  • Calon mestilah seorang raja kerajaan atau kesultanan di Malaysia
  • Calon mestilah dewasa
  • Calon tidak menyampaikan niat kepada Penyimpan Mohor Besar Raja-Raja untuk menarik dari pencalonan jawatan Yang di-Pertuan Agong
  • Majlis Raja-Raja tidak membantah perlantikan seseorang calon berdasarkan sebab musabab yang meragui kesesuaian calon untuk menjalankan tanggungjawab sebagai Yang di-Pertuan Agong.
The Coat of Arms of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong

Jata Yang di-Pertuan Agong

Semasa proses pengundian, Penyimpan Mohor Besar Raja-Raja akan mengedarkan kertas undi dengan senarai calon. Setiap raja-raja akan menyatakan pendapatnya sama ada calon tersebut layak untuk dilantik menjadi Yang di-Pertuan Agong. Penyimpan Mohor Besar Raja-Raja bersama dengan raja yang muda dari segi pemerintahannya dan tidak tersenarai sebagai calon, akan mengira undi bersama-sama. Calon yang mendapat sekurang-kurangnya lima undian akan ditawarkan jawatan sebagai Yang di-Pertuan Agong.

Jika calon itu menolak tawaran tersebut, atau tidak berjaya mendapatkan undian majoriti, proses pengundian akan diulang dengan raja kedua dalam senarai Kekanaan Negeri menjadi calon seterusnya.

Senarai Kekanaan Negeri:

  1. Yamtuan Besar Negeri Sembilan
  2. Sultan Selangor
  3. Raja Perlis
  4. Sultan Terengganu
  5. Sultan Kedah
  6. Sultan Kelantan
  7. Sultan Pahang
  8. Sultan Johor
  9. Sultan Perak

Selepas Yang di-Pertuan Agong dilantik, pemegang jawatan itu akan melantik raja muda untuk membantu menjalankan tanggungjawabnya di negeri asalnya, kecuali tugasnya sebagai Ketua Agama Islam. Yang di-Pertuan Agong masih lagi memegang haknya untuk menjadi Ketua Agama Islam di negeri asalnya.

Senarai Yang di-Pertuan Agong Malaysia:

No. Nama Penggal Negeri
1. Tuanku Abdul Rahman 1957-1960 Negeri Sembilan
2. Sultan Hisamuddin Alam Shah 1960 Selangor
3. Raja Syed Putra 1960 – 1965 Perlis
4. Sultan Ismail Nasiruddin Shah 1965 – 1970 Terengganu
5. Tuanku Abdul Halim Muadzam Shah 1970 – 1975 Kedah
6. Sultan Yahya Petra 1975 – 1979 Kelantan
7. Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah Al-Mustain Billah 1979 – 1984 Pahang
8. Sultan Iskandar 1984 – 1989 Johor
9. Sultan Azlan Muhibbuddin Shah 1989 – 1994 Perak
10. Tuanku Jaafar 1994 – 1999 Negeri Sembilan
11. Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah 1999 – 2001 Selangor
12. Raja Sirajuddin of Perlis 2001 – 2006 Perlis
13. Mizan Zainal Abidin of Terengganu 2006 – 2011 Terengganu
14. Tuanku Abdul Halim Muadzam Shah 2011 – present Kedah
15. Sultan Muhammad V Elected in October 2016 Kelantan

 

Keistimewaan dan Tanggungjawab Yang di-Pertuan Agong

The 14th Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia, Abdul Halim of Kedah and his wife, Raja Permaisuri Agong, Tuanku Hajah Haminah Binti Hamidun

Yang di-Pertuan Agong Malaysia ke-14, Abdul Halim dari Kedah dan permaisuri, Raja Permaisuri Agong, Tuanku Hajah Haminah Binti Hamidun

Yang di-Pertuan Agong harus menjalankan tanggungjawab yang berikut:

  • Melantik jawatan penting kerajaan, termasuklah Jemaah Menteri (seperti Perdana Menteri, Timbalan Perdana Menteri, Ketua Setiausaha Negara), jawatankuasa dan suruhanjaya (seperti Suruhanjaya Pilihan Raya, Suruhanjaya Perkhidmatan Kehakiman dan Perundangan, Suruhanjaya Perkhidmatan Awam), hakim-hakim (seperti Ketua Hakim Negara, Hakim Besar Malaya dan Hakim Besar Sabah dan Sarawak), senator dan gabenor.
  • Menjadi Ketua Agama Islam di tiga negeri yang ditadbir oleh gabenor, tiga buah Wilayah Persekutuan dan negeri asalnya.
  • Menjadi Pemerintah Tertinggi Angkatan Tentera, pegawai tertinggi dalam senarai rantaian perintah ketenteraan

 

Penghapusan Kekebalan

Pada tahun 1993, perlembagaan Malaysia telah dipinda untuk melucutkan kekebalan Yang di-Pertuan Agong dan raja-raja dalam lingkup peribadi mereka. Perlembagaan juga menyatakan bahawa Yang di-Pertuan Agong atau mana-mana raja tidak boleh memberi pengampunan kepada diri sendiri atau keluarga terdekatnya. Namun begitu, mereka boleh membuat permintaan untuk pengampunan dari Majlis Raja-Raja.

 

Sistem beraja di negeri-negeri di Malaysia

Ketika ini, terdapat sembilan buah negeri di Malaysia yang mengamalkan sistem raja berpelembagaan. Perlembagaan negeri menyatakan bahawa hanya lelaki beragama Islam dan berketurunan diraja sahaja yang layak untuk menjadi ketua negeri tersebut. Seperti sistem raja berpelembagaan yang lain, raja-raja tidak terlibat dalam pentadbiran seharian kerajaan negeri mereka. Namun begitu, mereka masih berhak untuk menjadi Ketua Agama Islam dan untuk melantik Menteri Besar (Chief Minister), atau ketua kerajaan negeri tersebut.

 

Kedah

Monarch009

 

Sejarah Ringkas

Kedah Sultanate’s Coat of Arms

Jata Negeri Kedah

Kesultanan Kedah juga dikenali sebagai Darul Aman, atau ‘Abode of Peace’ (Tempat Keamanan). Kedah asalnya adalah sebuah kerajaan Hindu yang diasaskan pada tahun 630 Sebelum Masihi oleh Maharaja Derbar Raja dari Gemeron, yang juga dikenali sebagai Bandar Abbas. Seorang putera raja Parsi yang telah ditumpaskan dalam peperangan, dia melarikan diri dan terkandas di Kedah. Bandar Abbas menjalinkan hubungan yang baik dengan penduduk di Kedah, dan mereka mengangkatnya sebagai raja mereka, Sri Paduka Maharaja Durbar Raja I.

 

Sri Paduka Maharaja Durbar Raja I

Sri Paduka Maharaja Durbar Raja I

Pada penghujung abad ke-11, pengaruh Islam telah sampai ke Kedah. Maharaja kesembilan Kedah, Sri Paduka Maharaja Durbar Raja II telah memeluk ajaran baru ini, dan menukar nama dan gelarannya kepada Sultan Mudzafar Shah I (memerintah tahun 1136 – 1179). Selepas dari itu, kerajaan Kedah menjadi kesultanan Kedah. Dari segi sejarah, Kedah telah jatuh di bawah kawalan kerajaan Srivijaya, Siam, Britain dan Jepun. Semasa kedah merupakan negeri uftian Siam, ia terpaksa kerap menghantar Bunga Mas atau Bunga Emas dan hadiah-hadiah berharga yang lain kepada kerajaan Siam. Pada abad ke-18, Sultan Kedah menyerahkan Pulau Pinang dan Province of Wellesley kepada British untuk mendapatkan perlindungan mereka daripada Siam. Namun, Siam telah menyerang Kedah pada tahun 1821 dan mengambil kuasa di kawan itu. Siam juga telah memisahkan wilayah Perlis dari kesultanan Kedah. Pada tahun 1909, Perjanjian British-Siam telah ditandatangani pada tahun 1909, dan Britain mendapat kuasa di Kedah. Siam mengambil alih semula kuasa buat seketika semasa Perang Dunia Kedua sebagai ganjaran perikatan mereka dengan Jepun, namun telah diserahkan semula kepada Empayar British selepas Perang Dunia Kedua. Kedah menyertai Persekutuan Tanah Melayu pada tahun 1948 dan kemudiannya Malaysia pada tahun 1963.

