Kalmyk People’s Origin – VERY INTERESTING

Sep 21, 2010 | Views: 26,657

 

Regions with significant populations

Kalmyks in Russia
172,000

Oirats in Mongolia
205,000

Oirats in China
139,000

Languages
Kalmyk, Russian

Religion
– Predominantly Tibetan Buddhism
– Minority Orthodox Christianity

Related ethnic groups
Oirats, Mongols, Buryats

Kalmyk people (or Kalmyks) (Kalmyk: Хальмгуд, Halm’gud) is the name given to the Oirats, western Mongols in Russia, whose descendants migrated from Dzhungaria in 1607. Today they form a majority in the autonomous Republic of Kalmykia on the western shore of the Caspian Sea. Kalmykia is Europe’s only Buddhist government. Through emigration, small Kalmyk communities have been established in the United States, France, Germany, Switzerland, and the Czech Republic.

 

Early history of the Oirats

An illustration of the Kalmyk exodus from Russia to Dzungaria, an image by Charles Michel Geoffroy, 1845

An illustration of the Kalmyk exodus from Russia to Dzungaria in 1771, an image by Charles Michel Geoffroy, 1845

The Kalmyks are a branch of the Oirats whose ancient grazing lands are now located in Kazakhstan, Russia, Mongolia and the People’s Republic of China. After the fall of the Yuan Dynasty in 1368, the Oirats emerged as a formidable foe against the Eastern Mongols, the Ming Chinese and their successor, the Manchu who founded the Qing Dynasty, in a nearly 400 year military struggle for domination and control over both Inner Mongolia and Outer Mongolia. The struggle ended in 1757 with the defeat of the Oirats in Dzungaria, the last of the Mongol groups to resist vassalage to China (Grousset, 1970: 502-541).

At the start of this 400-year era, the Western Mongol people designated themselves as Dörben Oirat (“Four Oirats”). The alliance comprised four major Western Mongol tribes: Khoshut, Choros, Torghut and Dörbet. Collectively, the Dörben Oirat sought to position themselves as an alternative to the Mongols who were the patrilineal heirs to the legacy of Genghis Khan.

In furtherance of its military objectives, the Dörben Oirat incorporated neighbouring tribes or splinter groups of them so that there was a great deal of fluctuation in the composition of the alliance with larger tribes dominating or absorbing the smaller ones. Smaller tribes belonging to the confederation include the Khoits, Zakhchin, Bayids and Mangits.

A portrait of Oirat caravan taken in the early 20th century

Portrait of an Oirat caravan taken in the early 20th century

Together, these tribes roamed the grassy plains of western Inner Asia, between Lake Balkhash in present-day eastern Kazakhstan and Lake Baikal in present-day Russia, north of central Mongolia, where they freely pitched their yurt (gher) and kept their herds of cattle, flock of sheep, horses, donkeys and camels.

Paul Pelliot translated the name “Torghut” as garde de jour. He wrote that the Torghuts owed their name either to the memory of the guard of Genghis Khan or, as descendants of the Keraits, to the old garde de jour which existed among the Keraits, as we know from the Secret History of the Mongols, before it was taken over by Genghis Khan (Pelliot, 1930:30).

Lake Baikal

Lake Baikal

 

Period of open conflict

A painting of Mongolian Nomadic Life by Tsogbayar Chuluunbaatar

A painting of Mongolian nomadic life by Tsogbayar Chuluunbaatar

The Dörben Oirat was a political entity formed by the four major Oirat tribes. During 15-17th century, they established under name “10 tumen Mongols” included 4 tumen oirats and 6 tumen Mongols They re-established their traditional pastoral nomadic lifestyle during the end of the Yuan Dynasty. The Oirats formed this alliance to defend themselves against the Eastern Mongols and also to pursue the greater objective of reunifying Mongolia under their helm.

During its existence, the alliance was decentralised, informal and unstable. For instance, the Dörben Oirat did not have a central location from which it was governed, and it was not governed by a central figure for most of its existence. Further, the four Oirats did not establish a single military or even a unified monastic system. Lastly, it was not until 1640 that the Oirats adopted uniform customary laws.

As pastoral nomadists, the Oirats were organised at the tribal level where each tribe was ruled by a noyon (prince) who also functioned as the Chief Tayishi (Chieftain). The Chief Tayishi governed with the support of lesser noyons who were also called Tayisihi. These minor noyons controlled divisions of the tribe (ulus) and were politically and economically independent of the Chief Tayishi. The Chief Tayishi sought to influence and, in some cases, dominate the Chief Tayishis of the other tribes, causing inter-tribal rivalry, dissension and periodic skirmishes.

Esen, Chief Tayishi of the Choros tribe

Esen, Chief Tayishi of the Choros tribe

Under the leadership of Esen, Chief Tayishi of the Choros tribe, the Dörben Oirat unified Mongolia for a short period. After Esen’s death in 1455, the political union of the Dörben Oirat dissolved quickly, resulting in two decades of Oirat-Eastern Mongol conflict. The deadlock ended during the reign of Dayan Khan, a five-year old boy in whose name the loyal Eastern Mongol forces rallied. Dayan Khan took advantage of Oirat disunity and weakness and brought Oirats back under Mongolian rule. In doing so, he regained control of the Mongol homeland and restored the hegemony of the Eastern Mongols.

After the death of Dayan in 1543, the Oirats and the Eastern Mongols resumed their conflict. The Oirat forces thrust eastward, but Dayan’s youngest son, Geresandza, was given command of the Eastern Mongol forces and drove the Oirats to Ubsa Nor in northwest Mongolia. In 1552, after the Oirats once again challenged the Eastern Mongols, Altan Khan swept up from Inner Mongolia with Tümed and Ordos cavalry units, pushing elements of various Oirat tribes from Karakorum to the Kobdo region in northwest Mongolia, reuniting most of Mongolia in the process (Grousset, 1970:510).

The Oirats would later regroup south of the Altai Mountains in Dzungaria. But Geresandza’s grandson, Sholui Ubashi Khong Tayiji, pushed the Oirats further northwest, along the steppes of the Ob and Irtysh Rivers. Afterwards, he established a Khalkha Khanate under the name, Altan Khan, in the Oirat heartland of Dzungaria.

In spite of the setbacks, the Oirats would continue their campaigns against the Altan Khanate, trying to unseat Sholui Ubashi Khong Tayiji from Dzungaria. The continuous, back-and-forth nature of the struggle, which defined this period, is captured in the Oirat epic song “The Rout of Mongolian Sholui Ubashi Khong Tayiji,” recounting the Oirat victory over the First Khan of the Altan Khanate in 1587.

Altai Mountains

The Altai Mountains in Dzungaria

 

Resurgence of Oirat power

The statue of Altan Khan

A statue of Altan Khan

At the beginning of the 17th century, the First Altan Khan drove the Oirats westward to present-day eastern Kazakhstan. The Torghuts became the westernmost Oirat tribe, encamped in the Tarbagatai region and along the northern stretches of the Irtysh, Ishim and Tobol Rivers. Further west, the Kazakhs – a Turco-Mongol Muslim people – prevented the Torghuts from sending its trading caravans to the Muslim towns and villages located along the Syr Darya river. As a result, the Torghuts established a trading relationship with the newly established outposts of the Tsarist government whose expansion into and exploration of Siberia was motivated mostly by the desire to profit from trade with Asia.

The Khoshuts, by contrast, were the easternmost Oirat tribe, encamped near the Lake Zaisan area and the Semipalatinsk region along the lower portions of the Irtysh river where they built several steppe monasteries. The Khoshuts were adjacent to the Eastern Mongol khanates of Altan Khan and Dzasagtu Khan. Both Khanates prevented the Khoshuts and the other Oirat tribes from trading with Chinese border towns. The Khoshuts were ruled by Baibagas Khan and Güshi Khan who were the first of the Oirat leaders to convert to the Gelugpa sect.

Locked in between both tribes were the Choros, Dörbets and Khoits (collectively “Dzungars”), who were slowly rebuilding the base of power they enjoyed under the Four Oirats. The Choros were the dominant Oirat tribe of that era. Their chieftain, Khara Khula attempted to follow Esen Khan in unifying the Oirat tribes to challenge the Eastern Mongols.

The illustration of Dzungarian spearman and Kashgar "musketeer"

Illustration of a Dzungarian spearman and a Kashgar “musketeer”

Under the dynamic leadership of Khara Khula, the Dzungars stopped the expansion of the First Altan Khan and began planning the resurrection of the Dörben Oirat under the Dzungar banner. In furtherance of such plans, Khara Khula designed and built a capital city called “Kubak-sari,” on the Imil river near the modern city of Chuguchak. During his attempt to build a nation, Khara Khula encouraged diplomacy, commerce and farming. He also sought to acquire modern weaponry and build small industry, such as metal works, to supply his military.

The attempted unification of the Oirats caused dissension among the tribes and their Chief Tayishis who were independent minded but also highly regarded leaders themselves. This dissension reputedly caused Kho Orluk to move the Torghut tribe and elements of the Dörbet tribe westward to the Volga region where his descendants formed the Kalmyk Khanate. In the east, Güshi Khan took part of the Khoshut tribe to the Tsaidam and Koko Nor regions in the Tibetan plateau where he formed the Khoshut Khanate to protect Tibet and the Gelugpa sect from both internal and external enemies. Khara Khula and his descendants, by contrast, formed the Dzungars Empire to fight the Eastern Mongols.

 

Torghut migration

Volga River

Volga River

In 1618, the Torghuts and a small contingent of Dörbets chose to migrate from the upper Irtysh river region to the grazing pastures of the lower Volga River region, located south of Saratov and north of the Caspian Sea, on both banks of the Volga River. The Torghuts were led by their Tayishi, Kho Orluk. They were the largest Oirat tribe to migrate, bringing along nearly the entire tribe. The second largest Oirat tribe was the Dörbets under their Tayishi, Dalai Batur. Together they moved west through southern Siberia and the southern Urals, avoiding the more direct route that would have taken them through the heart of the territory of their enemy, the Kazakhs. En route, they raided Russian settlements and Kazakh and Bashkir encampments.

Many theories have been advanced to explain the reasons for the migration. One generally accepted theory is that there may have been discontent among the Oirat tribes, which arose from the attempt by Khara Khula, Tayishi of the Dzungars, to centralise political and military control over the tribes under his leadership. Some scholars, however, believe that the Torghuts sought uncontested pastures as their territory was being encroached upon by the Russians from the north, the Kazakhs from the south and the Dzungars from the east. The encroachments resulted in overcrowding of people and livestock, thereby diminished the food supply. Lastly, a third theory suggests that the Torghuts grew weary of the militant struggle between the Oirats and the Altan Khanate.

 

Period of self rule, 1630-1724

The image of the former Astrakhan Khanate

An illustration of the former Astrakhan Khanate

Upon arrival to the lower Volga region in 1630, the Oirats encamped on land that was once part of the Astrakhan Khanate, but was now claimed by the Tsarist government. The region was lightly populated, from south of Saratov to the Russian garrison at Astrakhan and on both the east and the west banks of the Volga River. The Tsarist government was not ready to colonize the area and was in no position to prevent the Oirats from encamping in the region. But it had a direct political interest in insuring that the Oirats would not become allied with its Turkic-speaking neighbours.

The Oirats quickly consolidated their position by expelling the majority of the native inhabitants, the Nogai Horde. Large groups of Nogais fled southeast to the northern Caucasian plain and east to the Black Sea steppe, lands claimed by the Crimean Khanate, itself a vassal or ally of Ottoman Turks. Smaller groups of Nogais sought the protection of the Russian garrison at Astrakhan. The remaining nomadic tribes became vassals of the Oirats.

At first, an uneasy relationship existed between the Russians and the Oirats. Mutual raiding by the Oirats of Russian settlements and by the Cossacks and the Bashkirs (Muslim vassals of the Russians) of Oirat encampments was commonplace. Numerous oaths and treaties were signed to ensure Oirat loyalty and military assistance. Although the Oirats became subjects of the Tsar, such allegiance by the Oirats was deemed to be nominal.

An image of Oirat manuscript in "clear script" (todo bichig)

Image of an Oirat manuscript in “clear script” (todo bichig)

In reality, the Oirats governed themselves pursuant to a document known as the Great Code of the Nomads (Iki Tsaadzhin Bichig). The Code was promulgated in 1640 by them, their brethren in Dzungaria and some of the Eastern Mongols who all gathered near the Tarbagatai Mountains in Dzungaria to resolve their differences and to unite under the banner of the Gelugpa sect. Although the goal of unification was not met, the summit leaders did ratify the Code, which regulated all aspects of nomadic life.

