Kalmyk People’s Origin – VERY INTERESTING

Sep 21, 2010 | Views: 25,544

 

Regions with significant populations

Kalmyks in Russia
172,000

Oirats in Mongolia
205,000

Oirats in China
139,000

Languages
Kalmyk, Russian

Religion
– Predominantly Tibetan Buddhism
– Minority Orthodox Christianity

Related ethnic groups
Oirats, Mongols, Buryats

Kalmyk people (or Kalmyks) (Kalmyk: Хальмгуд, Halm’gud) is the name given to the Oirats, western Mongols in Russia, whose descendants migrated from Dzhungaria in 1607. Today they form a majority in the autonomous Republic of Kalmykia on the western shore of the Caspian Sea. Kalmykia is Europe’s only Buddhist government. Through emigration, small Kalmyk communities have been established in the United States, France, Germany, Switzerland, and the Czech Republic.

 

Early history of the Oirats

An illustration of the Kalmyk exodus from Russia to Dzungaria, an image by Charles Michel Geoffroy, 1845

An illustration of the Kalmyk exodus from Russia to Dzungaria in 1771, an image by Charles Michel Geoffroy, 1845

The Kalmyks are a branch of the Oirats whose ancient grazing lands are now located in Kazakhstan, Russia, Mongolia and the People’s Republic of China. After the fall of the Yuan Dynasty in 1368, the Oirats emerged as a formidable foe against the Eastern Mongols, the Ming Chinese and their successor, the Manchu who founded the Qing Dynasty, in a nearly 400 year military struggle for domination and control over both Inner Mongolia and Outer Mongolia. The struggle ended in 1757 with the defeat of the Oirats in Dzungaria, the last of the Mongol groups to resist vassalage to China (Grousset, 1970: 502-541).

At the start of this 400-year era, the Western Mongol people designated themselves as Dörben Oirat (“Four Oirats”). The alliance comprised four major Western Mongol tribes: Khoshut, Choros, Torghut and Dörbet. Collectively, the Dörben Oirat sought to position themselves as an alternative to the Mongols who were the patrilineal heirs to the legacy of Genghis Khan.

In furtherance of its military objectives, the Dörben Oirat incorporated neighbouring tribes or splinter groups of them so that there was a great deal of fluctuation in the composition of the alliance with larger tribes dominating or absorbing the smaller ones. Smaller tribes belonging to the confederation include the Khoits, Zakhchin, Bayids and Mangits.

A portrait of Oirat caravan taken in the early 20th century

Portrait of an Oirat caravan taken in the early 20th century

Together, these tribes roamed the grassy plains of western Inner Asia, between Lake Balkhash in present-day eastern Kazakhstan and Lake Baikal in present-day Russia, north of central Mongolia, where they freely pitched their yurt (gher) and kept their herds of cattle, flock of sheep, horses, donkeys and camels.

Paul Pelliot translated the name “Torghut” as garde de jour. He wrote that the Torghuts owed their name either to the memory of the guard of Genghis Khan or, as descendants of the Keraits, to the old garde de jour which existed among the Keraits, as we know from the Secret History of the Mongols, before it was taken over by Genghis Khan (Pelliot, 1930:30).

Lake Baikal

Lake Baikal

 

Period of open conflict

A painting of Mongolian Nomadic Life by Tsogbayar Chuluunbaatar

A painting of Mongolian nomadic life by Tsogbayar Chuluunbaatar

The Dörben Oirat was a political entity formed by the four major Oirat tribes. During 15-17th century, they established under name “10 tumen Mongols” included 4 tumen oirats and 6 tumen Mongols They re-established their traditional pastoral nomadic lifestyle during the end of the Yuan Dynasty. The Oirats formed this alliance to defend themselves against the Eastern Mongols and also to pursue the greater objective of reunifying Mongolia under their helm.

During its existence, the alliance was decentralised, informal and unstable. For instance, the Dörben Oirat did not have a central location from which it was governed, and it was not governed by a central figure for most of its existence. Further, the four Oirats did not establish a single military or even a unified monastic system. Lastly, it was not until 1640 that the Oirats adopted uniform customary laws.

As pastoral nomadists, the Oirats were organised at the tribal level where each tribe was ruled by a noyon (prince) who also functioned as the Chief Tayishi (Chieftain). The Chief Tayishi governed with the support of lesser noyons who were also called Tayisihi. These minor noyons controlled divisions of the tribe (ulus) and were politically and economically independent of the Chief Tayishi. The Chief Tayishi sought to influence and, in some cases, dominate the Chief Tayishis of the other tribes, causing inter-tribal rivalry, dissension and periodic skirmishes.

Esen, Chief Tayishi of the Choros tribe

Esen, Chief Tayishi of the Choros tribe

Under the leadership of Esen, Chief Tayishi of the Choros tribe, the Dörben Oirat unified Mongolia for a short period. After Esen’s death in 1455, the political union of the Dörben Oirat dissolved quickly, resulting in two decades of Oirat-Eastern Mongol conflict. The deadlock ended during the reign of Dayan Khan, a five-year old boy in whose name the loyal Eastern Mongol forces rallied. Dayan Khan took advantage of Oirat disunity and weakness and brought Oirats back under Mongolian rule. In doing so, he regained control of the Mongol homeland and restored the hegemony of the Eastern Mongols.