 

Sistem Beraja Kedah

The Sultan Abdul Halim of Kedah and his wife, Sultanah Haminah

Sultan Abdul Halim dari Kedah dan permaisuri, Sultanah Haminah

Kesultanan Kedah mengamalkan sistem beraja keturunan dan berpelembagaan. Sultan Kedah terkini adalah Sultan Abdul Halim Mu’adzam Shah ( tahun 1927 – hingga kini; memerintah: tahun 1958 – hingga kini). Baginda mewarisi takhta daripada ayahandanya, Sultan Badlishah (tahun 1894 – 1958; memerintah: tahun 1943 – 1658).

 

Kelantan

Monarch014

 

Sejarah Ringkas

Kelantan Sultanate’s Coat of Arms

Jata Negeri Kelantan

Kelantan mempunyai sejarah yang berwarna-warni dan bergelora. Sepanjang sejarahnya, pedagang-pedagang China, India dan Siam telah menjalankan perniagaan mereka di Kelantan, yang menjadikannya sasaran yang menarik untuk kuasa asing mengambil kuasa di kawasan ini. Pada abad ke-13 dan ke-14, kesultanan Kelantan menjadi negeri uftian kerajaan Majapahit dan Srivijaya. Pada abada ke-15, Kelantan menjadi negeri uftian Siam dan kemudiannya Melaka. Semasa Kelantan merupakan negeri uftian bagi Siam, ia terpaksa menghantar Bunga Mas atau Bunga Emas dan hadiah-hadiah berharga yang lainnya kepada kerajaan Siam. Sewaktu jajahan Portugis di Melaka, kesultanan Kelantan telah dibahagikan kepada beberapa kawasan yang lebih kecil di bawah kuasa ketua-ketua feudal. Siam telah mengambil semula kuasa di kawasan ini dan meletakkannya di bawah penguasaan kerajaan Patani.

Pada tahun 1760, seorang ketua dari Kubang Labu bernama Long Muhammad atau Long Pandak telah menyatukan bekas-bekas wilayah Kelantan dan melantik dirinya sebagai pemerintah. Beberapa tahun kemudian, seorang pahlawan Pattani, Long Yunus telah menjatuhkan Long Pandak dan mengisytiharkan dirinya sebagai Raja Kelantan (tahun 1734 – 1794; memerintah: tahun 1775 – 1794). Selepas kemangkatan Long Yunus, kuasa ke atas Kelantan telah dialih kepada Terengganu dibawah kuasa Yang di-Pertuan Muda Tengku Muhammad, anakanda kepada Sultan Mansur di Terengganu (memerintah: tahun 1794 – 1800). Pada tahun 1800, anakanda kepada Raja Yunus, Long Muhammad, menisytiharkan dirinya sebagai pemerintah Kelantan dibawah gelaran Sultan Muhammad I (memerintah: tahun 1800 – 1835). Kelantan menyertai Persekutuan Tanah Melayu pada tahun 1948 dan Persekutuan Malaysia pada tahun 1963.

 

Sistem Beraja Kelantan

Sultan Muhammad V of Kelantan and Mentri Besar Muhamad Yakob

Sultan Muhammad V dari Kelantan dan Menteri Besar Muhamad Yakob

Negeri Kelantan mengamalkan sistem beraja keturunan dan berpelembagaan. Pemegang jawatan Sultan Kelantan telah ditetapkan juga sebagai Ketua Agama Islam dan ketua kerajaan Kelantan. Raja terkini di Kelantan ialah Sultan Muhammad V (1969 – hingga kini; memerintah: tahun 2010 – hingga kini). Baginda mewarisi takhta dari ayahandanya, Sultan Ismail Petra (memrintah: tahun 1979 – 2010).

 

Johor

Monarch017

 

Sejarah Ringkas

Johor Sultanate’s Coat of Arms

Jata negeri Johor

Johor asalnya merupakan sebahagian daripada kesultanan Melaka. Pada tahun 1511, Portugis telah menawan Melaka dan Sultan Mahmud Shah terpaksa melarikan diri dari kerajaannya ke Bintan. Baginda telah beberapa kali gagal untuk mengambil semula kerajaannya sebelum Portugis menyerang Bintan pada tahun 1526 dan memaksa baginda melarikan diri ke Kampar, Sumatra. Sultan Mahmud Shah mangkat pada tahun 1528, dan kedua orang puteranya telah mengasaskankan kesultanan mereka masing-masing. Sultan Muzaffar Shah (memerintah: tahun 1528 – 1549) telah mengasaskan kesultanan Perak, sementara Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah (tahun 1513 – 1564; memerintah: tahun 1528 – 1564) telah mengasaskan kesultanan Johor. Selama beberapa ketika, Sultan yang baru dan keturunannya telah diganggu oleh Portugis dan Aceh, namun mereka berjaya mempertahankan wilayah barunya itu.

The tomb of Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah, the founder of the Johor Sultanate

Makam Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah, pengasas Kesultanan Johor

Pada awal abad ke-17, Belanda tiba di Asia Tenggara dan menandatangani dua perjanjian perikatan dengan kesultanan Johor pada tahun 1606. Kesultanan Johor dan Belanda bergabung tenaga untuk mengalahkan Portugis di Melaka. Selepas peperangan, Belanda telah mengambil kuasa di Melaka, dan seperti yang telah dipersetujui, Belanda bersetuju untuk tidak menduduki wilayah kesultanan Johor.

Antara tahun 1666 dan 1673, Jambi, sebahagian daripada kesultanan Johor, telah menjadi satu kawasan yang makmur dan cuba untuk berpecah dari Johor. Niat pemisahan ini telah menjadi satu perang saudara. Semasa waktu ini, Sultan Johor berusaha untuk menyatukan kesultanannya dan terpaksa untuk memindahkan ibu negerinya untuk beberapa kali. Pada abad ke-17, Johor menjadi pusat perdagangan dengan pengaruh melebihi Melaka. Pihak Belanda tidak begitu gembira dengan hal ini, tetapi masih berpegang kepada perjanjian yang telah ditandatangani. Sultan terakhir daripada keturunan asal Dinasti Melaka ialah Sultan Mahmud Shah II dari Johor(tahun 1675 – 1699; memerintah: tahun 1685 – 1699). Baginda mangkat tanpa waris, oleh sebab itu, kumpulan dominan dalam istananya, melantik Bendahara Abdul Jalil (memerintah 1699 – 1720) untuk menggantikannya, sebagai Sultan Abdul Jalil IV.

Takhta itu kemudiannya telah dirampas oleh Raja Kecil, yang mendakwa dirinya sebagai putera Sultan Mahmud Shah II. Raja Kecil telah mengupah pembunuh upahan untuk membunuh Sultan Abdul Jalil IV dan mengangkat dirinya sendiri sebagai Sultan Johor. Namun, pemerintahan Raja Kecil tidak lama, kerana anakanda Sultan Abdul Jalil, Sultan Sulaiman (memerintah: tahun 1722 – 1760) mengambil semula takhta dengan bantuan seorang tokoh Bugis yang berpengaruh, Daeng Parani. Setelah Sultan Sulaiman dinobatkan sebagai Sultan Johor, Daeng Merewah, kekanda kepada Daeng Parani, telah dilantik sebagai Yam Tuan Muda atau waris kepada takhta. Pada tahun 1819, kesultanan Johor telah dipecahkan kepada tanah besar Johor dan wilayah Riau-Lingga. Sultan Johor memegang kuasa ke atas tanah besar Johor, sementara wilayah Riau-Lingga telah diserahkan kepada puak Bugis.

Riau Lingga Noblemen and Sultan Sulaiman II of Johor

Bangsawan Riau-Lingga dan Sultan Sulaiman II Johor

Selepas kehilangan Riau-Lingga, Johor terus membangun menjadi kesultanan yang moden. Dalam pemerintahan Sultan Abu Bakar Johor (1833 – 1895; memerintah: 1862 – 1895), baginda telah menubuhkan pentabdiran mengikut cara British dan perlembagaan negeri, dan telah dikenali sebagai Bapa Johor Moden. Johor telah menyertai Persekutuan Tanah Melayu pada tahun 1948 dan Persekutuan Malaysia pada tahun 1963.