Ayuka Khan

Ayuka Khan

In securing their position, the Oirats became a borderland power, often allying themselves with the Tsarist government against the neighboring Muslim population. During the era of Ayuka Khan, the Oirats rose to political and military prominence as the Tsarist government sought the increased use Oirat cavalry in support of its military campaigns against the Muslim powers in the south, such as Persia, the Ottoman Empire, the Nogays and the Kuban Tatars and Crimean Khanate. Ayuka Khan also waged wars against the Kazakhs, subjugated the Mangyshlak Turkmens, and made multiple expeditions against the highlanders of the North Caucasus. These campaigns highlighted the strategic importance of the Kalmyk Khanate which functioned as a buffer zone, separating Russia and the Muslim world, as Russia fought wars in Europe to establish itself as a European power.

A Kalmyk Warrior, painted by Jean-Baptiste Le Prince in 1771

A Kalmyk Warrior, painted by Jean-Baptiste Le Prince in 1771

To encourage the release of Oirat cavalrymen in support of its military campaigns, the Tsarist government increasingly relied on the provision of monetary payments and dry goods to the Oirat Khan and the Oirat nobility. In that respect, the Tsarist government treated the Oirats as it did the Cossacks. The provision of monetary payments and dry goods, however, did not stop the mutual raiding, and, in some instances, both sides failed to fulfil its promises (Halkovic, 1985:41-54).

Another significant incentive the Tsarist government provided to the Oirats was tariff-free access to the markets of Russian border towns, where the Oirats were permitted to barter their herds and the items they obtained from Asia and their Muslim neighbours in exchange for Russian goods. Trade also occurred with neighbouring Turkic tribes under Russian control, such as the Tatars and the Bashkirs. Intermarriage became common with such tribes. This trading arrangement provided substantial benefits, monetary and otherwise, to the Oirat tayishis, noyons and zaisangs.

Fred Adelman described this era as the Frontier Period, lasting from the advent of the Torghut under Kho Orluk in 1630 to the end of the great khanate of Kho Orluk’s descendant, Ayuka Khan, in 1724, a phase accompanied by little discernible acculturative change (Adelman, 1960:14-15):

There were few sustained interrelations between Kalmyks and Russians in the frontier period. Routine contacts consisted in the main of seasonal commodity exchanges of Kalmyk livestock and the products thereof for such nomad necessities as brick tea, grain, textiles and metal articles, at Astrakhan, Tsaritsyn and Saratov. This was the kind of exchange relationship between nomads and urban craftsmen and traders in which the Kalmyks traditionally engaged. Political contacts consisted of a series of treaty arrangements for the nominal allegiance of the Kalmyk Khans to Russia, and the cessation of mutual raiding by Kalmyks on the one hand and Cossacks and Bashkirs on the other. A few Kalmyk nobles became russified and nominally Christian who went to Moscow in hope of securing Russian help for their political ambitions on the Kalmyk steppe. Russian subsidies to Kalmyk nobles, however, became an effective means of political control only later. Yet gradually the Kalmyk princes came to require Russian support and to abide in Russian policy.

During the era of Ayuka Khan, the Kalmyk Khanate reached its peak of military and political power. The Khanate experienced economic prosperity from free trade with Russian border towns, China, Tibet and with their Muslim neighbours. During this era, Ayuka Khan also kept close contacts with his Oirat kinsmen in Dzungaria, as well as the Dalai Lama in Tibet.

 

From Oirat to Kalmyk

Kalmyk16

Historically, the West Mongolian tribes identified themselves by their respective tribal names. Probably, in the 15th century, the four major West Mongolian tribes formed an alliance, adopting “Dörben Oirat” as their collective name. After the alliance dissolved, the West Mongolian tribes were simply called “Oirat.” In the early 17th century, a second great Oirat State emerged, called the Dzungar Empire. While the Dzungars (initially Choros, Dörbet and Khoit tribes) were establishing their empire in Western Inner Asia, the Khoshuts were establishing the Khoshut Khanate in Tibet, protecting the Gelugpa sect from its enemies, and the Torghuts formed the Kalmyk Khanate in the lower Volga region.

After encamping, the Oirats began to identify themselves as “Kalmyk.” This named was supposedly given to them by their Muslim neighbours and later used by the Russians to describe them. The Oirats used this name in their dealings with outsiders, viz., their Russian and Muslim neighbours. But, they continued to refer to themselves by their tribal, clan, or other internal affiliations.

The name Kalmyk, however, wasn’t immediately accepted by all of the Oirat tribes in the lower Volga region. As late as 1761, the Khoshut and Dzungars (refugees from the Manchu Empire) referred to themselves and the Torghuts exclusively as Oirats. The Torghuts, by contrast, used the name Kalmyk for themselves as well as the Khoshut and Dzungars. (Khodarkovsky, 1992:8)

Generally, European scholars have identified all West Mongolians collectively as Kalmyks, regardless of their location (Ramstedt, 1935: v-vi). Such scholars (e.g. Sebastian Muenster) have relied on Muslim sources who traditionally used the word Kalmyk to describe the West Mongolians in a derogatory manner. But the West Mongolians of China and Mongolia have regarded that name as a term of abuse (Haslund, 1935:214-215). Instead, they use the name Oirat or the go by their respective tribal names, e.g., Khoshut, Dörbet, Choros, Torghut, Khoit, Bayid, Mingat, etc. (Anuchin, 1914:57).

Over time, the descendants of the Oirat migrants in the lower Volga region embraced the name Kalmyk, irrespective of their locations, viz., Astrakhan, the Don Cossack region, Orenburg, Stavropol, the Terek and the Urals. Another generally accepted name is Ulan Zalata or the “red buttoned ones” (Adelman, 1960:6).

 

Kalmyks of Volga River

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Reduction in autonomy, 1724-1771

Ubashi Khan

Ubashi Khan, the great-grandson of Ayuka Khan

After the death of Ayuka Khan in 1724, the political situation among the Kalmyks became unstable as various factions sought to be recognised as Khan. The Tsarist government also gradually chipped away at the autonomy of the Kalmyk Khanate. These policies, for instance, encouraged the establishment of Russian and German settlements on pastures the Kalmyks used to roam and feed their livestock. In addition, the Tsarist government imposed a council on the Kalmyk Khan, thereby diluting his authority, while continuing to expect the Kalmyk Khan to provide cavalry units to fight on behalf of Russia. The Russian Orthodox church, by contrast, pressured many Kalmyks to adopt Orthodoxy. By the mid-17th century, Kalmyks were increasingly disillusioned with settler encroachment and interference in its internal affairs.

In the winter of 1770-1771, Ubashi Khan, the great-grandson Ayuka Khan and the last Kalmyk Khan, decided to return his people to their ancestral homeland, Dzungaria, then under control of the Manchu Empire. The Dalai Lama was contacted to request his blessing and to set the date of departure. After consulting the astrological chart, the Dalai Lama set the return date, but at the moment of departure, the weakening of the ice on the Volga River permitted only those Kalmyks who roamed on the left or eastern bank to leave. Those on the right bank were forced to stay behind.

Under Ubashi Khan’s leadership, approximately 200,000 Kalmyks began the journey from their pastures on the left bank of the Volga River to Dzungaria. Approximately five-sixths of the Torghut tribe followed Ubashi Khan. Most of the Khoshuts, Choros and Khoits also accompanied the Torghuts on their journey to Dzungaria. The Dörbet tribe, by contrast, elected not to go at all.

After failing to stop the flight, Catherine the Great abolished the Kalmyk Khanate, transferring all governmental powers to the Governor of Astrakhan. The title of Khan was abolished. The highest native governing office remaining was the Vice-Khan who also was recognised by the government as the highest ranking Kalmyk prince. By appointing the Vice-Khan, the Tsarist government was now permanently the decisive force in Kalmyk government and affairs.

 

Life In Tsarist Russia

Tsar Alexander I presenting the Kalmyks, Cossacks and Bashkirs of Russian army to Napoleon I in Tilsit, July 9, 1807

Tsar Alexander I presenting the Kalmyks, Cossacks and Bashkirs of the Russian army to Napoleon I in Tilsit, July 9, 1807

After the 1771 exodus, the Kalmyks that remained part of the Russian Empire became under the control of the Tsarist government. They however continued their nomadic pastoral lifestyle, ranging the pastures between the Don and the Volga Rivers, wintering in the lowlands along the shores of the Caspian Sea as far as Lake Sarpa to the northwest and Lake Manych to the west. In the spring, they moved along the Don River and the Sarpa lake system, attaining the higher grounds along the Don in the summer, passing the autumn in the Sarpa and Volga lowlands. In October and November they returned to their winter camps and pastures (Krader, 1963:121 citing Pallas, vol. 1, 1776:122-123).

Despite their great loss in population, the Torghuts still remained the numerically superior and dominating Kalmyk tribe. The other Kalmyk tribes in Russia included Dörbets and Khoshuts. Elements of the Choros and Khoits tribes also were present but were too few in number to retain their ulus (divisions of a tribe) as independent administrative units. As a result, they were absorbed by the ulus of the larger tribes.

The factors that caused the 1771 exodus continued to trouble the remaining Kalmyks. In the wake of the exodus, the Torghuts joined the Cossack rebellion of Yemelyan Pugachev in hopes that he would restore the independence of the Kalmyks. After the Pugachev rebellion was defeated, Catherine the Great transferred the office of the Vice-Khan from the Torghut tribe to the Dörbet tribe, whose princes supposedly remained loyal to the government during the rebellion. Thus, the Torghuts were removed from their role as the hereditary leaders of the Kalmyk people. The Khoshuts could not challenge this political arrangement due to their smaller population size.

Tsar Paul I

Tsar Paul I

The disruptions to Kalmyk society caused by the exodus and the Torghut participation in the Pugachev rebellion precipitated a major realignment in Kalmyk tribal structure. The government divided the Kalmyks into three administrative units attached, according to their respective locations, to the district governments of Astrakhan, Stavropol and the Don and appointed a special Russian official bearing the title of “Guardian of the Kalmyk People” for purposes of administration. The government also resettled some small groups of Kalmyks along the Ural, Terek and Kuma rivers and in Siberia.

The redistricting divided the now dominant Dörbet tribe into three separate administrative units. Those in the western Kalmyk steppe were attached to the Astrakhan district government. They were called Baga (Lessor) Dörbet. By contrast, the Dörbets who moved to the northern part of the Stavropol province were called Ike (Greater) Dörbet even though their population was smaller. Finally, the Kalmyks of the Don became known as Buzava. Although they were composed of elements of all the Kalmyk tribes, the Buzava claimed descent from the Torghut tribe. Their name is derived from two tributaries of the Don River: Busgai and Busuluk. In 1798, Tsar Paul I recognised the Don Kalmyks as Don Cossacks. As such, they received the same rights and benefits as their Russian counterparts in exchange for providing national military services (Bajanowa, 1976:68-71). At the end of the Napoleonic wars, Kalmyk cavalry units in Russian service entered Paris.

Kalmyk18

Over time, the Kalmyks gradually created fixed settlements with houses and temples, in place of transportable round felt yurts. In 1865, Elista, the future capital of the Kalmyk Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was founded. This process lasted until well after the Russian Revolution.

 

Russian Revolution and Civil War

Russian soldiers joining the revolution to overthrow the Tsarist regime in February 1917

Russian soldiers joining the revolution to overthrow the Tsarist regime in February 1917

Like most people in Russia, the Kalmyks greeted the February 1917 revolution with enthusiasm. Kalmyk leaders believed that the Russian Provisional Government, which replaced the Tsarist government, would allow greater autonomy and freedom with respect to their culture, religion and economy. This enthusiasm, however, would soon dissolve after the Bolsheviks took control over the national government during the second revolution in November 1917.

After the Bolsheviks took control, various political and ethnic groups opposed to Communism organized a loose political and military coalition called the “White Movement”. A volunteer army (called the “White Army”) was raised to fight the Red Army, the military arm of the Bolshevik government. Initially, this army was composed primarily of volunteers and Tsarist supporters but were later joined by the Cossacks (including Don Kalmyks), many of whom resisted the Bolshevik policy of de-Cossackization.

The second revolution split the Kalmyk people into opposing camps. Many were dissatisfied with the Tsarist government for its historic role in promoting the colonisation of the Kalmyk steppe and in encouraging the russification of the Kalmyk people. But others also felt hostility towards Bolshevism for two reasons: (1) the loyalty of the Kalmyk people to their traditional leaders (i.e., nobility and clergy) – sources of anti-Communism – was deeply ingrained; and (2) the Bolshevik exploitation of the conflict between the Kalmyks and the local Russian peasants who seized Kalmyk land and livestock (Loewenthal, 1952:4).

The Astrakhan Kalmyk nobility, led by Prince Dmitri Tundutov of the Baga Dörbets and Prince Sereb-Djab Tiumen of the Khoshuts, expressed their anti-Bolshevik sentiments by seeking to integrate the Astrakhan Kalmyks into the military units of the Astrakhan Cossacks. But before a general mobilisation of Kalmyk horsemen could occur, the Red Army seized power in Astrakhan and in the Kalmyk steppe thereby preventing the mobilisation from occurring.