 

Sistem Beraja Di Johor

Sultan Ibrahim Ismail of Johor and his wife, Raja Zarith Sofia

Sultan Ibrahim Ismail Johor dan permaisuri, Raja Zarith Sofia

Johor mengamalkan sistem beraja keturunan dan berpelembagaan. Sultan Johor terkini ialah Sultan Ibrahim Ismail (tahun 1958 – hingga kini; memerintah 2010 – hingga kini). Baginda mewarisi takhta dari ayahandanya, Sultan Iskandar (1932 – 2010; memerintah: 1981 – 2010).

 

Negeri Sembilan

Monarch022

 

Sejarah RIngkas

Negeri Sembilan's Coat of Arms

Jata Negeri Sembilan

Negeri Sembilan merupakan negeri uftian kesultanan Melaka. Selepas Melaka jatuh ke dalam kuasa Portugis, negeri itu berada dalam perlindungan kesultanan Johor. Pada abad ke-14, penduduk dari Minangkabau di Sumatra telah berhijrah ke Negeri Sembilan. Oleh itu, berbanding dengan negeri-negeri lain, kebanyakan orang di Negeri Sembilan mengamalkan sistem nasab ibu, yang merupakan ciri-ciri masyarakat Minangkabau. Pada abad ke-18, kesultanan Johor terpaksa menangani urusan dalaman, dan tidak dapat melindungi Negeri Sembilan daripada serangan Bugis. Disebabkan itu, Negeri Sembilan mendapatkan perlindungan daripada Sultan Abdul Jalil Pagar Ruyung di Minangkabau, yang kemudiannya menghantar anakandanya Raja Melewar sebagi wakil.

Raja Melewar, the first ruler of Negeri Sembilan

Raja Melewar, pemerintah pertama Negeri Sembilan

Namun begitu, apabila Raja Melewar tiba di Negeri Sembilan, baginda mendapati seorang yang bernama Raj Khatib telah mengisytiharkan dirinya sendiri sebagai pemerintah Negeri Sembilan. Raja Melewar mengisytiharkan perang ke atas raja baru itu, dan menumpaskan Raja Khatib, dan menabalkan dirinya sebagai pemerintah Negeri Sembilan. Kesultanan Johor mengakui Raja Melewar (memerintah: tahun 1773 – 1795) sebagai pemerintah Negeri Sembilan dan memberikannya gelaran Yamtuan Seri Menanti atau ‘He Who is the Highest Lord of Seri Menanti’ (Dia yang merupakan Ketua Tertinggi Seri Menanti). Selepas kemangkatan Raja Melewar, pemilihan pemeritah seterusnya kerap berakhir dengan perang saudara dan ketidakstabilan, kerana terdapat kepentingan dan sokongan yang bercanggah kepada beberapa pihak yang menuntut takhta. Pada tahun 1873, pihak British membuat keputusan untuk melindungi kepentingan mereka di Negeri Sembilan dengan campur tangan dalam perang saudara itu. Disebabkan itu, kawasan ini jatuh di bawah pendudukan British. Negeri Sembilan menyertai Persekutuan Tanah Melayu pada tahun 1948 dan Persekutuan Malaysia pada tahun 1963.

 

Sistem Beraja di Negeri Sembilan

The current Yang di-Pertuan Besar Negeri Sembilan, Tuanku Muhriz, and his wife Tuanku Aishah Rohani

Yang di-Pertuan Besar Negeri Sembilan sekarang, Tuanku Muhriz, dan permaisuri, Tuanku Aishah Rohani

Negeri Sembilan mengamalkan sistem beraja pilihan dan berpelembagaan. Pemerintah Negeri Sembilan dipanggil Yang di-Pertuan Besar atau ‘He Who Is Made Great’ (Dia yang dijadikan Hebat). Baginda dilantik oleh Pembesar Memerintah Negeri Sembilan, atau juga dikenali sebagai Undang, seumur hidup. Berikut adalah senarai Undang yang berhak untuk mengundi, tetapi tidak mempunyai hak untuk tercalon:

  • Undang Sungai Ujong
  • Undang Jelebu
  • Undang Johol
  • Undang Rembau

Untuk calon layak bagi jawatan Yang di-Pertuan Besar, seseorang calon mestilah lelaki, beragama Islam, dan diakui sebagai waris keturunan Raja Radin Ibni Raja Lenggang. Yang di-Pertuan Besar Negeri Sembilan terkini ialah Tuanku Muhriz (tahun 1948 – hingga kini; memerintah: 2008 – hingga kini).

 

Pahang

Monarch026

 

Sejarah Ringkas

Pahang Sultanate’s Coat of Arms

Jata Negeri Pahang

Sultan Pahang yang pertama ialah Muhammad Shah (memerintah: tahun 1470 – 1475). Baginda merupakan waris kepada takhta Melaka sebelum dibuang negeri ke Pahang oleh ayahandanya, Sultan Mansyur Shah (memerintah: tahun 1459 – 1477) kerana telah melakukan pembunuhan. Pahang pernah jatuh di bawah kekuasaan beberapa kerajaan, seperti Srivijaya, Majapahit, Siam dan Melaka. Pada abad ke-16, Pahang menarik perhatian pihak Portugis, Belandan, Johor dan Aceh. Pada abad ke-17, Pahang menjadi wilayah jajahan kesultanan Johor. Namun, memandangkan pemerintah Pahang berketurunan dari keluarga diraja Melaka dan Johor, mereka berjaya mendapatkan sedikit autonomi dari kesultanan Johor. Sewaktu pemerintahan Bendahara Tun Ali dari Pahang (memerintah: tahun 1806 – 1847), keamanan dan kestabilan dapat dijaga. Malangnya, selepas kemangkatannya, putera-puteranya, Tun Mutahir (memerintah: tahun 1858 – 1863) dan Tun Ahmad berbalah tentang siapa yang berhak untuk mewarisi takhta dan telah memulakan perang saudara. Tun Ahmad (memerintah: tahun 1863 – 1881) kemudiannya telah ditabalkan menjadi sultan yang baru, namun kuasanya telah berkurangan kerana terpaksa untuk tunduk kepada pentadbiran British.

Selepas kesultanan Johor kehilangan wilayah Riau-Lingga kepada Bugis, Temenggung Ibrahim dari Johor telah menandatangani perjanjian dengan Bendahara Tun Mutahir dari Pahang (memerintah: tahun 1858 – 1863), yang menyatakan bahawa Temenggung Ibrahim dan warisnya berhak untuk memerintah negeri Johor, sementara Bendahara Tun Mutahir dan warisnya berhak untuk memerintah di negeri Pahang. Selepas perjanjian ditandatangani, Pahang telah mendapat kebebasan daripada Johor. Pahang menyertai Persekutuan Tanah Melayu pada tahun 1948 dan Persekutuan Malaysia pada tahun 1963.

 

Sistem Beraja di Pahang

The current Sultan of Pahang, Ahmad Syah and his wife Sultanah Kasom Binti Abdullah

Sultan Pahang yang terkini, Ahmad Syah dan permaisuri, Sultanah Kason Binti Adbullah

Pahang merupakan negeri ketiga terbesar di Malaysia. Pahang mengamalkan sistem beraja keturunan dan berpelembagaan. Pemerintah terkini negeri Pahang ialah Sultan Ahmad Shah (memerintah: tahun 1974 – hingga kini). Baginda mearisi takhta dari ayahandanya, almarhum Sultan Abu Bakar Pahang (tahun 1904 – 1974; memerintah: tahun 1932 – 1974).

 

Perlis

Monarch029

 

Sejarah Ringkas

Perlis's Coat of Arms

Jata Negeri Perlis

Perlis pada asalnya merupakan sebahagian daripada kesultanan KEdah., Pada abad ke-19, sewaktu Kedah berada dalam pemerintahan Siam, Siam telah memisahkan Perlis dari Kedah dan melantik gabenor dan timbalan gabenornya. Pada 20 Mei 1843, Siam telah menabalkan Sayyid Hussain Jamalulail sebagai Raja Perlis (memerintah: tahun 1843 – 1873), setara dengan raja atau pemerintah. Raja yang baru itu, merupakan cucu dari sebelah ibu Sultan Kedah. Sama seperti kesultanan Kedah, pada awal abad ke-20, Siam telah terpaksa untuk melepaskan sebahagian daripada wilayahnya kepada kekuasaan British, termasuklah Perlis. Perlis kembali berada di bawah pemerintahan sementara Siam sewaktu Perang Dunia Kedua, sebagai ganjaran perikatan Siam bersama Jepun. Selepas Jepun kalah dalam peperangan, Perlis dipulangkan kepada Britain. Perlis menyertai Persekutuan Tanah Melayu pada tahun 1948 dan Persekutuan Malaysia pada tahun 1963.

 

Sistem Beraja Perlis

The current Raja Sirajuddin of Perlis and his wife, Tuanku Fauziah

Raja Sirajuddin Perlis yang terkini, dan permaisuri, Tuanku Fauziah

Perlis mengamal sistem beraja keturunan dan berpelembagaan. Tidak seperti negeri-negeri lain di Malaysia, raja di Perlis dipanggil Raja dan bukan Sultan. Raja terkini Perlis ialah Tu7anku Syed Sirajuddin Jamalullail (tahun 1943 – hingga kini; memerintah: tahun 2000 – hingga kini). Baginda mewarisi takhta daripada ayahandanya, almarhum Tuanku Syed Putra Jamalullail (1920 – 2000; memerintah: tahun 1945 – 2000).

 

Perak

Monarch032

 

Sejarah Ringkas

Perak’s Coat of Arms

Jata Negeri Perak

Selepas Melaka jatuh ke tangan Portugis pada tahun 1511, putera kepada Sultan Melaka, Sultan Mahmud Syah I; Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah II, mengasaskan kesultanan Perak pada tahun 1528, dan menabalkan dirinya sendiri sebagai Sultan Perak yang pertama. Pihak Belanda tiba di Perak pada pertengahan abad ke-17 dan menggunakan hubungan mereka dengan Aceh untuk memaksa Sultan Perak menandatangani satu perkankian yang akan membernarkan pihak Belanda untuk membina loji dan berdagang di Perak. Namun begitu, emeandangkan pihak Belanda gagal untuk menjalinkan hubungan yang baik dengan penduduk Perak, penduduk Perak telah memusnahkan loji dan memaksa pihak Belanda untuk pergi. Pada tahun 1670, Belanda telah berjaya untuk mendapat persetujuan dari pemerintah Perak untuk membina sebuah Kubu di Pulau Pangkor yang dikenali sebagai Kota Belanda. Namun, 15 tahun kemudian, orang-orang Perak telah menyerang kubu itu dan memaksa pihak Belanda untuk skeali lagi menghentikan operasi mereka di Perak.

Pada abad ke-19, British telah memaksa Perak untuk tunduk kepada kuasa mereka dan menabalkan Sultan Abdullah sebagai raja baru Perak, dan pegawai British, James W. W. Birch telah diberi tugas untuk mentadbir kesultanan itu. Malang bagi Encik Birch, dia telah dibunuh oleh orang-orang Perak. Pihak British, tidak berpuas hati dengan kejadian itu, telah membuang negeri Sultan Abdullah ke Seychelles, dan menabalkan raja yang baru, Sultan Yusuf Sharifudin Mudzaffar Shah pada tahun 1877. British juga telah melantik pegawai yang baru yang juga fasih dalam bahasa Melayu dan biasa dengan budaya tempatan, Sir Hugh Low. Dia lebih berjaya sebagai pentadbir negeri Perak berbanding yang sebelumnya. Perak menyertai Persekutuan Tanah Melayu pada tahun 1948 dan Persekutuan Malaysia pada tahun 1963.

Sultan Yusuf Sharifudin Mudzaffar Shah with Sir Hugh Low

Sultan Yusuf Sharifudin Mudzaffar Shah bersama Sir Hugh Low

 

Sistem Beraja Perak

Sultan Nazrin Muizzuddin Shah of Perak and his wife, Tuanku Zara Salim

Sultan Nazrin Muizzuddin Shah dari Perak dan permaisuri, Tuanku Zara Zalim

Perak mengamalkan sistem beraja pilihan dan berpelembagaan. Pemerintah dicalonkan diantara putera yang paling kanan yang merupakan wari keturunan Sultan Ahmaddin (memerintah: 1786 – 1806), Sultan Pahang ke-18. Oleh itu, waris lelaki dari sultan yang sebelumnya juga turut layak untuk menjadi raja di Perak. Sultan yang terkini ialah Nazrin Muizuddin Shah dari Perak (tahun 1956 – hingga kini; memerintah: tahun 2014 – hingga kini).

 

Selangor

Monarch036

 

Sejarah Ringkas

Selangor Sultanate’s Coat of Arms

Jata Negeri Selangor

Selangor merupakan sebahagian daripada kerajaan Melaka. Selepas Portugis mengambil Melaka; Johor, Aceh dan Siam telah cuba untuk menuntut wilayah Selangor tetapi tidak berjaya. Apabila Belanda tiba di Melaka, mereka menjemput peneroka Bugis untuk datang ke Selangor, dan pendatang baru itu telah menyingkirkan peneroka Minangkabau yang sedia ada. Pemerintah kesultanan Selangor merupakan ketrurunan daripada peneroka Bugis yang mendakwa mempunyai pertalian dengan pemerintah Luwu di Sulawesi. Sultan Selangor yang pertama ialah Sultan Sallehuddin Shah, juga dikenali sebagai Raja Lumu (tahun 1705 – 1778; memerintah: tahun 1756 – 1778), anak kepada seorang pahlawan Bugis, Daeng Chelak. Pemerintah Perak dan Johor pada awalnya mencabar pertabalan Sultan Sallehuddin Shah, tetapi dia berjaya mendapatkan sedikit keabsahan melalui perkahwinannya dengan ahli dari keluarga diraja Perak. Pada abad ke-19, eksploitasi sumber bijih timah di Selangor membawa kepada kemakmuran ekonomi. Sewaktu pemerintahan Sultan Muhammad Shah (memerintah: tahun 1826 – 1857), Selangor telah dibahagikan kepada 5 kawasan: Bernam, Kuala Selangor, Kelang, Langat dan Lukut, dengan ketua masing-masing bagi setiap kawasan.

Sultan Abdul Samad of Selangor (1804 – 1898; r. 1857 – 1898)

Sultan Abdul Samad dari Selangor (tahun 1804 – 1898; memerintah: tahun 1857 – 1898)

Pada tahun 1886, Sultan Abdul Samad, juga dikenali sebagi Raja Abdul Samad (tahun 1804 – 1898; memerintah: tahun 1857 – 1898), memilih Raja Abdullah sebagai ketua Klang berbanding Raja Mahadi, anak kepada ketua yang sebelumnya. Perlantikan ini telah mencetuskan Perang Kelang. Tengku Kudin, menantu kepda Sultan Abdul Samad, telah diberikan tugas untuk mengendalikan situasi tersebut. Tengku Kudin telah mendapatkan bantuan dari tentera upahan, kesultanan Pahang dan Sir Andrew Clarke dari Britain. Oleh sebab ini, tidak seperti negeri-negeri yang lain, Selangor telah menjemput dan mengalu-alukan penglibatan British. Sultan Abdul Samad juga telah menerima seorang residen British, Frank Swettenham, sebagai penasihatnya. Kestabilan yang mengikuti pentadbiran British telah membawa kepada kemakmuran kepada negeri Selangor. Selangor menyertai Persekutuan Tanah Melayu pada tahun 1948 dan Persekutuan Malaysia pada tahun 1963. Sultan Salahuddin dari Selangor (tahun 1926 – 2001; memerintah: tahun 1960 – 2001) telah memperkenankan penyerahan Kuala Lumpur kepada Kerajaan Persekutuan pada tahun 1974, dan Putrajaya pada tahun 2001.

 

Sistem Beraja di Selangor

Sultan Sharafuddin of Selangor (centre)

Sultan Sharafuddin Selangor (tengah)

Selangor mengamalkan sistem beraja keturunan dan berpelembagaan. Sultan terkini ialah Sharafuddin dari Selangor (tahun 1945 – hingga kini; memerintah: 2001 – hingga kini). Baginda mewarisi takhta dari ayahandanya, almarhum Sultan Salahuddin dari Selangor.