White Army in the Battle during the Russian Civil War

The White Army in battle during the Russian Civil War

After the capture of Astrakhan, the Bolsheviks engaged in savage reprisals against the Kalmyk people, especially against Buddhist temples and the Buddhist clergy (Arbakov, 1958:30-36). Eventually the Bolsheviks would draft as many as 18,000 Kalmyk horsemen in the Red Army to prevent them from joining the White Army (Borisov, 1926:84). This objective, however, failed to prevent many Red Army Kalmyk horsemen from defecting to the White side.

The majority of the Don Kalmyks also sided with the White Movement to preserve their Cossack lifestyle and proud traditions. As Don Cossacks, the Don Kalmyks first fought under White army General Anton Denikin and then under his successor, General Pyotr Wrangel. Because the Don Cossack Host to which they belonged was the main centre of the White Movement and of Cossack resistance, the battles were fought on Cossack lands and was very disastrous for the Don Cossacks as villages and entire regions changed hands repeatedly in a fratricidal conflict in which both sides committed terrible atrocities. The Don Cossacks, including the Don Kalmyks, experienced heavy military and civilian losses, either from the fighting itself or from starvation and disease induced by the war. Some argue that the Bolsheviks were guilty of the mass extermination of the Don Cossack people, killing an estimated 70 percent (or 700,000 persons) of the Don Cossack population (Heller and Nekrich, 1988:87).

By October 1920 the Red Army smashed General Wrangel’s resistance in the Crimea, forcing the evacuation of some 150,000 White army soldiers and their families to Constantinople, Turkey. A small group of Don Kalmyks managed to escape on the British and French vessels. The chaos at the Russian port city of Novorossiysk was described by Major H.N.H. Williamson of the British Military Mission to the Don Cossacks as follows:

…We could still hear scattered rifle fire and the sound of naval guns, and the Bolshevik sympathisers were sniping from the rooftops. In places Red infantry had infiltrated into the town, and were going in for murder, rape and every kind of bestiality, while explosions rocked the towns as Whites set fire to petrol tanks, and the wind blew an immense pall of smoke across the bay. The waterfront was black with people, begging to be allowed on board the ships. Some of the Kalmuk Cossacks still had their horses and the little tented carts in which they had travelled, and in the water all sorts of rubbish floated – trunks, clothes, furniture, even corpses. Conditions were appalling. The refugees were still starving and the sick and the dead lay where they had collapsed. Masses of them had even tried to rush the evacuation office and the British troops had had to disperse then at bayonet point. Women were offering jewels, everything they possessed – even themselves – for the chance of a passage. But they hadn’t a ghost of chance. The rule was only White troops, their dependents and the families of men who had worked with the British were allowed on board.

From there, this group resettled in Europe, primarily in Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia and France where its leaders remained active in the White movement. In 1922, several hundred Don Kalmyks returned home under a general amnesty. Some returnees, including Prince Dmitri Tundutov, were imprisoned and then executed soon after their return.

 

Formation of the Kalmyk Soviet Republic

 

Kalmyk Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic Top 6 Facts

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The Soviet government established the Kalmyk Autonomous Oblast in November 1920. It was formed by merging the Stavropol Kalmyk settlements with a majority of the Astrakhan Kalmyks. A small number of Don Kalmyks (Buzava) from the Don Host migrated to this Oblast. The administrative centre was Elista, a small village in the western part of the Oblast that was expanded in the 1920s to reflect its status as the capital of the Oblast.

In October 1935, the Kalmyk Autonomous Oblast was reorganised into the Kalmyk Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. The chief occupations of the Republic were cattle breeding, agriculture, including the growing of cotton and fishing. There was no industry.

 

Collectivization

 

Collectivisation Documentary

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https://video.tsemtulku.com/videos/Kalmyk003CollectivisationDocumentary.mp4

In 1929 Joseph Stalin ordered the forced collectivisation of agriculture, forcing the Astrakhan Kalmyks to abandon their traditional nomadic pastoralist lifestyle and to settle in villages. All Kalmyk herdsmen owning more than 500 sheep were deported to labor camps in Siberia. Kalmyk resistance to Stalin’s collectivisation campaign and the famine that was induced by such campaign resulted in the deaths of a substantial number of Kalmyks.

In the 1930s, Stalin ordered the closure of all Buddhist monasteries and libraries, burning temples and religious texts in the process[citation needed]. The Buddhist clergy was either shot or condemned to long terms of confinement in the labor camps in Siberia where they all perished.

 

World War II and exile

A Kalmyk guardsman during World War II

A Kalmyk guardsman during World War II

In June 1941 the German army invaded the Soviet Union, taking control of the Kalmyk Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. In December 1942, however, the Red Army liberated the Republic from German control. On 28 December 1943, the Soviet government accused the Kalmyks of collaborating with the Germans and deported the entire population, including Kalmyk Red Army soldiers, to various locations in Central Asia and Siberia. Within 24 hours the population transfer occurred at night during winter without notice in unheated cattle cars.

According to N. F. Bugai, the leading Russian expert on deportations, 4.9% of the Kalmuk population died during the first three months of 1944; 1.5% in the first three months of 1945; and 0.7% in the same period of 1946. From 1945-1950 15,206 Kalmuks died and 7843 were born.

The Kalmyk Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was quickly dissolved. Its territory was divided and transferred to the adjacent regions, viz., the Astrakhan and Stalingrad Oblasts and Stavropol Krai. Since no Kalmuks lived there any longer the Soviet authorities changed the names of towns and villages from Kalmyk names to Russian names. For example, Elista became Stepnoi.

 

Return from Siberian exile

Nikita Khrushchev

Nikita Khrushchev

In 1957, Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev permitted the Kalmyk people to return to their home. Upon return, however, the Kalmyks found their homeland had become settled by Russians and Ukrainians, many of whom chose to remain. On January 9, 1957, Kalmykia once again became an autonomous oblast, and on 29 July 1958, an autonomous republic within the Russian SFSR.

In the following years bad planning of agricultural and irrigation projects resulted in widespread desertification. In addition, industrial plants were constructed without an analysis of the economic viability of such plants.

In 1992, after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Kalmykia chose to remain an autonomous republic of the successor government, the Russian Federation. The dissolution, however, facilitated the collapse of the economy at both the national and the local level, causing widespread economic and social hardship. The resulting upheaval caused many young Kalmyks to leave Kalmykia, especially in the rural areas, for economic opportunities in and outside the Russian Federation.

 

Treatment as non-Mongols

Kalmyk26

Historically, the Eastern Mongols regarded the Oirats as non-Mongols. The name “Mongols,” the title “Khan,” and the historic legacy attached to that name and title were claimed exclusively by the Eastern Mongols, viz., the Halh, Chahar and Tümed tribes.[dubious – discuss] They considered this claim as their birthright, since their lineage was traced back directly to the Mongolian Yuan Dynasty and its progenitor, Genghis Khan.

Until the mid-17th century, when bestowal of the title of Khan was transferred to the Dalai Lama, all Mongol tribes recognized this claim and the political prestige attached to it. Although the Oirats could not assert this claim prior to the mid-17th century, they did in fact have a close connection to Genghis Khan by virtue of the fact that Genghis Khan’s brother, Hasar, was in command of the Khoshut tribe.

In response to the Western Mongols’ self-designation as the “Dörben Oirat” (Four Oirat), the Eastern Mongols began to refer to themselves as the “Döchin Mongols” (Forty Mongols), expressed otherwise as “Döchin Dörben Khoyar” (The Forty and Four). This means that the Eastern Mongols claimed to have forty tümen (a cavalry unit of 10,000 horsemen) to the four tümen maintained by the Dörben Oirat. Simply put, it’s another way for them to clearly separate themselves from the Oirats (Khodarkovsky, 1992:7). Ironically, by the early 1690s, the Dzungar (successor state to the Dörben Oirat) attacks against the Eastern Mongols were so persistent and ferocious, the Eastern Mongol princes voluntarily led their people and Outer Mongolia into submission to the Manchu state.

Until recently, the Oirats (including the Kalmyks) have not recognized themselves as Mongols. Nor have they considered themselves Western Mongols. Nevertheless, the close relationship among all Mongolian-speaking peoples, principally the Kalmyks, Oirats, Khalkhas and Buriats, is evident from the well-established fact that they all:

  1. Share similar physical features with the Mongol people
  2. Speak languages known by their close linguistic affinity;
  3. Adhere to Tibetan Buddhism; and
  4. Maintain similar customs and traditions, despite centuries of internecine warfare and extensive and far-reaching migrations (Bormanshinov, 1990:3)

It is also noted that they share similar sub-tribal names as well, e.g., Kereit, Taichuud, Mergid and Chonos.

A recent publication of genetic studies of the Kalmyks seem to support their Mongol origins as well.

The genetic results support the historical record in that they indicate a close relationship between Kalmyks and Mongolians. Moreover, the genetic results indicate that the Kalmyk migration involved substantial numbers of individuals, and that Kalmyks have not experienced detectable admixture with Russians.

The Kalmyks’ ability to maintain a mostly homogenous existence contrasts with the Russian admixture with other similar people, “as there is evidence for Russian admixture with Yakuts,” for example. Thus far, genetic analysis of the Kalmyks supports their Mongol roots that also shows that entire families of Kalmyks moved to Volga region and not simply males as is generally the case with most nomadic tribal groups.

 

Origin of the name “Kalmyk”

The name “Kalmyk” is a word of Turkic origin that means “remnant” or “to remain.” Turkic tribes may have used this name as early as the thirteenth century. Arab geographer Ibn al-Wardi is documented as the first person to use the term in referring to the Oirats in the fourteenth century (Khodarkovsky, 1992:5 citing Bretschneider, 1910:2:167). The khojas of Kashgaria applied the name to Oirats in the fifteenth century (Grousset, 1970:506). Russian written sources mentioned the name “Kolmak Tatars” as early as 1530, and cartographer Sebastian Muenster (1488–1552) circumscribed the territory of the “Kalmuchi” on a map in his Cosmographia, which was published in 1544. The Oirats themselves, however, did not accept the name as their own.

 

Subgroups

There are three main ethnic subgroups of Kalmyks: Torghut, Dörbet, and Buzava. The Torghuts are numerically dominant. The Buzavs are a small minority and are considered to be the most russified Kalmyks.

 

Location

The map  illustration of the Republic of Kalmykia

The Republic of Kalmykia – click to enlarge

The Kalmyks live primarily in the Republic of Kalmykia, a federal subject of Russia. Kalmykia is located in the southeast European part of Russia, between the Volga and the Don rivers. It has borders with the Republic of Dagestan in the south; the Stavropol Krai in the southwest; and the Rostov Oblast and the Volgograd Oblast in the west and the northwest, respectively. Its eastern border is the Astrakhan Oblast. The southeast border is the Caspian Sea.

After the collapse of the Soviet Union, a large number of Kalmyks, primarily the young, moved from Kalmykia to larger cities in Russia, such as Moscow and St. Petersburg, and to the United States. The move was precipitated by the desire of these Kalmyks to pursue better educational and economic opportunities and continues today.

 

Religion

Kalmyk lamas in front of a Kalmyk buddhist temple or also known as a khurul

Kalmyk lamas in front of a Kalmyk buddhist temple which is known as a ‘Khurul’ in Kalmyk

The Kalmyks are the only inhabitants of Europe whose national religion is Buddhism. They embraced Buddhism in the early part of the 17th century and belong to the Tibetan Buddhist sect known as the Gelugpa (Virtuous Way). The Gelugpa are commonly referred to as the Yellow Hat sect. The religion is derived from the Indian Mahayana form of Buddhism. In the West, it is commonly referred to as Lamaism, from the name of the Tibetan monks, the lamas (“heavy with wisdom”). Prior to their conversion, the Kalmyks practiced shamanism.

Historically, Kalmyk clergy received their training either on the steppe or in Tibet. The pupils who received their religious training on the steppe joined Kalmyk monasteries, which were active centers of learning. Many of these monasteries operated out of felt tents, which accompanied the Kalmyk tribes as they migrated. The Oirats maintained tent monasteries throughout present-day eastern Kazakhstan and along the migratory route they took across southern Siberia to the Volga. They also maintained tent monasteries around Lake Issyk Kul in present-day Kyrgyzstan.

The Oirats also built stone monasteries in the regions of eastern Kazakhstan. For instance, the remains of stone Buddhist monasteries have been found at Almalik and at Kyzyl-Kent. In addition, there was a great Buddhist monastery in Semipalatinsk (seven palaces), which derives its name from that seven-halled Buddhist temple. Further, remains of Buddhist monasteries have been found at Ablaiket near Ust Kamenogorsk and at Talgar, near Almaty, and at Sumbe in the Narynkol region, bordering China.

A Kalmyk Buddhist Temple near Astrakhan in the 1890s

A Kalmyk Buddhist Temple near Astrakhan in the 1890s

Upon completion of training, Kalmyk clergy dispensed not only spiritual guidance but also medical advice. As clergyman, the Kalmyk lamas enjoyed great political clout among the nobility and held a strong influence over the general tribal population. For many commoners, the only path to literacy and prestige was to join the Kalmyk monastic system.

As a matter of policy, the Tsarist government and the Russian Orthodox Church sought to gradually absorb and convert any subject of another creed or nationality. The aim of the policy was to eliminate foreign influence and to entrench newly annexed areas. The baptized indigenous population would then become loyal to the Russian empire and would agree to be governed by Russian officials.

The Kalmyks migrated to territory annexed by the Tsarist government and were subject to this policy as long as they remained in this territory. At first, the policies contributed to the conversion of the Kalmyk nobility. One of the earliest converts were the children of Donduk-Ombo, the sixth Khan of the Kalmyks who reigned between 1737 and 1741, and his Circassian-born wife (See Dondukov family). Another important convert was Baksaday-Dorji, the grandson of Ayuka Khan who adopted the Christian name, Peter Taishin. Each conversion was motivated by political ambition to become the Kalmyk Khan. Kalmyk Tayishis, by contrast, were given salaries and towns and settlements were established for them and their ulus (Khodarkovsky, 1992:39).

Illustration of a Khurul 's interior

Illustration of a Khurul’s interior

Later on, the Tsarist government policy of encouraging Russian and German settlements along the Volga indirectly pressured Kalmyks to convert for economic reasons. The settlers took the most fertile land along the river, leaving barren lands for the Kalmyks to graze their herds. The resulting reduction of herds led to impoverishment for Kalmyk Tayishis, some of whom led their ulus to Christianity to obtain economic benefits.

To discourage the monastic lifestyle, the government required the building of permanent structures at government determined construction sites while imposing Russian architects (Pozdneev, 1914). This policy resulted in the suspension of Lamaist canonical regulations governing monastery construction and in Kalmyk temples resembling Russian Orthodox churches. For example, the Khoshutovsky Khurul is modeled after the Kazan Cathedral in St. Petersburg, Russia.

Other policies the Tsarist government implemented sought to gradually weaken the influence of the lamas. For instance, the government limited Kalmyk contact with Tibet. In addition, the Tsar began appointing the Šajin Lama (title of the High Lama of the Kalmyks). Further, the economic crises that resulted from settler encroachment forced many monasteries and temples to close and lamas to adopt a secularized lifestyle. The success of this policy is borne out by the decrease in the number of Kalmyk monasteries in the Volga region during the 19th century (Loewenthal, 1952 citing Riasanovsky, 1929).

Like the Tsarist government, the Communist regime was aware of the influence the Kalmyk clergy held over the general population. In the 1920s and the 1930s, the Soviet government implemented policies to eliminate religion through control and suppression. Towards that end, Kalmyk khuruls (temples) and monasteries were destroyed and property confiscated; the clergy and many believers were harassed, killed, or sent to labor camps; religious artifacts and books were destroyed; and young men were prohibited from religious training.

By 1940 all Kalmyk Buddhist temples were either closed or destroyed and the clergy systematically oppressed. Dr. Loewenthal writes that the policies were so enforced that the Kalmyk clergy and Buddhism were not mentioned in the work by B. Dzhimbinov, “Sovetskaia Kalmykiia,” published in 1940. In 1944, the Soviet government exiled all Kalmyks not fighting in the Soviet army to Central Asia and Siberia, accusing them of collaborating with the German Army. Upon rehabilitation in 1957, the Kalmyks were permitted to return home from exile, but all attempts by them to restore their religion and to build a temple failed.

By the 1980s, the Soviet campaign against religion was so successful that a majority of the Kalmyks had never received any formal spiritual guidance. By the late 1980s, however, the Soviet government reversed course and implemented policies favoring the liberalization of religion. As a result, the first Buddhist community was organized in 1988. By 1995, there were 21 Buddhist temples, 17 places of worship for various Christian denominations, and 1 mosque in the Republic of Kalmykia (Grin, 2000:7).

On December 27, 2005, a new khurul opened in Elista, the capital of the Republic of Kalmykia. The khurul was named “Burkhan Bakshin Altan Sume”. It is the largest Buddhist temple in Europe. The government of the Republic of Kalmykia sought to build a magnificent temple of a monumental scale in hopes of creating an international learning center for Buddhist scholars and students from all over the world. More significantly, the temple is a monument to the Kalmyk people who died in exile between 1944 and 1957.

The Golden Temple of Shakyamuni Buddha at Elista, the Republic of Kalmykia

The Golden Temple of Shakyamuni Buddha at Elista, the Republic of Kalmykia

The Kalmyks of Kyrgyzstan live primarily in the Karakol region of eastern Kyrgyzstan. They are referred to as “Sart Kalmyks.” The origin of this name is unknown. Likewise, it is not known when, why and from where this small group of Kalmyks migrated to eastern Kyrgyzstan. Due to their minority status, the Sart Kalmyks have adopted the Turkic language and culture of the majority Kyrgyz population. As a result, nearly all now belong to the Muslim faith.

Although Sart Kalmyks are Muslims, Kalmyks elsewhere by and large remain faithful to the Gelugpa Order of Tibetan Buddhism. In Kalmykia, for example, the Gelugpa Order with the assistance of the government has constructed numerous Buddhist temples. In addition, the Kalmyk people recognize Tenzin Gyatso, 14th Dalai Lama as their spiritual leader and Erdne Ombadykow, a Kalmyk American, as the supreme lama of the Kalmyk people. The Dalai Lama has visited Elista on a number of occasions.

Kalmyk29

 

Language

Kalmyk31

According to Robert G. Gordon, Jr., editor of the Ethnologue: Languages of the World, the Kalmyk-Oirat language belongs to the eastern branch of the Mongolian language division. Gordon further classifies Kalmyk-Oirat under the Oirat-Khalkha group, since he contends that Kalmyk-Oirat is related to Khalkha Mongolian – the national language of Mongolia.

Other linguists, such as Nicholas N. Poppe, have classified the Kalmyk-Oirat language group as belonging to the western branch of the Mongolian language division, since the language group developed separately and is distinct. Moreover, Poppe contends that, although there is little phonetic and morphological difference, Kalmyk and Oirat are two distinct languages. The major distinction is in their lexicons. The Kalmyk language, for example, has adopted many words of Russian origin. Consequently, mainly on lexiconal grounds, Kalmyk is classified as a distinct language (Poppe 1970).

By population, the major dialects of Kalmyk are Torghut, Dörbet and Buzava (Bormanshinov 1990). Minor dialects include Khoshut and Olöt. The Kalmyk dialects vary somewhat, but the differences are insignificant. Generally, the Russian Language less influenced the dialects of the pastoral nomadic Kalmyk tribes of the Volga region.

In contrast, the Dörbets (and later on, Torghuts) who migrated from the Volga region to the Sal’sk District of the Don region took the name Buzava (or Don Kalmyks). The Buzava dialect developed from their close interaction with Russians. In 1798 the Tsarist government recognized the Buzava as Don Cossacks, both militarily and administratively. As a result of their integration into the Don Host, the Buzava dialect incorporated many words of Russian origin. (Anon. 1914: 653-660)

During World War II, all Kalmyks not fighting in the Soviet Army were forcibly exiled to Siberia and Central Asia, where they were dispersed and not permitted to speak the Kalmyk language in public places. As a result, the Kalmyk language was not formally taught to the younger generation of Kalmyks.

Upon return from exile in 1957, the Kalmyks spoke and published primarily in Russian. Consequently, the younger generation of Kalmyks primarily speak Russian and not their own native language. This is a subject of popular concern. In recent years, attempts have been made by the Kalmyk government to revive the Kalmyk language. As such, some laws have been passed regarding the usage of Kalmyk on shop signs; for example, on entrance doors, the words ‘Entrance’ and ‘Push-Pull’ appear in Kalmyk.

The attempt to re-establish the Kalmyk language has suffered setbacks, however. Recently, the Russian Broadcasting Corporation cut broadcast time allocated to Kalmyk language programs on radio and television, choosing instead to purchase pre-produced programs, such as English language productions. This measure was undertaken to reduce production costs.

 

Immigration from China (the 2nd time)

In 2006, Kirsan Ilyumzhinov claim to prepare to immigrate 10000 people from China, since Torghuts in China speak the Torgut dialect. However, the Chinese side does not confirm the information.

 

Writing system

Zaya Pandita

Zaya Pandita

In the 17th century, Zaya Pandita, a monk belonging to the Khoshut tribe, devised a script called Todo Bichig (clear script). The script, which is based on the classical vertical Mongol script, phonetically captured the Oirat language. In the later part of the 19th and early part of the 20th centuries, todo bichig fell into disuse until the Kalmyks abandoned it in 1923 and introduced the Russian Cyrillic alphabet. But soon afterwards, around 1930, Kalmyk language scholars introduced a modified Latin alphabet, which did not last long.

 

List of modern oyirad groups

Mongolia
Торгууд, Дөрвөд (Дөрвөд дотор Хотон), Баяд, Захчин, Мянгад, Хойд, Дархад, Хошууд, Өөлд, Урианхай

China
Хөх нуур – Хошууд (Дээд Монгол)
Өвөр Монголын Алшаа аймаг – Алшаа Өөлд Хошууд, Эзнээ Торгууд
Шинжаань – Торгууд, Хошууд

Kyrgyzstan
Сарт-калмак (Хотон-Халимаг)

Russian Federation
Халимаг – Бузава (Бузаава), Торгууд, Дөрвөд, Хойд, Хошууд

USA
Халимаг – Бузава (Бузаава), Торгууд, Дөрвөд

 
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  • Ivan Nasidze, Dominique Quinque, Isabelle Dupanloup, Richard Cordaux, Lyudmila Kokshunova, Mark Stoneking, Genetic Evidence for the Mongolian Ancestry of Kalmyks, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, December 2005, 128(4):846-54. DOI 10.1002/ajpa.20159
  • BBC News, Regions and territories: Kalmykia
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  • Alexander Berzin, Historical Sketch of Buddhism and Islam in West Turkistan, Berzin Archives, November 2006. Retrieved on 2008-11-01.
  • Europe’s biggest Buddhist temple opens in Kalmykia, The Buddhist Channel, 2005-12-27. Retrieved on 2008-11-01.
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  • Khoyt S.K. Last data by localisation and number of oyirad (oirat) (rar) – in russian [www.hamagmongol.narod.ru/library/pe_2008/hoyt_locnum_2008_r.htm]
  • Adelman, Fred. Kalmyk Cultural Renewal, PhD Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania,1960.
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  • Anuchin, D. “Kalmyki”, Entsiklopedicheskii Slovar Brokgauz-Efrona, XIV, St. Petersburg, 1914.
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  • Borisov, T.K. Kalmykiya; a historic-political and socio-economic survey, Moscow-Leningrad, 1926.
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  • Riasanovsky, V.A. Customary Law of the Mongol Tribes (Mongols, Buriats, Kalmucks), Harbin, 1929
  • Williamson, H.N.H. FAREWELL TO THE DON: The Russian Revolution in the Journals of Brigadier H.N.H. Williamson, John Harris, Editor, The John Day Company, New York, 1970.
  • Wang Jinglan, Shao Xingzhou, Cui Jing et al. Anthropological survey on the Mongolian Tuerhute tribe in He shuo county, Xinjiang Uigur autonomous region // Acta anthropologica sinica. Vol. XII, № 2. May, 1993. p. 137-146.
  • Санчиров В. П. О Происхождении этнонима торгут и народа, носившего это название // Монголо-бурятские этнонимы: cб. ст. — Улан-Удэ: БНЦ СО РАН, 1996. C. 31—50.
  • Galushkin S.K., Spitsyn V.A., Crawford M.H. Genetic Structure of Mongolic-speaking Kalmyks // Human Biology, December 2001, v.73, no. 6, pp. 823–834.
  • Хойт С.К. Генетическая структура европейских ойратских групп по локусам ABO, RH, HP, TF, GC, ACP1, PGM1, ESD, GLO1, SOD-A // Проблемы этнической истории и культуры тюрко-монгольских народов. Сборник научных трудов. Вып. I. Элиста: КИГИ РАН, 2009. с. 146-183.