 

Terengganu

Monarch040

 

Sejarah Ringkas

Terengganu’s Coat of Arms

Jata Negeri terengganu

Terengganu asalnya merupakan negeri lindungan kesultanan Melaka dan kemudiannya kesultanan Johor. Ia juga merupakan negeri pertama di rantau Melayu yang menerima Islam sebagai agamanya, seperti yang tercatat dalam Batu Bersurat Terengganu. Pada tahun 1725, Terengganu menjadi kesultanan yang bebas di bawah Tun Zainal Abidin (memerintah: tahun 1725 – 1733), seorang saudara Sultan Johor. Pada abad ke-19, kuasa politik telah beralih, dan Teerngganu menjadi negeri uftian Siam dan terpaksa kerap menghantar Bunga Mas atau Bunga Emas dan hadiah-hadiah berharga yang lain kepada kerajaan Siam. Terengganu menjadi makmur pada tempoh ini, memandangkan Siam telah memberikan mereka autonomi yang besar untuk mentadbir sendiri. Pada abad ke-20, Terengganu menjadi negeri uftian Britain. Empayar British telah memaksa kesultanan Terengganu untuk menerima penasihat British. Namun begitu, tindakan ini tidak diminati penduduk tempatan. Siam mendapat kawalan semula ke atas Terengganu buat seketika sewaktu pendudukan Jepun, tetapi negeri itu dipulangkan kepada empayar British selepas Perang Dunia Kedua. Terengganu menyertai Persekutuan Tanah Melayu pada tahun 1948 dan kemudian Malaysia pada tahun 1963.

Bunga Mas, a gift from tributary state to Siam in the 19th century

Bunga Mas, hadiah dari negeri uftian kepada Siam dalam abad ke-19

 

Sistem Beraja Terengganu

The current Sultan of Teregganu, Tuanku Mizan Zainal Abidin, and his family

Sultan Terengganu terkini, Tuanku Mizan Zainal Abidin, dan keluarganya

Terengganu mengamalkan sistem beraja keturunan dan berpelembagaan. Sultan terkini ialah Tuanku Mizan Zainal Abidin dari Terengganu (tahun 1962 – hingga kini; memerintah: tahun 1998 – hingga kini). Baginda mewarisi takhta selepas kemangkatan ayahandanya. almarhum Sultan Mahmud (tahun 1930 – 1998; memerintah: tahun 1979 – 1998).

 
Sumber:

  • http://thecommonwealth.org/our-member-countries/malaysia/history
  • http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/malaysia.htm
  • http://www.countryreports.org/country/Malaysia.htm
  • http://www.countryreports.org/country/Malaysia/government.htm
  • http://www.countryreports.org/country/Malaysia.htm
  • http://www.wonderfulmalaysia.com/malaysia-history-and-historical-facts.htm
  • http://www.kln.gov.my/web/guest/history
  • http://www.thestar.com.my/news/nation/2016/10/11/rulers-to-choose-next-yang-dipertuan-agong/
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yang_di-Pertuan_Agong
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monarchies_of_Malaysia
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kedah_Sultanate
  • http://factsanddetails.com/southeast-asia/Malaysia/sub5_4c/entry-3672.html
  • http://www.malaysianbar.org.my/constitutional_law/powers_and_functions_of_state_rulers.html
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johor_Sultanate\
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johor
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kedah_Sultanate
  • https://www.facebook.com/notes/dravidian-keyboard-warriors/kesultanan-negeri-kedah-kedah-sultanate-invasion-of-chola-kadaram-kondan-conquer/1085195028161653/
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Kedah
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kelantan
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sultan_of_Kelantan
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Negeri_Sembilan
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pahang
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sultan_of_Pahang
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abu_Bakar_of_Pahang
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ahmad_Shah_of_Pahang
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perak
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abdul_Samad_of_Selangor
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salahuddin_of_Selangor
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahmud_of_Terengganu
  • http://www.terengganu.gov.my
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elective_monarchy

 
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  • S.Prathap
    Tuesday, Jun 25. 2019 03:05 PM
    Thank you for the nice and beautiful article about Vietnam .Really fantastic and the food also look delicious and yummy .Vietnam capital city Hanoi is consistently ranked among the world s top holiday destination

    A stunning landscape ,beautiful beaches and vibrant shopping scene are all great reason to travel Vietnam.Thank you for a good write up which will be helpful for plan a visit to Vietnam.

    Read more : https://bit.ly/2Yd6GO6
  • Samfoonheei
    Tuesday, Jun 25. 2019 03:03 PM
    Wow…. That’s great finally science has finally proves meridians do exist. I am doubtful about it until reading this article and google more of it, have opened my knowledge . The meridian system is a concept in traditional Chinese medicine . It was at the Seoul National University, scientists has confirmed that the primo –vascular system is a crucial part of our cardiovascular system. Our meridians span throughout our body and thus are linked to every major part of it. When there is harmony and balance within our body we are healthy and if its disturbed and unbalance , then illness will arises. Interesting read and there’s plenty for me to understand . Modern science is finally working hand in hand with ancient knowledge with tradition way of treating illness. That’s wonderful.
    Thank you Rinpoche for this sharing.

    https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/science-mysteries/science-finally-proves-meridians-exist.html
  • Samfoonheei
    Tuesday, Jun 25. 2019 03:02 PM
    Since young, I used to read and hear about mermaid in books and so forth. All I knew ,mermaid is a creature with heard and upper body of a female human. But do not know further than that until I read this interesting and facts about it in this blog. Many cultures have their own versions of mermaids, There are indeed so many folklore stories, legends and myths of mermaids from different countries and each defer from each other all around the world. Mermaids have fascinated people for centuries and inspired many sightings by individuals. Do it really exist , no one could tell. There is no evidence that mermaids exist outside folklore, reports of mermaid sightings continue to the present day. Well, it seem that mermaids have been a popular subject of art and literature in schools . They have even been depicted in operas, paintings, books, films and comics. Interesting read.
    Thank you Rinpoche for this interesting sharing.

    https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/paranormal/creatures-and-monsters/the-legend-of-the-mermaids.html
  • Samfoonheei
    Tuesday, Jun 25. 2019 02:59 PM
    Through the words of Ribur Rinpoche we are fortunate to get a better understanding of a great master, Kyabje Pabongka Rinpoche. To see the image of these Enlightened Beings, to hear their names, is so rare and precious for us. Tsem Rinpoche our Guru who received the dharma from the unbroken lineage of these great masters and we are very fortunate to receive teachings and oral transmissions from Tsem Rinpoche. Kyabje Pabongka Rinpoche been devoted to his guru has inspired, and benefited many through his teachings up to this day. Many great master and high lamas were his students.
    Thank you Rinpoche for sharing the memoir of Ribur Rinpoche’s profound meeting with Kyabje Pabongka Rinpoche.

    https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/great-lamas-masters/ribur-rinpoches-profound-meeting-with-kyabje-pabongka-rinpoche.html
  • Ummamageswari
    Tuesday, Jun 25. 2019 01:50 PM
    Thank you so much for this article. It is true that divination is one of the ways for enlightened beings and Buddhas communicate with ordinary beings. Just because we can consult Dorje Shugden through divination, it does not mean we should go to the Protector for everything under the sun.

    Dorje Shugden himself prefers to see we try to solve our own problems first without relying on divination at the very beginning. Dorje Shugden is most pleased when we use our own effort and intelligence to be practical and solve our problems as best as we can.

    Read more: https://bit.ly/2KItWOi
  • Ummamageswari
    Tuesday, Jun 25. 2019 01:29 PM
    Thank you so much for this article. The Buddha compassionately taught methods for all of us to purify our karma which suit our current karma-bound situation. It is important to know that purification of our karma become necessary because karma creates suffering and holds us back from achieving higher states of consciousness.

    Buddha’s body is just as effective for purifying negative speech karma, as it is for purifying negative body or mind karma. So, those unable to recite mantras can circumambulate around mantra stones, for instance, to purify speech karma. Thank you.