 
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19 Responses to Kalmyk People’s Origin – VERY INTERESTING

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  1. Samfoonheei on Aug 24, 2022 at 4:00 pm

    In the early 17 th century, the ancestors of the Kalmyks, the Oirats, migrated from southern Siberia on the banks of the Irtysh River, to the Lower Volga region. The Kalmyks are a Mongolian ethnic group living mainly in Russia, are the only inhabitants of Europe whose national religion is Buddhism. They belong to the Tibetan Buddhist sect known as the Gelugpa.
    Thank you Rinpoche for this sharing.

  2. Norman Hayashi on Nov 10, 2021 at 7:25 pm

    Hello. I was born and raised in Malaysia before moving to Australia.

    I’m surprised that I have never learned about Tsem Tulku before, although I do remember passing by Kechara Soup Kitchen in KL a couple of times in the past.

    My great-grandmother came from Southern China (Hainan) to Malaysia but she was half-Japanese and half-Mongolian.

    I did a DNA test which confirmed both Mongolian and Japanese ancestry dating back to 5 generations ago, supposedly during the final decades of the Qing Dynasty. What surprised me was that my Mongolian DNA points me exactly towards the Torghut. Many of the research articles on populations of China shows that Han Chinese in Hainan do not have Mongolian DNA haplogroups, nor are there any Mongolians living in Hainan Island during that time.

    All of my living relatives do not know the origins of both our Mongolian and Japanese ancestry. I was able to trace my Japanese ancestry to exactly where and when due to my DNA matching a certain lineage of clans close to the Japanese Imperial Family. However since there is very little genealogical research done using Mongol remains of royal origins it is hard for me to pinpoint exactly where my Torghut origin came from and why is it found miles away from the homeland. I’ve even tried looking up Qing Dynasty political and criminal exiles but there is no record of it, and that most exiles only lasts 3 years before they’re allowed back to their homelands.

    So far I have matched with a fourth-cousin in Mongolia whose family originated from the western provinces (most Oirats live in western provinces of Mongolia). However this person doesn’t know much of her family history due to the Communist revolution days wiping out a chunk of their history.

    My continued search into my Torghut ancestry was what led me to this website. I’m glad I have the same ancestry as Tsem Tulku however I am not sure if I also descended from royal line. All I can think of is that if my great-grandmother is far from home and didn’t tell anyone of her origins, she may have been given away for adoption for something her parents may have been ashamed of…

  3. Pastor Shin Tan on May 17, 2019 at 9:54 am

    The great Protector Manjushri Dorje Shugden depicted in the beautiful Mongolian style. I hope many Mongolians will print out this image and place in their houses to create an affinity with Dorje Shugden for greater blessings. To download a high resolution file: https://bit.ly/2Nt3FHz

    The powerful Mongolian nation has a long history and connection with Manjushri Dorje Shugden, as expressed in the life of Venerable Choijin Lama, a State Oracle of Mongolia who took trance of Dorje Shugden among other Dharma Protectors. Read more about Choijin Lama: https://bit.ly/2GCyOUZ

    Mongolian Dorje Shugden 2

  4. Valentina Suhendra on Dec 14, 2018 at 5:18 am

    1984 Los Angeles-Left to right: Geshe Tsultrim Gyeltsen, His Holiness Kyabje Zong Rinpoche, monk assistant to Zong Rinpoche and the 18-year-old Tsem Rinpoche prior to ordination. Read more- https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/category/me

    ZongRinpocheAdvice-001

  5. Pastor Shin Tan on Jul 20, 2018 at 5:33 pm

    Tsem Rinpoche at Kechara Forest Retreat, Bentong, Malaysia

    TR Pic

  6. Ragnar lee on Jul 5, 2018 at 8:05 am

    Interesting history of this ppl,
    Fits in with my own search of the
    Buryat ppl and the Kalmyk ppl
    Looking at the blood type B so prevalent among them

  7. Stella Cheang on Mar 26, 2018 at 10:22 pm

    The history of the Kalmyks, also known as the Oirat-Mongolians is nothing less than dynamic. From the time of Ghengkis Khan to an independent regime under the Tsardom and to the recent tragic during the Stalin Purge, Kalymks experienced glory, freedom, oppression and they survived. Even so, they have kept their culture, religion, faith and tradition in tact. It is very wonderful to see Kalmyk people live well and prosper today. Elista, the capital of Kalmykia in the Russia Federation houses the largest Buddha statue in Europe. Rejoice!

  8. Samfoonheei on Jan 9, 2018 at 11:51 am

    The name Kalmyk is the name given to western Mongolian people and later adopted by those Oirats who migrated from Central Asia to an area around the Volga River in the seventeenth century. The Kalmyks are the only inhabitants of Europe whose national religion is Buddhism, which they embraced in the early part of the seventeenth century. Kalmyks belong to the Tibetan Buddhist sect known as the Gelugpa. As it is also related to Rinpoche’s family history. The Kalmyk people has a long historical, religious, and cultural interesting background. Thank you Rinpoche for sharing this interesting read.

  9. David Lai on Nov 12, 2013 at 1:42 am

    This is indeed an interesting read. Although it is basically an intellectual read but one can’t help but feel the poignant fate of a powerful nomadic tribe that struggled to survive in hostile environments in Eastern Europe and finally America. It provides an interesting perspective of the background that Rinpoche’s foster parents came from. I guess the Kalmyk people truly found home at last in America and their uncertainty is not of survival anymore but on keeping their religious and social identity amidst the dominant American pop culture and intermarriage.

  10. […] Kalmyk People’s Origin -VERY INTERESTINGhttps://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/me/kalmyk-peoples-origin-very-interesting.html […]

  11. arn on Jan 29, 2013 at 8:34 am

    yellow hat &yellow jersey & mantras have been made for the great rider of the mountains CADEL EVANS & his family extended

  12. Jani Roszales on Oct 28, 2010 at 12:34 am

    Intriguing. Been trying to learn a different language for a while so this is extremely relevant! Thanks.

    • Wan Wai Meng on Oct 29, 2010 at 4:21 pm

      thank you carmen for sharing your insights into the Kalmyks in the US. The Kalmyks have gone to quite a lot and survived . I do feel Rinpoche picked the Kalmyk spirit of surviving against all odds and become a dharma teacher in barbaric Malaysia 🙂 . Malaysia incidentally has the lowest number of ordained people in the world, hence Malaysia is very samsaric.

  13. Carmen Koo on Oct 17, 2010 at 9:42 pm

    Its only the 4th day that we have been here in New Jersey and although each day seems to pass by so fast because we are packed with interviews with Rinpoche’s family and friends, we are all extremely motivated knowing that the result this project is going to bring is far greater than we would imagine.

    Last night, we had the utmost privilege and honour to attend a Kalmyk dinner together with Rinpoche’s family and friends at Rinpoche’s aunt (Aunt Matza’s) house that was organized by Sara (Rinpoche’s cousin). I had so much fun at the dinner; the smiles, the joy, the jokes, how close the family is, how loud everyone was, it all combined to create an atmosphere that was simple and comfortable yet highly interesting. Everyone’s smile resembled that of Rinpoche’s highly contagious grin. There was so much food, and drinks, and all of Rinpoche’s relatives and friends were very accomodating and extremely pleased to hear of Rinpoche’s dharma work in Malaysia and how beneficial it has been to society. It was a very enjoyable night that was filled with discoveries and plenty of drinks. No doubt, an experience that I will never forget (oh the food was excellent as well – they made alot of nice vegetarian dishes for us!!).

    It never fails to amaze me how much Rinpoche has put into the Dharma and what Rinpoche has achieved despite growing up in such difficult circumstances, and how Kechara has establised to what it is today. The people behind Kechara are truly inspiring.

  14. Carmen Koo on Oct 16, 2010 at 9:26 pm

    Day 3 in NJ.. The Kalmykians have a very rich history and now, quite a large population have settled in Howell, New Jersey. Mostly following Tibetan Buddhism, they have played an integral role in first bringing H.H. The Dalai Lama over to the United States and their role within the Tibetan Buddhism community here in Howell have been influential.

    Each day, not only do I learn more about Rinpoche, and more about myself but also I get to feel, to be part of, learn and understand more about a culture that has so much history and who have persevered so much to establish themselves today.

  15. Knut Eggers on Sep 26, 2010 at 4:44 pm

    I am so sorry, I would like to put more attention to this information,
    but since my time in school I have difficulties in putting my attention on historical information. Love.

  16. Shirley Maya Tan on Sep 21, 2010 at 7:37 pm

    Wow, this is really a info-rich post – I mean, really well researched and thorough. Thank you so much for always educating us, Rinpoche.

    Rinpoche truly finds all kinds of ways to enrich our minds.

    I will take my time to read and re-read this post in order to understand it fully. As it is also related to Rinpoche’s family history, it is extra important and special.

    Thank you again, Rinpoche.

  17. Sharon Saw on Sep 21, 2010 at 11:43 am

    Thank you for posting this fantastic history of the Kalmyks, which is part of Rinpoche’s genealogy as a descendant of the Torghuts royalty. Most people would not associate Buddhism with this region and not know that it’s the only republic in Europe that has Buddhism as its state religion! It’s also not coincidence that Rinpoche’s cousin, HE Telo Rinpoche, is the head of Kalmyk Buddhists.

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Blog Chat

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  • Samfoonheei
    Thursday, Feb 2. 2023 04:16 PM
    Thank you Rinpoche for this post which tells us more than that. Feeling the pain of those been slaughtered for human consumption. We should gave up eating meat , have compassion for them who cannot speak for themselves. Looking at those pictures feeling uneasy, the way those chickens , pigs and so forth were killed. We have a lot to answer for those sufferings and killing . We have a choice not to kill and to be vegetarian. Choosing to be a vegetarian is the best as there are many benefits. Vegetarians appear to have lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, lower blood pressure and lower rates of hypertension and type 2 diabetes. Vegetarians also tend to have lower overall cancer rates and lower risk of chronic disease. Hence for health reasons we should go on vegetarian.

    https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/animals-vegetarianism/how-we-have-lulled-ourselves-into-a-false-sense-of-goodness.html
  • Samfoonheei
    Thursday, Feb 2. 2023 04:12 PM
    In northern China, where there is a long history of consuming dog meat to ward off the coldness in the winter. They celebrates the summer solstice by throwing a festival that involves the slaughter and consumption of dog meats. Many people love the sophisticated tastes of their dog-meat cuisine. This tradition is slowly fading out as more and more people are aware of the cruelty and not a healthy life consuming it.
    Reading this blog and looking at the pictures , one could see the poor lady activist kneels down , begging the vendor to buy those dogs from being eaten ahead of the annual dog meat. What she did was incredible ,sold her family’s two houses to fund the rescue of thousands of dogs. This amazing woman has spent large amount of money, saving dogs from the Chinese dog meat festival. She has dedicated her life to actually doing something worth doing about it. Attitudes towards dog consumption in China are changing, but some of these traditions have deep roots.
    Thank you Rinpoche for this wonderful sharing.

    https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/animals-vegetarianism/chinas-animal-crusade.html
  • Samfoonheei
    Thursday, Feb 2. 2023 04:09 PM
    Bigfoot believe may exist somewhere in the wild, but are not recognized by science. Russian president discovers ‘proof’ that fabled creature exists while on short vacation in Kemerovo region. The sighting is understood to have been confirmed by President Putin’s security detachment after they inspected the footprints. Environmental rangers and hunters in remote mountain terrain confirmed it. The Kremlin leader had witnessed’ three Yetis while on a recent helicopter trip to a remote location famous for claimed sightings. Nobody in the world has found the yeti, and it would be good and beneficial to most people. Scientists and yeti enthusiasts believe there may finally be solid evidence that the apelike creature roams in the wild. As long as there are wild places in America, Bigfoot remains a possibility that, it exist.
    Thank you Rinpoche for this sharing.

    https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/current-affairs/vladimir-putin-sights-a-yeti-family.html
  • Samfoonheei
    Saturday, Jan 21. 2023 01:22 PM
    Stephen William Hawking was an English theoretical physicist, cosmologist, and author. Well he was best known for his discovery that black holes emit radiation which can be detected by special instrumentation. His discovery has made the detailed study of black holes possible. Theoretical physicist Stephen Hawking did mentioned in an interview that, it is natural to believe God created the universe. He think science has a more compelling explanation than a divine creator. Religion believes in miracles, but these aren’t compatible with science. Well said by him.
    Everything we have in life is all came as a result of research either from ourselves or others. That’s true.
    Thank you Rinpoche for this informative blog

    https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/current-affairs/he-says-with-certainty.html
  • Samfoonheei
    Saturday, Jan 21. 2023 01:21 PM
    The Dyatlov Pass incident was an event in which nine Soviet hikers died mysteriously in the northern Ural Mountains in 1959. A group of ski hikers led by Igor Dyatlov just perished in this remote peak. Some of them succumbed to hypothermia, but others were found with grisly injuries. No one yet comes to the conclusion what had exactly happened to them and solved one of history’s greatest adventure .The Dyatlov Pass Incident, came to be known and have inspired countless conspiracy theories, such as Yetis, and even extra-terrestrial contact with the unknown. These men and women were never heard from again. A criminal investigation at the time blamed their deaths on an unknown natural force. Sound interesting. There’s some unknown creatures or aliens maybe that cause their death i do believe., as we are not alone.
    Thank you Rinpoche for this interesting sharing.