    Read more: https://bit.ly/2TG8j4p
  • sarassitham
    Tuesday, Jun 25. 2019 12:11 PM
    The article was well described about Dorje Shugden and Vajrapani. The powerful roles and functions of the dharma protectors to remove of all obstacles and other emotional issues that can easily lead us away from our spiritual journey.

    Thanks for the beautiful sharing, It is best and good to practice to worship them daily in our life.
  • S.Prathap
    Tuesday, Jun 25. 2019 10:59 AM
    Thank you for sharing this interesting article.Psychopathy is a fairly common mental disorder that is often associated with serial killers and lack of empathy for fellow human beings but it also includes many type of people who do not kill

    Many people suffer from psychopathy at different level.By reading this article we can learn something and understanding about Psychopathy.

    Read more : https://bit.ly/31VjB9A
  • Lin Mun
    Monday, Jun 24. 2019 09:29 PM
    Rinpoche is very kind to share Dorje Shugden to all of us. There are so many high lamas who can confirmed that Dorje Shugden is emanation of Manjushri and is very beneficial especially during this period. In order to bring the practise do us Rinpoche has to withstand many negative comments and threat from the Tibetans and non Dorje Shugden practitioners. Rinpoche has taken so much effort to give us this knowledge despite all the challenges. Thank you Rinpoche and team for all the great work. We can learn all about Dorje Shugden through this website and other articles. Always making it so convenient for all to access. May everyone around the world have the opportunities to meet Dorje Shugden and engage in this holy practise.
  • sarassitham
    Monday, Jun 24. 2019 04:41 PM
    I was so much fortune to come across reading this article. A full life journey and activities of Lord Buddha was well seen in the stunning and beautiful photographs. The amazing photos looked so much real and wonderful. Thanking you so much for the sharing and had a good feel and touch.

    REPLY
  • Ummamageswari
    Monday, Jun 24. 2019 01:14 PM
    Thank you so much for this article. It is true that these pujas that is done in Kechara Forest Retreat provide all of us with powerful protection, purification, good health, wealth and abundance, and the blessings of the enlightened beings.

    Admission is free and all are welcome. All of us are encouraged to attend this potent puja in person. It is important to observe a strict vegetarian diet with no black foods (onions, garlic, meat, fish, eggs, radishes, alcohol) one day before and on the day of the puja itself.

    Read more: https://bit.ly/2C8WVYK
  • S.Prathap
    Monday, Jun 24. 2019 01:04 PM
    This is really horrible.Very sad to know cows are skinned alive for the skin, and for that, their limbs are being cut off.Let s stand up for these animals who cannot express themselves through words.

    We have to be kind to the animals .Consider opting for animal -friendly fashion item. Thanks for the article and hopefully with such imagery, more people would be aware and come to avoid leather and fur products.

    Read more : https://bit.ly/2Y9gg4G
  • Ummamageswari
    Monday, Jun 24. 2019 12:58 PM
    Thank you so much for this article. It is true that India is a beautiful country, where it is also the birthplace of many great thinkers, philosophers and teachers who have inspired great changes in society.

    Sangharakshita has highlighted the importance of the commitment in one’s spiritual life, the importance of a spiritual community, the special connection between religion and art, and the need for a ‘new society’ which supported aspirations and ethics based on Buddhism. Thank you.

    Read more: https://bit.ly/2BkTZHP
  • Ummamageswari
    Monday, Jun 24. 2019 12:44 PM
    Thank you so much for this article. By reading this article, i get to know that Choje-la is not an ordinary monk or person but also a highly trained monk who has been personally trained by the previous His Holiness Kyabje Trijang Rinpoche and Kyabje Domo Geshe Rinpoche where he has been fully authorized by Kyabje Trijang Rinpoche to be the official Panglung Oracle over 40 years back.

    Choje-la is a very knowledgeable monk, a very kindly, well-experienced monk who has no agenda, has very strong guru devotion and very pure in his monk vows. Thank you so much.

    Read more: https://bit.ly/2w1Mtiv
  • Samfoonheei
    Monday, Jun 24. 2019 12:01 PM
    Stunning rime thangka of Samayavajra and Dorje Shugden. Colourful painted and standing out and seeing it is a blessing. In Tibetan Buddhism ,Samayavajra is one of the most powerful purification practices for broken samaya, degenerated commitments and vows. The incredible purificatory power of the Samayavajra puja is most effective when one feels great remorse and regret towards any negative actions performed in the past.
    Thank you Rinpoche for this sharing.

    https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/one-minute-story/samayavajra-the-purifier-of-spiritual-bonds

1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · »

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I must thank my dharma blog team who are great assets to me, Kechara and growth of dharma in this wonderful region. I am honoured and thrilled to work with them. I really am. Maybe I don't say it enough to them, but I am saying it now. I APPRECIATE THESE GUYS VERY MUCH!

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  Bigfoot, Yeti, Sasquatch

The Unknown

The Known and unknown are both feared,
Known is being comfortable and stagnant,
The unknown may be growth and opportunities,
One shall never know if one fears the unknown more than the known.
Who says the unknown would be worse than the known?
But then again, the unknown is sometimes worse than the known. In the end nothing is known unless we endeavour,
So go pursue all the way with the unknown,
because all unknown with familiarity becomes the known.
~Tsem Rinpoche

Photos On The Go

Click on the images to view the bigger version. And scroll down and click on "View All Photos" to view more images.
See beautiful pictures of Manjushri Guest House here- https://bit.ly/2WGo0ti
1 week ago
See beautiful pictures of Manjushri Guest House here- https://bit.ly/2WGo0ti
Beginner’s Introduction to Dorje Shugden~Very good overview https://bit.ly/2QQNfYv
2 weeks ago
Beginner’s Introduction to Dorje Shugden~Very good overview https://bit.ly/2QQNfYv
Fresh eggplants grown on Kechara Forest Retreat\'s land here in Malaysia
3 weeks ago
Fresh eggplants grown on Kechara Forest Retreat's land here in Malaysia
Most Venerable Uppalavanna – The Chief Female Disciple of Buddha Shakyamuni - She exhibited many supernatural abilities gained from meditation and proved to the world females and males are equal in spirituality- https://bit.ly/31d9Rat
3 weeks ago
Most Venerable Uppalavanna – The Chief Female Disciple of Buddha Shakyamuni - She exhibited many supernatural abilities gained from meditation and proved to the world females and males are equal in spirituality- https://bit.ly/31d9Rat
Thailand’s ‘Renegade’ Yet Powerful Buddhist Nuns~ https://bit.ly/2Z1C02m
3 weeks ago
Thailand’s ‘Renegade’ Yet Powerful Buddhist Nuns~ https://bit.ly/2Z1C02m
Mahapajapati Gotami – the first Buddhist nun ordained by Lord Buddha- https://bit.ly/2IjD8ru
3 weeks ago
Mahapajapati Gotami – the first Buddhist nun ordained by Lord Buddha- https://bit.ly/2IjD8ru
The Largest Buddha Shakyamuni in Russia | 俄罗斯最大的释迦牟尼佛画像- https://bit.ly/2Wpclni
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The Largest Buddha Shakyamuni in Russia | 俄罗斯最大的释迦牟尼佛画像- https://bit.ly/2Wpclni
Sacred Vajra Yogini
3 weeks ago
Sacred Vajra Yogini
Dorje Shugden works & archives - a labour of commitment - https://bit.ly/30Tp2p8
3 weeks ago
Dorje Shugden works & archives - a labour of commitment - https://bit.ly/30Tp2p8
Mahapajapati Gotami, who was the first nun ordained by Lord Buddha.
4 weeks ago
Mahapajapati Gotami, who was the first nun ordained by Lord Buddha.
Mahapajapati Gotami, who was the first nun ordained by Lord Buddha. She was his step-mother and aunt. Buddha\'s mother had passed away at his birth so he was raised by Gotami.
4 weeks ago
Mahapajapati Gotami, who was the first nun ordained by Lord Buddha. She was his step-mother and aunt. Buddha's mother had passed away at his birth so he was raised by Gotami.
Another nun disciple of Lord Buddha\'s. She had achieved great spiritual abilities and high attainments. She would be a proper object of refuge. This image of the eminent bhikkhuni (nun) disciple of the Buddha, Uppalavanna Theri.
4 weeks ago
Another nun disciple of Lord Buddha's. She had achieved great spiritual abilities and high attainments. She would be a proper object of refuge. This image of the eminent bhikkhuni (nun) disciple of the Buddha, Uppalavanna Theri.
Wandering Ascetic Painting by Nirdesha Munasinghe
4 weeks ago
Wandering Ascetic Painting by Nirdesha Munasinghe
High Sri Lankan monks visit Kechara to bless our land, temple, Buddha and Dorje Shugden images. They were very kind-see pictures- https://bit.ly/2HQie2M
4 weeks ago
High Sri Lankan monks visit Kechara to bless our land, temple, Buddha and Dorje Shugden images. They were very kind-see pictures- https://bit.ly/2HQie2M
This is pretty amazing!