    https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/science-mysteries/tell-me-what-you-think.html
  • Samfoonheei
    Saturday, Jan 21. 2023 01:19 PM
    Samaya is a set of Buddhist vows and commitments that are given when one receives empowerment in the Vajrayana Buddhist order. Guru devotion plays an important part in our spiritual practice in Tibetan Buddhism. As explained by Tsem Rinpoche our Guru we must have a good relations and good samaya with the guru. We can never be overstressed on the spiritual path or else our mind will degenerate. Breaking the samaya vows is worse than breaking any other laws. Breaking a samaya results in a heavy bad karma, especially if one disregards or dislikes, the Guru who have gave us the teachings. The Dorje Shugden controversy had cause disharmony and sufferings to many practitioners. For some of them been drifted away causing them to break their samaya then. Interesting read.
    Thank you Rinpoche and Pastor Jean Ai for this sharing.

    https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/guest-contributors/go-on-break-your-samaya.html
  • Samfoonheei
    Saturday, Jan 21. 2023 01:17 PM
    The Great Buddha of Kamakura, a monumental outdoor bronze statue is one of the most famous icons of Japan. It sits in the grounds of Kotokuin, a temple belonging to the Jodo Sect of Buddhism. An equal opportunities Buddha, guiding all to the Pure Land, built in the mid 13th century and is the second tallest bronze Buddha in Japan. Looks stunning this statue with historical stories behind it. Love to visit and see for myself this magnificent statue.
    Thank you Rinpoche for this sharing.

    https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/buddhas-dharma/i-love-kamakura-buddha-in-japan.html
  • Samfoonheei
    Monday, Jan 16. 2023 01:34 PM
    Yes there are many mysterious creatures everywhere this very planet. Its only that we don’t encounter before. Many mysterious creatures such as Owl man , ‘lizard man, Flatwoods monster may exist after-all. Many of them exist in the wild but scientist do not believed it exist by mainstream science. Reading this blog is an eye-opening for me. Just fantastic knowing such creatures do exist. Some of them looks scary to me like the Canvey island monster which had horse-shoe shaped feet with five toes and it had no ‘arms’. Even though its just a carcass seen on the shores of Canvey Island in England. Ferociously looking . Bunyip another creatures found in swamps which has a dog-like face, dark fur, horse-like tail and walrus-like horns. Interesting reading to know that there are some of the mysterious creatures .
    Thank you Rinpoche for this sharing.

    https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/science-mysteries/10-most-horrifying-creatures.html
  • Samfoonheei
    Monday, Jan 16. 2023 01:31 PM
    Looking at those pictures in this blog says all. Hundred thousands of monks and locals from different monasteries receiving Dorje Shugden initiation from highly attained Lamas. From one picture where thousands of tents were set up outside the monastery hosting the ceremony for the thousands of attendees. Thousands of fortunate practitioners were fortunate to receive initiation of Dorje Shugden from high lamas of the Gelug lineage . We are fortunate to read and watch those updates from Tibet and else where.
    Thank you Rinpoche for these updates.

    https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/current-affairs/updates-from-tibet-and-elsewhere.html
  • Samfoonheei
    Monday, Jan 16. 2023 01:29 PM
    Dorje Shugden is a fully enlightened Buddha who has been worshipped throughout history by several schools in Tibetan Buddhism. The protector Dorje Shugden was arose from a lineage of highly attained masters who have been taking rebirth life after life. Solely for the benefit of all sentient beings and the preservation of the Dharma. Having to ask for divine help is no exception for Keng Nam. Dorje Shugden the Dharma Protector will help everyone regardless of race and faith in difficult time when pray to him sincerely.
    Thank you Rinpoche and Keng Nam for this sharing.

    https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/guest-contributors/calling-upon-the-divine.html
  • adamhaissam
    Saturday, Jan 14. 2023 08:09 PM
    We have sugarmummy and daddy in mostly all main cities in SINGAPORE/Malaysia including KL,Ipoh, Jb, Penang,Petaling Jaya,Kota bharu,Seremban,Kuching,Kota Kinabalu also Singapore and Brunei. To qualify, you must be romantic, honest and with good personalty and attitude. Contact us now for more info. Whatsapp +60149346413 and get connection within 24 hours.You get up to RM8000 when you spend a wonderful night with our sugarmummy or sugardaddy.If you need a SugarMummy OR Sugardaddy urgently kindly and quickly contact agent Mrs Shahira for your own SugarMummy Connection (via whatsApp ++60149346413) and don’t forget to testify about her too once you have been hookup. For urgent and legit hookup whatsApp US now on +60149346413 to get connected… The only money i pay is the regiretion fee payment which is (850rm) only and there’s NO HIDDEN PAYMENT

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  • Samfoonheei
    Wednesday, Jan 11. 2023 02:27 PM
    The interest in vegan and vegetarian products is on the rise, especially after consumers become aware of the cruelty involved in producing animal-based foods. Undercover footage released shows slaughterhouse brutal treatment of animals such as pigs , sheep and so forth being kicked, beaten, and thrown into cages before they are slaughtered. The animals should be immediately slaughtered so as to spare them the pain, stress, and anxiety. Secret footage shot inside a slaughterhouse has reignited a row over animal cruelty. Its sad watching this video. As results leading animal protection organisation Animal Aid requested more CCTV cameras to be place in all abattoirs. The public do not want to see animals treated in such a cruel way . To go vegetarian will be the best choice.
    Thank you Rinpoche for this sharing high-lighted the sufferings of animals in slaughter house.

    https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/animals-vegetarianism/secret-abattoirs-in-the-uk.html
  • Samfoonheei
    Wednesday, Jan 11. 2023 02:26 PM
    Generally, Buddhist teaching views life and death as a continuum, believing that consciousness continues after death and may be reborn. We’re all going to face death, so we shouldn’t ignore it. Being realistic about our mortality enables us to live a full, meaningful life. Buddhist teachings emphasize the idea that although one’s destiny is always influenced by past karma. That is, our actions in this and previous lives shape the outcome for the next life. Reading this article had me understand further . To learn ,practice Dharma is the best choice I have made. We have our Guru to thank for sharing with us the journey from birth to death. This article gave us a better understanding of what happens to us after we pass away according to Buddhism.
    Thank you Rinpoche for this sharing.

    https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/buddhas-dharma/what-happens-when-we-die-heres-what-buddhism-says.html
  • Samfoonheei
    Wednesday, Jan 11. 2023 02:24 PM
    Palden Tenpai Nyima a native of Tibet, he was the 7th Panchen Lama of Tibet. The Panchen Lama is the second highest ranking lama after the Dalai Lama in the Gelugpa sect of Tibetan . Palden Tenpai Nyima did compiled and edited voluminous collection of tantric deity sadhanas or spiritual practices known as Rinjung Lhantab. Rinjung Gyatsa collection of sadhanas originally came from the great Tibetan scholar Jetsun Taranatha. In turn, Taranatha’s collection was based on the ancient Sadhanamala collection of works by various Indian authors. It was believed to have been compiled between the 5th and 11th centuries which can be traced back to its Indian roots. Its more suitable for higher practitioners . Jetsun Taranatha was one of the important masters of the Jonang lineage, was of crucial importance for the Shangpa Kagyu tradition who had contributed tremendously in Tibetan Buddhism. Interesting read .
    Thank you Rinpoche and Pastor David.

    https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/buddhas-dharma/rinjung-lhantab-the-panchen-lamas-collection-of-sadhanas.html
  • Samfoonheei
    Thursday, Dec 29. 2022 02:00 PM
    Monk robes offering is the highest offering and the most meritorious of skillful deeds. The act of offering robes to the Sangha, one will be free from the suffering of hungry ghost realm and taking rebirth in the human form with complete perfect physical, attractive, conceivably pleasant and beautiful shape. Merits of offering robes to Sangha is extremely glorious. The Sangha has preserved, propagated and taught the teachings of the Buddha for centuries. As a result, millions have benefitted from their diligent effort and compassion, hence with understanding and gratitude, it is meritorious for us to offer robes to monks.
    Thank you Rinpoche for this sharing.

    https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/buddhas-dharma/new-offering-of-monk-robes.html

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The Unknown

The Known and unknown are both feared,
Known is being comfortable and stagnant,
The unknown may be growth and opportunities,
One shall never know if one fears the unknown more than the known.
Who says the unknown would be worse than the known?
But then again, the unknown is sometimes worse than the known. In the end nothing is known unless we endeavour,
So go pursue all the way with the unknown,
because all unknown with familiarity becomes the known.
~Tsem Rinpoche