First Sri Lankan Buddhist temple opened in Dubai!!!
4 weeks ago
This is pretty amazing! First Sri Lankan Buddhist temple opened in Dubai!!!
My Dharma boy (left) and Oser girl loves to laze around on the veranda in the mornings. They enjoy all the trees, grass and relaxing under the hot sun. Sunbathing is a favorite daily activity. I care about these two doggies of mine very much and I enjoy seeing them happy. They are with me always. Tsem Rinpoche

Always be kind to animals and eat vegetarian- https://bit.ly/2Psp8h2
1 month ago
My Dharma boy (left) and Oser girl loves to laze around on the veranda in the mornings. They enjoy all the trees, grass and relaxing under the hot sun. Sunbathing is a favorite daily activity. I care about these two doggies of mine very much and I enjoy seeing them happy. They are with me always. Tsem Rinpoche Always be kind to animals and eat vegetarian- https://bit.ly/2Psp8h2
After you left me Mumu, I was alone. I have no family or kin. You were my family. I can\'t stop thinking of you and I can\'t forget you. My bond and connection with you is so strong. I wish you were by my side. Tsem Rinpoche
1 month ago
After you left me Mumu, I was alone. I have no family or kin. You were my family. I can't stop thinking of you and I can't forget you. My bond and connection with you is so strong. I wish you were by my side. Tsem Rinpoche
This story is a life-changer. Learn about the incredible Forest Man of India | 印度“森林之子”- https://bit.ly/2Eh4vRS
1 month ago
This story is a life-changer. Learn about the incredible Forest Man of India | 印度“森林之子”- https://bit.ly/2Eh4vRS
Part 2-Beautiful billboard in Malaysia of a powerful Tibetan hero whose life serves as a great inspiration- https://bit.ly/2UltNE4
1 month ago
Part 2-Beautiful billboard in Malaysia of a powerful Tibetan hero whose life serves as a great inspiration- https://bit.ly/2UltNE4
Part 1-Beautiful billboard in Malaysia of a powerful Tibetan hero whose life serves as a great inspiration- https://bit.ly/2UltNE4
1 month ago
Part 1-Beautiful billboard in Malaysia of a powerful Tibetan hero whose life serves as a great inspiration- https://bit.ly/2UltNE4
The great Protector Manjushri Dorje Shugden depicted in the beautiful Mongolian style. To download a high resolution file: https://bit.ly/2Nt3FHz
1 month ago
The great Protector Manjushri Dorje Shugden depicted in the beautiful Mongolian style. To download a high resolution file: https://bit.ly/2Nt3FHz
The Mystical land of Shambhala is finally ready for everyone to feast their eyes and be blessed. A beautiful post with information, art work, history, spirituality and a beautiful book composed by His Holiness the 6th Panchen Rinpoche. ~ https://bit.ly/309MHBi
2 months ago
The Mystical land of Shambhala is finally ready for everyone to feast their eyes and be blessed. A beautiful post with information, art work, history, spirituality and a beautiful book composed by His Holiness the 6th Panchen Rinpoche. ~ https://bit.ly/309MHBi
Beautiful pictures of the huge Buddha in Longkou Nanshan- https://bit.ly/2LsBxVb
2 months ago
Beautiful pictures of the huge Buddha in Longkou Nanshan- https://bit.ly/2LsBxVb
The reason-Very interesting thought- https://bit.ly/2V7VT5r
2 months ago
The reason-Very interesting thought- https://bit.ly/2V7VT5r
NEW Bigfoot cafe in Malaysia! Food is delicious!- https://bit.ly/2VxdGau
2 months ago
NEW Bigfoot cafe in Malaysia! Food is delicious!- https://bit.ly/2VxdGau
DON\'T MISS THIS!~How brave Bonnie survived by living with a herd of deer~ https://bit.ly/2Lre2eY
2 months ago
DON'T MISS THIS!~How brave Bonnie survived by living with a herd of deer~ https://bit.ly/2Lre2eY
Global Superpower China Will Cut Meat Consumption by 50%! Very interesting, find out more- https://bit.ly/2V1sJFh
2 months ago
Global Superpower China Will Cut Meat Consumption by 50%! Very interesting, find out more- https://bit.ly/2V1sJFh
You can download this beautiful Egyptian style Dorje Shugden Free- https://bit.ly/2Nt3FHz
2 months ago
You can download this beautiful Egyptian style Dorje Shugden Free- https://bit.ly/2Nt3FHz
Beautiful high file for print of Lord Manjushri. May you be blessed- https://bit.ly/2V8mwZe
2 months ago
Beautiful high file for print of Lord Manjushri. May you be blessed- https://bit.ly/2V8mwZe
Mongolian (Oymiakon) Shaman in Siberia, Russia. That is his real outfit he wears. Very unique. TR
2 months ago
Mongolian (Oymiakon) Shaman in Siberia, Russia. That is his real outfit he wears. Very unique. TR
Find one of the most beautiful temples in the world in Nara, Japan. It is the 1,267 year old Todai-ji temple that houses a 15 meter Buddha Vairocana statue who is a cosmic and timeless Buddha. Emperor Shomu who sponsored this beautiful temple eventually abdicated and ordained as a Buddhist monk. Very interesting history and story. One of the places everyone should visit- https://bit.ly/2VgsHhK
2 months ago
Find one of the most beautiful temples in the world in Nara, Japan. It is the 1,267 year old Todai-ji temple that houses a 15 meter Buddha Vairocana statue who is a cosmic and timeless Buddha. Emperor Shomu who sponsored this beautiful temple eventually abdicated and ordained as a Buddhist monk. Very interesting history and story. One of the places everyone should visit- https://bit.ly/2VgsHhK
Manjusri Kumara (bodhisattva of wisdom), India, Pala dynesty, 9th century, stone, Honolulu Academy of Arts
2 months ago
Manjusri Kumara (bodhisattva of wisdom), India, Pala dynesty, 9th century, stone, Honolulu Academy of Arts
Silver Manjusri figure from Ngemplak Semongan (Indonesia). Apparently during the Shailendra Dynasty, Mahayana Buddhism was very strong in Indonesia. This Dynasty promoted Mahayana Buddhism and Manjushri was a principal Buddha of worship.
2 months ago
Silver Manjusri figure from Ngemplak Semongan (Indonesia). Apparently during the Shailendra Dynasty, Mahayana Buddhism was very strong in Indonesia. This Dynasty promoted Mahayana Buddhism and Manjushri was a principal Buddha of worship.
In Buddhism: The Importance of Having a Clean Room- https://bit.ly/2ZgrbKS
2 months ago
In Buddhism: The Importance of Having a Clean Room- https://bit.ly/2ZgrbKS
There is an area near Lumbini, Nepal, they have sightings of Yeti for hundreds of years. So they have signages in the area with Yeti artwork to highlight this. Interesting. TR
2 months ago
There is an area near Lumbini, Nepal, they have sightings of Yeti for hundreds of years. So they have signages in the area with Yeti artwork to highlight this. Interesting. TR
Photos of footprints (Yeti) are from a high altitude pass (Darwa Pass) connecting Gangotri valley to Yamunotri valley through old pilgrim route.
2 months ago
Photos of footprints (Yeti) are from a high altitude pass (Darwa Pass) connecting Gangotri valley to Yamunotri valley through old pilgrim route.
Beautiful picture. Rare. Three holy beings.
2 months ago
Beautiful picture. Rare. Three holy beings.
May 1, 2019-I really enjoy this picture of these visitors visiting Dorje Shugden\'s grotto in Kechara Forest Retreat today. They look happy, light and blessed after doing their prayers to Dorje Shugden. I wanted to share this picture.- https://bit.ly/2UltNE4
2 months ago
May 1, 2019-I really enjoy this picture of these visitors visiting Dorje Shugden's grotto in Kechara Forest Retreat today. They look happy, light and blessed after doing their prayers to Dorje Shugden. I wanted to share this picture.- https://bit.ly/2UltNE4
A postcard of my great grand aunt Princess Nirgidma of Torghut-Tsem Rinpoche
2 months ago
A postcard of my great grand aunt Princess Nirgidma of Torghut-Tsem Rinpoche
Rei Kawakubo – Grand Dame of ‘Hiroshima Chic’- https://bit.ly/2Vz4N06
2 months ago
Rei Kawakubo – Grand Dame of ‘Hiroshima Chic’- https://bit.ly/2Vz4N06
Just now, this beautiful grape and orange infused water drink with a blue glass was brought in for me. I was amazed at the colors. Tsem Rinpoche
2 months ago
Just now, this beautiful grape and orange infused water drink with a blue glass was brought in for me. I was amazed at the colors. Tsem Rinpoche
We have to look in and change from within to find the way out of all that makes us unhappy.~Tsem Rinpoche 