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According to legend, Shambhala is a place where wisdom and love reign, and there is no crime. Doesn\'t this sound like the kind of place all of us would love to live in? https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/?p=204874
3 years ago
According to legend, Shambhala is a place where wisdom and love reign, and there is no crime. Doesn't this sound like the kind of place all of us would love to live in? https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/?p=204874
108 candles and sang (incense) offered at our Wish-Fulfilling Grotto, invoking Dorje Shugden\'s blessings for friends, sponsors and supporters, wonderful!
3 years ago
108 candles and sang (incense) offered at our Wish-Fulfilling Grotto, invoking Dorje Shugden's blessings for friends, sponsors and supporters, wonderful!
Dharmapalas are not exclusive to Tibetan culture and their practice is widespread throughout the Buddhist world - https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/?p=193645
3 years ago
Dharmapalas are not exclusive to Tibetan culture and their practice is widespread throughout the Buddhist world - https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/?p=193645
One of our adorable Kechara Forest Retreat\'s doggies, Tara, happy and safe, and enjoying herself in front of Wisdom Hall which has been decorated for Chinese New Year
3 years ago
One of our adorable Kechara Forest Retreat's doggies, Tara, happy and safe, and enjoying herself in front of Wisdom Hall which has been decorated for Chinese New Year
Fragrant organic Thai basil harvested from our very own Kechara Forest Retreat farm!
3 years ago
Fragrant organic Thai basil harvested from our very own Kechara Forest Retreat farm!
On behalf of our Puja House team, Pastor Tat Ming receives food and drinks from Rinpoche. Rinpoche wanted to make sure the hardworking Puja House team are always taken care of.
3 years ago
On behalf of our Puja House team, Pastor Tat Ming receives food and drinks from Rinpoche. Rinpoche wanted to make sure the hardworking Puja House team are always taken care of.
By the time I heard about Luang Phor Thong, he was already very old, in his late 80s. When I heard about him, I immediately wanted to go and pay my respects to him. - http://bit.ly/LuangPhorThong
3 years ago
By the time I heard about Luang Phor Thong, he was already very old, in his late 80s. When I heard about him, I immediately wanted to go and pay my respects to him. - http://bit.ly/LuangPhorThong
It\'s very nice to see volunteers helping maintain holy sites in Kechara Forest Retreat, it\'s very good for them. Cleaning Buddha statues is a very powerful and effective way of purifying body karma.
3 years ago
It's very nice to see volunteers helping maintain holy sites in Kechara Forest Retreat, it's very good for them. Cleaning Buddha statues is a very powerful and effective way of purifying body karma.
Kechara Forest Retreat is preparing for the upcoming Chinese New Year celebrations. This is our holy Vajra Yogini stupa which is now surrounded by beautiful lanterns organised by our students.
3 years ago
Kechara Forest Retreat is preparing for the upcoming Chinese New Year celebrations. This is our holy Vajra Yogini stupa which is now surrounded by beautiful lanterns organised by our students.
One of the most recent harvests from our Kechara Forest Retreat land. It was grown free of chemicals and pesticides, wonderful!
3 years ago
One of the most recent harvests from our Kechara Forest Retreat land. It was grown free of chemicals and pesticides, wonderful!
Third picture-Standing Manjushri Statue at Chowar, Kirtipur, Nepal.
Height: 33ft (10m)
4 years ago
Third picture-Standing Manjushri Statue at Chowar, Kirtipur, Nepal. Height: 33ft (10m)
Second picture-Standing Manjushri Statue at Chowar, Kirtipur, Nepal.
Height: 33ft (10m)
4 years ago
Second picture-Standing Manjushri Statue at Chowar, Kirtipur, Nepal. Height: 33ft (10m)
First picture-Standing Manjushri Statue at Chowar, Kirtipur, Nepal.
Height: 33ft (10m)
4 years ago
First picture-Standing Manjushri Statue at Chowar, Kirtipur, Nepal. Height: 33ft (10m)
The first title published by Kechara Comics is Karuna Finds A Way. It tells the tale of high-school sweethearts Karuna and Adam who had what some would call the dream life. Everything was going great for them until one day when reality came knocking on their door. Caught in a surprise swindle, this loving family who never harmed anyone found themselves out of luck and down on their fortune. Determined to save her family, Karuna goes all out to find a solution. See what she does- https://bit.ly/2LSKuWo
4 years ago
The first title published by Kechara Comics is Karuna Finds A Way. It tells the tale of high-school sweethearts Karuna and Adam who had what some would call the dream life. Everything was going great for them until one day when reality came knocking on their door. Caught in a surprise swindle, this loving family who never harmed anyone found themselves out of luck and down on their fortune. Determined to save her family, Karuna goes all out to find a solution. See what she does- https://bit.ly/2LSKuWo
Very powerful story! Tibetan Resistance group Chushi Gangdruk reveals how Dalai Lama escaped in 1959- https://bit.ly/2S9VMGX
4 years ago
Very powerful story! Tibetan Resistance group Chushi Gangdruk reveals how Dalai Lama escaped in 1959- https://bit.ly/2S9VMGX
At Kechara Forest Retreat land we have nice fresh spinach growing free of chemicals and pesticides. Yes!
4 years ago
At Kechara Forest Retreat land we have nice fresh spinach growing free of chemicals and pesticides. Yes!
See beautiful pictures of Manjushri Guest House here- https://bit.ly/2WGo0ti
4 years ago
See beautiful pictures of Manjushri Guest House here- https://bit.ly/2WGo0ti
Beginner’s Introduction to Dorje Shugden~Very good overview https://bit.ly/2QQNfYv
4 years ago
Beginner’s Introduction to Dorje Shugden~Very good overview https://bit.ly/2QQNfYv
Fresh eggplants grown on Kechara Forest Retreat\'s land here in Malaysia
4 years ago
Fresh eggplants grown on Kechara Forest Retreat's land here in Malaysia
Most Venerable Uppalavanna – The Chief Female Disciple of Buddha Shakyamuni - She exhibited many supernatural abilities gained from meditation and proved to the world females and males are equal in spirituality- https://bit.ly/31d9Rat
4 years ago
Most Venerable Uppalavanna – The Chief Female Disciple of Buddha Shakyamuni - She exhibited many supernatural abilities gained from meditation and proved to the world females and males are equal in spirituality- https://bit.ly/31d9Rat
Thailand’s ‘Renegade’ Yet Powerful Buddhist Nuns~ https://bit.ly/2Z1C02m
4 years ago
Thailand’s ‘Renegade’ Yet Powerful Buddhist Nuns~ https://bit.ly/2Z1C02m
Mahapajapati Gotami – the first Buddhist nun ordained by Lord Buddha- https://bit.ly/2IjD8ru
4 years ago
Mahapajapati Gotami – the first Buddhist nun ordained by Lord Buddha- https://bit.ly/2IjD8ru
The Largest Buddha Shakyamuni in Russia | 俄罗斯最大的释迦牟尼佛画像- https://bit.ly/2Wpclni
4 years ago
The Largest Buddha Shakyamuni in Russia | 俄罗斯最大的释迦牟尼佛画像- https://bit.ly/2Wpclni
Sacred Vajra Yogini
4 years ago
Sacred Vajra Yogini
Dorje Shugden works & archives - a labour of commitment - https://bit.ly/30Tp2p8
4 years ago
Dorje Shugden works & archives - a labour of commitment - https://bit.ly/30Tp2p8
Mahapajapati Gotami, who was the first nun ordained by Lord Buddha.
4 years ago
Mahapajapati Gotami, who was the first nun ordained by Lord Buddha.
Mahapajapati Gotami, who was the first nun ordained by Lord Buddha. She was his step-mother and aunt. Buddha\'s mother had passed away at his birth so he was raised by Gotami.
4 years ago
Mahapajapati Gotami, who was the first nun ordained by Lord Buddha. She was his step-mother and aunt. Buddha's mother had passed away at his birth so he was raised by Gotami.
Another nun disciple of Lord Buddha\'s. She had achieved great spiritual abilities and high attainments. She would be a proper object of refuge. This image of the eminent bhikkhuni (nun) disciple of the Buddha, Uppalavanna Theri.
4 years ago
Another nun disciple of Lord Buddha's. She had achieved great spiritual abilities and high attainments. She would be a proper object of refuge. This image of the eminent bhikkhuni (nun) disciple of the Buddha, Uppalavanna Theri.
Wandering Ascetic Painting by Nirdesha Munasinghe
4 years ago
Wandering Ascetic Painting by Nirdesha Munasinghe
High Sri Lankan monks visit Kechara to bless our land, temple, Buddha and Dorje Shugden images. They were very kind-see pictures- https://bit.ly/2HQie2M
4 years ago
High Sri Lankan monks visit Kechara to bless our land, temple, Buddha and Dorje Shugden images. They were very kind-see pictures- https://bit.ly/2HQie2M
This is pretty amazing!

First Sri Lankan Buddhist temple opened in Dubai!!!
4 years ago
This is pretty amazing! First Sri Lankan Buddhist temple opened in Dubai!!!
My Dharma boy (left) and Oser girl loves to laze around on the veranda in the mornings. They enjoy all the trees, grass and relaxing under the hot sun. Sunbathing is a favorite daily activity. I care about these two doggies of mine very much and I enjoy seeing them happy. They are with me always. Tsem Rinpoche

Always be kind to animals and eat vegetarian- https://bit.ly/2Psp8h2
4 years ago
My Dharma boy (left) and Oser girl loves to laze around on the veranda in the mornings. They enjoy all the trees, grass and relaxing under the hot sun. Sunbathing is a favorite daily activity. I care about these two doggies of mine very much and I enjoy seeing them happy. They are with me always. Tsem Rinpoche Always be kind to animals and eat vegetarian- https://bit.ly/2Psp8h2
After you left me Mumu, I was alone. I have no family or kin. You were my family. I can\'t stop thinking of you and I can\'t forget you. My bond and connection with you is so strong. I wish you were by my side. Tsem Rinpoche
4 years ago
After you left me Mumu, I was alone. I have no family or kin. You were my family. I can't stop thinking of you and I can't forget you. My bond and connection with you is so strong. I wish you were by my side. Tsem Rinpoche
This story is a life-changer. Learn about the incredible Forest Man of India | 印度“森林之子”- https://bit.ly/2Eh4vRS
4 years ago
This story is a life-changer. Learn about the incredible Forest Man of India | 印度“森林之子”- https://bit.ly/2Eh4vRS
Part 2-Beautiful billboard in Malaysia of a powerful Tibetan hero whose life serves as a great inspiration- https://bit.ly/2UltNE4
4 years ago
Part 2-Beautiful billboard in Malaysia of a powerful Tibetan hero whose life serves as a great inspiration- https://bit.ly/2UltNE4
Part 1-Beautiful billboard in Malaysia of a powerful Tibetan hero whose life serves as a great inspiration- https://bit.ly/2UltNE4
4 years ago
Part 1-Beautiful billboard in Malaysia of a powerful Tibetan hero whose life serves as a great inspiration- https://bit.ly/2UltNE4
The great Protector Manjushri Dorje Shugden depicted in the beautiful Mongolian style. To download a high resolution file: https://bit.ly/2Nt3FHz
4 years ago
The great Protector Manjushri Dorje Shugden depicted in the beautiful Mongolian style. To download a high resolution file: https://bit.ly/2Nt3FHz
The Mystical land of Shambhala is finally ready for everyone to feast their eyes and be blessed. A beautiful post with information, art work, history, spirituality and a beautiful book composed by His Holiness the 6th Panchen Rinpoche. ~ https://bit.ly/309MHBi
4 years ago
The Mystical land of Shambhala is finally ready for everyone to feast their eyes and be blessed. A beautiful post with information, art work, history, spirituality and a beautiful book composed by His Holiness the 6th Panchen Rinpoche. ~ https://bit.ly/309MHBi
Beautiful pictures of the huge Buddha in Longkou Nanshan- https://bit.ly/2LsBxVb
4 years ago
Beautiful pictures of the huge Buddha in Longkou Nanshan- https://bit.ly/2LsBxVb
The reason-Very interesting thought- https://bit.ly/2V7VT5r
4 years ago
The reason-Very interesting thought- https://bit.ly/2V7VT5r
NEW Bigfoot cafe in Malaysia! Food is delicious!- https://bit.ly/2VxdGau
4 years ago
NEW Bigfoot cafe in Malaysia! Food is delicious!- https://bit.ly/2VxdGau
DON\'T MISS THIS!~How brave Bonnie survived by living with a herd of deer~ https://bit.ly/2Lre2eY
4 years ago
DON'T MISS THIS!~How brave Bonnie survived by living with a herd of deer~ https://bit.ly/2Lre2eY
Global Superpower China Will Cut Meat Consumption by 50%! Very interesting, find out more- https://bit.ly/2V1sJFh
4 years ago
Global Superpower China Will Cut Meat Consumption by 50%! Very interesting, find out more- https://bit.ly/2V1sJFh
You can download this beautiful Egyptian style Dorje Shugden Free- https://bit.ly/2Nt3FHz
4 years ago
You can download this beautiful Egyptian style Dorje Shugden Free- https://bit.ly/2Nt3FHz
Beautiful high file for print of Lord Manjushri. May you be blessed- https://bit.ly/2V8mwZe
4 years ago
Beautiful high file for print of Lord Manjushri. May you be blessed- https://bit.ly/2V8mwZe
Mongolian (Oymiakon) Shaman in Siberia, Russia. That is his real outfit he wears. Very unique. TR
4 years ago
Mongolian (Oymiakon) Shaman in Siberia, Russia. That is his real outfit he wears. Very unique. TR
Find one of the most beautiful temples in the world in Nara, Japan. It is the 1,267 year old Todai-ji temple that houses a 15 meter Buddha Vairocana statue who is a cosmic and timeless Buddha. Emperor Shomu who sponsored this beautiful temple eventually abdicated and ordained as a Buddhist monk. Very interesting history and story. One of the places everyone should visit- https://bit.ly/2VgsHhK
4 years ago
Find one of the most beautiful temples in the world in Nara, Japan. It is the 1,267 year old Todai-ji temple that houses a 15 meter Buddha Vairocana statue who is a cosmic and timeless Buddha. Emperor Shomu who sponsored this beautiful temple eventually abdicated and ordained as a Buddhist monk. Very interesting history and story. One of the places everyone should visit- https://bit.ly/2VgsHhK
Manjusri Kumara (bodhisattva of wisdom), India, Pala dynesty, 9th century, stone, Honolulu Academy of Arts
4 years ago
Manjusri Kumara (bodhisattva of wisdom), India, Pala dynesty, 9th century, stone, Honolulu Academy of Arts
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    4 years ago
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CHAT PICTURES