www.tsemrinpoche.com
2 months ago
We have to look in and change from within to find the way out of all that makes us unhappy.~Tsem Rinpoche http://www.tsemrinpoche.com
文冬野人咖啡厅开张了!- https://bit.ly/2IRGdBM
2 months ago
文冬野人咖啡厅开张了!- https://bit.ly/2IRGdBM
Click on this picture and read about this very sad girl. Please offer your prayers for her to take a good rebirth. Tsem Rinpoche
2 months ago
Click on this picture and read about this very sad girl. Please offer your prayers for her to take a good rebirth. Tsem Rinpoche
Bigfoot cafe in Bentong, Malaysia-Delicious vegetarian food in a beautiful setting- https://bit.ly/2VxdGau
2 months ago
Bigfoot cafe in Bentong, Malaysia-Delicious vegetarian food in a beautiful setting- https://bit.ly/2VxdGau
Tsem Rinpoche\'s personal shrine.
2 months ago
Tsem Rinpoche's personal shrine.
In Kechara Forest Retreat- Bentong, Malaysia, we have a beautiful outdoor offering grotto dedicated to Lord Dorje Shugden who fulfills the wishes of many visitors- https://bit.ly/2UltNE4
2 months ago
In Kechara Forest Retreat- Bentong, Malaysia, we have a beautiful outdoor offering grotto dedicated to Lord Dorje Shugden who fulfills the wishes of many visitors- https://bit.ly/2UltNE4
Guhya Manjushri of the Forbidden City| 密德文殊室利佛- https://bit.ly/2J3HIvM
2 months ago
Guhya Manjushri of the Forbidden City| 密德文殊室利佛- https://bit.ly/2J3HIvM
Click on "View All Photos" above to view more images

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  • Our Malaysian Prime Minister Dr. Mahathir speaks so well, logically and regarding our country’s collaboration with China for growth. It is refreshing to listen to Dr. Mahathir’s thoughts. He said our country can look to China for many more things such as technology and so on. Tsem Rinpoche
    2 months ago
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  • Get ready to laugh real hard. This is Kechara’s version of “Whatever Happened to Baby Jane!” We have some real talents in this video clip.
    3 months ago
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    Cute!
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    2 yearss ago
    Casper is such a cute and adorable. I like him.
  • Dorje Shugden Monastery Amarbayasgalant  Mongolia's Ancient Hidden Gem
    2 yearss ago
    Dorje Shugden Monastery Amarbayasgalant Mongolia's Ancient Hidden Gem
  • Don't you love Hamburgers? See how 'delicious' it is here!
    2 yearss ago
    Don't you love Hamburgers? See how 'delicious' it is here!
  • Such a beautiful and powerful message from a person who knows the meaning of life. Tsem Rinpoche
    2 yearss ago
    Such a beautiful and powerful message from a person who knows the meaning of life. Tsem Rinpoche
  • What the meat industry figured out is that you don't need healthy animals to make a profit.
    2 yearss ago
    What the meat industry figured out is that you don't need healthy animals to make a profit.
    Sick animals are more profitable... farms calculate how close to death they can keep animals without killing them. That's the business model. How quickly they can be made to grow, how tightly they can be packed, how much or how little can they eat, how sick they can get without dying... We live in a world in which it's conventional to treat an animal like a block of wood. ~ Jonathan Safran Foer
  • This video went viral and it's a must watch!!
    2 yearss ago
    This video went viral and it's a must watch!!
  • SEE HOW THIS ANIMAL SERIAL KILLER HAS NO ISSUE BLUDGEONING THIS DEFENSELESS BEING.
    2 yearss ago
    SEE HOW THIS ANIMAL SERIAL KILLER HAS NO ISSUE BLUDGEONING THIS DEFENSELESS BEING.
    This happens daily in slaughterhouse so you can get your pork and Bak ku teh. Stop eating meat.

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CHAT PICTURES

Students helping teacher to set up for dharma class. Lin Mun KSDS
2 days ago
Students helping teacher to set up for dharma class. Lin Mun KSDS
Throwback - Tsa tsa painting is one of the activities during Wesak Day. Lin Mun KSDS
2 days ago
Throwback - Tsa tsa painting is one of the activities during Wesak Day. Lin Mun KSDS
Pastor blessing during recent Wesak day in KFR. Lin Mun KSDS
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Pastor blessing during recent Wesak day in KFR. Lin Mun KSDS
Students learning the method to make water offering. Lin Mun KSDS
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Students learning the method to make water offering. Lin Mun KSDS
Taekwondo session to strengthen children’s mind and body. Lin Mun KSDS
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Taekwondo session to strengthen children’s mind and body. Lin Mun KSDS
The youngest group of KSDS wanted to make flower offering to Buddha. Alice Tay, KSDS
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The youngest group of KSDS wanted to make flower offering to Buddha. Alice Tay, KSDS
Andrea learned how to keep water offering. Alice Tay, KSDS
2 days ago
Andrea learned how to keep water offering. Alice Tay, KSDS
Chern Chern showed Yong Ern on making water offering to Buddha. Alice Tay, KSDS
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Chern Chern showed Yong Ern on making water offering to Buddha. Alice Tay, KSDS
Violet is paying homage to Buddha. Alice Tay, KSDS
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Start with this simple setup of altar your lovely kids. Alice Tay, KSDS
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‪We strongly believe that by making an effort to gain an understanding of the situation through volunteering is an important aspect of knowing poverty. Join Kechara Food Bank programme by registering yourself at 010-3333260. #Kechara #foodbank #poverty ‬- Vivian @ Kechara Soup Kitchen
5 days ago
‪We strongly believe that by making an effort to gain an understanding of the situation through volunteering is an important aspect of knowing poverty. Join Kechara Food Bank programme by registering yourself at 010-3333260. #Kechara #foodbank #poverty ‬- Vivian @ Kechara Soup Kitchen
Inner Peace Retreat in June 2019 in Kechara Forest Retreat. More info: http://bit.ly/2GvGl7A
6 days ago
Inner Peace Retreat in June 2019 in Kechara Forest Retreat. More info: http://bit.ly/2GvGl7A
Group picture of the end of the Inner Peace Retreat, June 2019. More info: http://bit.ly/2GvGl7A
6 days ago
Group picture of the end of the Inner Peace Retreat, June 2019. More info: http://bit.ly/2GvGl7A
Inner Peace Retreat Day 2: Debrief & Closing More info: http://bit.ly/2GvGl7A
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Inner Peace Retreat Day 2: Debrief & Closing More info: http://bit.ly/2GvGl7A
Inner Peace Retreat Day 2: Debrief & Closing More info: http://bit.ly/2GvGl7A
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Inner Peace Retreat Day 2: Debrief & Closing More info: http://bit.ly/2GvGl7A
Inner Peace Retreat Day 2: Debrief & Closing More info: http://bit.ly/2GvGl7A
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