Flower garland was offered to Dorje Shugden, as well as some mandarin oranges, milk and etc by the devotees. There next day morning shift (5th Feb 2023) members were Tang KS, Sunny, Choong & Wei Ling. Thanks for all the efforts and support. The event was ended in a high note. Kechara Penang Study Group ~by Jacinta
16 hours ago
Flower garland was offered to Dorje Shugden, as well as some mandarin oranges, milk and etc by the devotees. There next day morning shift (5th Feb 2023) members were Tang KS, Sunny, Choong & Wei Ling. Thanks for all the efforts and support. The event was ended in a high note. Kechara Penang Study Group ~by Jacinta
Penang Kecharians distributed well over 5144 Dorje Shugden collaterals, which includes big posters, A5 picture card, brochure pendants and etc. Not only that, visitors who were keen, they explained and shared more about Dorje Shugden in details. Sharyn and Swee Bee came and volunteered for the two days we were there. Way to go gals... ~by Jacinta
16 hours ago
Penang Kecharians distributed well over 5144 Dorje Shugden collaterals, which includes big posters, A5 picture card, brochure pendants and etc. Not only that, visitors who were keen, they explained and shared more about Dorje Shugden in details. Sharyn and Swee Bee came and volunteered for the two days we were there. Way to go gals... ~by Jacinta
Kechara Penang members lent a helping hand during Thaipusam even at the famous Arulmigu Balathandayuthapani Waterfall Temple. On the first day, 4th Feb 2023, the members on duty were Siew Hong, BJ Quah, Jacinta, Huey and Sunny Ooi. Kechara Penang Study Group ~by Jacinta
16 hours ago
Kechara Penang members lent a helping hand during Thaipusam even at the famous Arulmigu Balathandayuthapani Waterfall Temple. On the first day, 4th Feb 2023, the members on duty were Siew Hong, BJ Quah, Jacinta, Huey and Sunny Ooi. Kechara Penang Study Group ~by Jacinta
Abundance food offerings to Gyenze. May everyone always be blessed by Gyenze for long life and increase our inner and outer wealth. ~ Alice
2 days ago
Abundance food offerings to Gyenze. May everyone always be blessed by Gyenze for long life and increase our inner and outer wealth. ~ Alice
Pastor David is here! Members of Kechara Penang group were listening attentively to Pastor's sharing about his latest book 'Insightful Meditation'. 28th Jan 2023, Kechara Penang Study Group by Jacinta
3 days ago
Pastor David is here! Members of Kechara Penang group were listening attentively to Pastor's sharing about his latest book 'Insightful Meditation'. 28th Jan 2023, Kechara Penang Study Group by Jacinta
Tannery for cow and pig leather
1 week ago
Tannery for cow and pig leather
Penang Dharma bro and sis Lou Hei, a vegetarian Yee Sang ( a prosperity toss) complete with auspicious phrases such as wishing for more Kechara members, more retreats and of course, swift return of Rinpoche to KFR. Huat Ah!!! Kechara Penang Study Group by Jacinta.
2 weeks ago
Penang Dharma bro and sis Lou Hei, a vegetarian Yee Sang ( a prosperity toss) complete with auspicious phrases such as wishing for more Kechara members, more retreats and of course, swift return of Rinpoche to KFR. Huat Ah!!! Kechara Penang Study Group by Jacinta.
恭喜,恭喜,恭喜发财啊!(Gong Xi, Gong Xi, Gong Xi Fa Cai) from us all, Kechara Penang Study Group. 21/1/2023 Saturday CNY eve DS puja by Jacinta
2 weeks ago
恭喜,恭喜,恭喜发财啊!(Gong Xi, Gong Xi, Gong Xi Fa Cai) from us all, Kechara Penang Study Group. 21/1/2023 Saturday CNY eve DS puja by Jacinta
All ready for Lunar New Year 2023 Dorje Shugden puja ~ inviting Ong, Huat & Heng, blessing our beloved ones and all sentient beings. Kechara Penang Study Group by Jacinta. 21/1/2023 Saturday
2 weeks ago
All ready for Lunar New Year 2023 Dorje Shugden puja ~ inviting Ong, Huat & Heng, blessing our beloved ones and all sentient beings. Kechara Penang Study Group by Jacinta. 21/1/2023 Saturday
After year end puja, we proceeded with a small gathering. The food was outstanding, especially the vege curry and sa hor fun! We were even enchanted by the smells of it. We also had apple pie, tong sui and many more. Kechara Penang Study Group by Jacinta.
3 weeks ago
After year end puja, we proceeded with a small gathering. The food was outstanding, especially the vege curry and sa hor fun! We were even enchanted by the smells of it. We also had apple pie, tong sui and many more. Kechara Penang Study Group by Jacinta.
Last puja for the Year 2022 and ushering a New and Blessed Year 2023. Kechara Penang Study Group by Jacinta 31/12/2022
3 weeks ago
Last puja for the Year 2022 and ushering a New and Blessed Year 2023. Kechara Penang Study Group by Jacinta 31/12/2022
Ta-da! Can you spot the differences? Come and collect more merits while cleaning & polishing at the temple. Kechara Penang Study Group by Jacinta
2 months ago
Ta-da! Can you spot the differences? Come and collect more merits while cleaning & polishing at the temple. Kechara Penang Study Group by Jacinta
Restoring the shine after rubbing! Chin Shuen and Hue are polishing the serkym set & offering bowls here. 'Many Hands Make Light Work' Day @ Kechara Penang Chapel by Jacinta.
2 months ago
Restoring the shine after rubbing! Chin Shuen and Hue are polishing the serkym set & offering bowls here. 'Many Hands Make Light Work' Day @ Kechara Penang Chapel by Jacinta.
Last Monday, 28th Nov 2022 was 'Many Hands Make Light Work' Day. Kechara Penang members gathered together to clean the altar, polish offerings bowls and etc. Sweeping, cleaning and arranging offerings are very important in Buddhism. In fact, it's the first of the preparatory practices as taught in Lamrim. While we clean, it's good to chant mantras or listening to it, such as reciting 'Dulpung Drima Pung' when we are sweeping. Kechara Penang Study Group by Jacinta.
2 months ago
Last Monday, 28th Nov 2022 was 'Many Hands Make Light Work' Day. Kechara Penang members gathered together to clean the altar, polish offerings bowls and etc. Sweeping, cleaning and arranging offerings are very important in Buddhism. In fact, it's the first of the preparatory practices as taught in Lamrim. While we clean, it's good to chant mantras or listening to it, such as reciting 'Dulpung Drima Pung' when we are sweeping. Kechara Penang Study Group by Jacinta.
Renew your antivirus quickly an call
2 months ago
Renew your antivirus quickly an call
KEP 13/11/2022-caroline
3 months ago
KEP 13/11/2022-caroline
Look here, Smile! 1, 2, 3.... chik chak. Thank you everyone. That's our picture for the Dorje Shugden puja and see you all next Saturday @ 3pm. Kechara Penang Study Group ~by Jacinta.
3 months ago
Look here, Smile! 1, 2, 3.... chik chak. Thank you everyone. That's our picture for the Dorje Shugden puja and see you all next Saturday @ 3pm. Kechara Penang Study Group ~by Jacinta.
Week after week, Penang members come together to do the Dorje Shugden puja - without fail. Come to get your blessings and obstacles cleared by joining us at Penang Chapel, every Saturday, 3 pm at Jalan Seang Tek, Penang.
4 months ago
Week after week, Penang members come together to do the Dorje Shugden puja - without fail. Come to get your blessings and obstacles cleared by joining us at Penang Chapel, every Saturday, 3 pm at Jalan Seang Tek, Penang.
Sumptuously decorated food offerings to Rinpoche and Buddhas, thanks to Siew Hong and KS Tang during Penang weekly DS puja on 22/10/2022 ~ by Jacinta.
4 months ago
Sumptuously decorated food offerings to Rinpoche and Buddhas, thanks to Siew Hong and KS Tang during Penang weekly DS puja on 22/10/2022 ~ by Jacinta.
Is this where Rinpoche received the thangkha of Dream Manjushri?
6 months ago
Is this where Rinpoche received the thangkha of Dream Manjushri?
Is this the ruins of Zimkhang Gongma established by Panchen Sonam Drakpa. -Choong
6 months ago
Is this the ruins of Zimkhang Gongma established by Panchen Sonam Drakpa. -Choong
We hold our DS puja weekly without fail. We welcome you to join us. Penang DS puja @ 3pm~ by Jacinta
6 months ago
We hold our DS puja weekly without fail. We welcome you to join us. Penang DS puja @ 3pm~ by Jacinta
DS PUJA @ Penang. A close up of the offerings. What a feast! #Throwback 23/7/2022.
6 months ago
DS PUJA @ Penang. A close up of the offerings. What a feast! #Throwback 23/7/2022.
#Throwback 23/7/2022. Our weekly DS puja attendees. All of us were getting ready to invite Buddhas to come forth, joining and blessing us during DS puja. Kechara Penang Study Group ~by Jacinta
6 months ago
#Throwback 23/7/2022. Our weekly DS puja attendees. All of us were getting ready to invite Buddhas to come forth, joining and blessing us during DS puja. Kechara Penang Study Group ~by Jacinta
#Throwback23/7/2022 Welcoming Buddha Shakyamuni, Gyenze, Shize & Namgyalma to Penang chapel. Abundance offerings, including sensory offerings were nicely set up and offered up to Buddha surfing our weekly DS puja @ 3pm, Jalan Seang Tek, Penang ~by Jacinta
6 months ago
#Throwback23/7/2022 Welcoming Buddha Shakyamuni, Gyenze, Shize & Namgyalma to Penang chapel. Abundance offerings, including sensory offerings were nicely set up and offered up to Buddha surfing our weekly DS puja @ 3pm, Jalan Seang Tek, Penang ~by Jacinta
Kechara Earth Project 17 July 2022
7 months ago
Kechara Earth Project 17 July 2022
Kechara Earth Project 12 June 2022
8 months ago
Kechara Earth Project 12 June 2022
#Throwback. Visitation of Ven. Zawa Tulku Rinpoche and Ven. Geshe Jangchup Gyaltsen to Kechara Penang Chapel on 17/5/2022. We did a short prayers together. Really happy for the short visit. Kechara Penang Study Group~ by Jacinta
8 months ago
#Throwback. Visitation of Ven. Zawa Tulku Rinpoche and Ven. Geshe Jangchup Gyaltsen to Kechara Penang Chapel on 17/5/2022. We did a short prayers together. Really happy for the short visit. Kechara Penang Study Group~ by Jacinta
Photo from JC
8 months ago
Photo from JC
Trying to WE-fie. Do we get that just alright, lol? Come and join us next time at Jalan Seang Tek, Kechara Penang Chapel. Celebrate Wesak with us ~ by Jacinta
9 months ago
Trying to WE-fie. Do we get that just alright, lol? Come and join us next time at Jalan Seang Tek, Kechara Penang Chapel. Celebrate Wesak with us ~ by Jacinta
Trying to "WE-fie". Do we get that just alright, lol? Come and join us next time at Jalan Seang Tek, Kechara Penang Chapel. Celebrate Wesak with us ~ by Jacinta
9 months ago
Trying to "WE-fie". Do we get that just alright, lol? Come and join us next time at Jalan Seang Tek, Kechara Penang Chapel. Celebrate Wesak with us ~ by Jacinta
Celebrated Wesak Day 2022 in Penang, with a group of fun, committed, helpful and also devoted friends & family. Kechara Penang Study Group 15/5/2022 ~by Jacinta
9 months ago
Celebrated Wesak Day 2022 in Penang, with a group of fun, committed, helpful and also devoted friends & family. Kechara Penang Study Group 15/5/2022 ~by Jacinta
Vesak Day 2022 - Bird liberation. Kechara Penang Study Group ~by Jacinta
9 months ago
Vesak Day 2022 - Bird liberation. Kechara Penang Study Group ~by Jacinta
All attendees are paying homage to Rinpoche and Buddhas before the start of our weekly Dorje Shugden puja. Outwardly, it seems that Dorje Shugden helps practitioners overcoming their obstacles and problems but ultimately Dorje Shugden’s supreme purpose is to help practitioners on their path to Enlightenment. Do join in our weekly DS puja, every Saturday @3 pm at Jalan Seang Tek, Penang. ~by Jacinta
9 months ago
All attendees are paying homage to Rinpoche and Buddhas before the start of our weekly Dorje Shugden puja. Outwardly, it seems that Dorje Shugden helps practitioners overcoming their obstacles and problems but ultimately Dorje Shugden’s supreme purpose is to help practitioners on their path to Enlightenment. Do join in our weekly DS puja, every Saturday @3 pm at Jalan Seang Tek, Penang. ~by Jacinta
All of us are practicing on how to properly use dorje(Vajra), bell and damaru ~ Kechara Penang Study Group by Jacinta
9 months ago
All of us are practicing on how to properly use dorje(Vajra), bell and damaru ~ Kechara Penang Study Group by Jacinta
After inviting Dorje Shugden Wangze, Pastor Seng Piow teaches us how to use ritual objects and the full set of prayer accompanying it. Kechara Penang Study Group ~by Jacinta
9 months ago
After inviting Dorje Shugden Wangze, Pastor Seng Piow teaches us how to use ritual objects and the full set of prayer accompanying it. Kechara Penang Study Group ~by Jacinta
With great happiness, merits and excitement that Penang Group have invited Buddha Wangzey to Penang chapel, complete with full rituals and prayer. 30th April 2022 Kechara Penang Study Group ~by Jacinta
9 months ago
With great happiness, merits and excitement that Penang Group have invited Buddha Wangzey to Penang chapel, complete with full rituals and prayer. 30th April 2022 Kechara Penang Study Group ~by Jacinta
Come and get your blessing from Lama Tsongkhapa and Dorje Shugden in Penang @ Jalan Seang Tek ~ by Jacinta.
10 months ago
Come and get your blessing from Lama Tsongkhapa and Dorje Shugden in Penang @ Jalan Seang Tek ~ by Jacinta.
Special thanks to one of our dedicated Penang group members, Choong for superb tormas. Swift Return Puja @ every Saturday, 3pm. Do contact William for more info ~ by Jacinta
10 months ago
Special thanks to one of our dedicated Penang group members, Choong for superb tormas. Swift Return Puja @ every Saturday, 3pm. Do contact William for more info ~ by Jacinta
Thanks to William for being the Umze for Swift Return Puja at Penang Centre. ~ by Jacinta
10 months ago
Thanks to William for being the Umze for Swift Return Puja at Penang Centre. ~ by Jacinta
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Dorje Shugden
Click to watch my talk about Dorje Shugden....