After the death of Dayan in 1543, the Oirats and the Eastern Mongols resumed their conflict. The Oirat forces thrust eastward, but Dayan’s youngest son, Geresandza, was given command of the Eastern Mongol forces and drove the Oirats to Ubsa Nor in northwest Mongolia. In 1552, after the Oirats once again challenged the Eastern Mongols, Altan Khan swept up from Inner Mongolia with Tümed and Ordos cavalry units, pushing elements of various Oirat tribes from Karakorum to the Kobdo region in northwest Mongolia, reuniting most of Mongolia in the process (Grousset, 1970:510).

The Oirats would later regroup south of the Altai Mountains in Dzungaria. But Geresandza’s grandson, Sholui Ubashi Khong Tayiji, pushed the Oirats further northwest, along the steppes of the Ob and Irtysh Rivers. Afterwards, he established a Khalkha Khanate under the name, Altan Khan, in the Oirat heartland of Dzungaria.

In spite of the setbacks, the Oirats would continue their campaigns against the Altan Khanate, trying to unseat Sholui Ubashi Khong Tayiji from Dzungaria. The continuous, back-and-forth nature of the struggle, which defined this period, is captured in the Oirat epic song “The Rout of Mongolian Sholui Ubashi Khong Tayiji,” recounting the Oirat victory over the First Khan of the Altan Khanate in 1587.

Altai Mountains

The Altai Mountains in Dzungaria

 

Resurgence of Oirat power

The statue of Altan Khan

A statue of Altan Khan

At the beginning of the 17th century, the First Altan Khan drove the Oirats westward to present-day eastern Kazakhstan. The Torghuts became the westernmost Oirat tribe, encamped in the Tarbagatai region and along the northern stretches of the Irtysh, Ishim and Tobol Rivers. Further west, the Kazakhs – a Turco-Mongol Muslim people – prevented the Torghuts from sending its trading caravans to the Muslim towns and villages located along the Syr Darya river. As a result, the Torghuts established a trading relationship with the newly established outposts of the Tsarist government whose expansion into and exploration of Siberia was motivated mostly by the desire to profit from trade with Asia.

The Khoshuts, by contrast, were the easternmost Oirat tribe, encamped near the Lake Zaisan area and the Semipalatinsk region along the lower portions of the Irtysh river where they built several steppe monasteries. The Khoshuts were adjacent to the Eastern Mongol khanates of Altan Khan and Dzasagtu Khan. Both Khanates prevented the Khoshuts and the other Oirat tribes from trading with Chinese border towns. The Khoshuts were ruled by Baibagas Khan and Güshi Khan who were the first of the Oirat leaders to convert to the Gelugpa sect.

Locked in between both tribes were the Choros, Dörbets and Khoits (collectively “Dzungars”), who were slowly rebuilding the base of power they enjoyed under the Four Oirats. The Choros were the dominant Oirat tribe of that era. Their chieftain, Khara Khula attempted to follow Esen Khan in unifying the Oirat tribes to challenge the Eastern Mongols.

The illustration of Dzungarian spearman and Kashgar "musketeer"

Illustration of a Dzungarian spearman and a Kashgar “musketeer”

Under the dynamic leadership of Khara Khula, the Dzungars stopped the expansion of the First Altan Khan and began planning the resurrection of the Dörben Oirat under the Dzungar banner. In furtherance of such plans, Khara Khula designed and built a capital city called “Kubak-sari,” on the Imil river near the modern city of Chuguchak. During his attempt to build a nation, Khara Khula encouraged diplomacy, commerce and farming. He also sought to acquire modern weaponry and build small industry, such as metal works, to supply his military.

The attempted unification of the Oirats caused dissension among the tribes and their Chief Tayishis who were independent minded but also highly regarded leaders themselves. This dissension reputedly caused Kho Orluk to move the Torghut tribe and elements of the Dörbet tribe westward to the Volga region where his descendants formed the Kalmyk Khanate. In the east, Güshi Khan took part of the Khoshut tribe to the Tsaidam and Koko Nor regions in the Tibetan plateau where he formed the Khoshut Khanate to protect Tibet and the Gelugpa sect from both internal and external enemies. Khara Khula and his descendants, by contrast, formed the Dzungars Empire to fight the Eastern Mongols.

 

Torghut migration

Volga River

Volga River

In 1618, the Torghuts and a small contingent of Dörbets chose to migrate from the upper Irtysh river region to the grazing pastures of the lower Volga River region, located south of Saratov and north of the Caspian Sea, on both banks of the Volga River. The Torghuts were led by their Tayishi, Kho Orluk. They were the largest Oirat tribe to migrate, bringing along nearly the entire tribe. The second largest Oirat tribe was the Dörbets under their Tayishi, Dalai Batur. Together they moved west through southern Siberia and the southern Urals, avoiding the more direct route that would have taken them through the heart of the territory of their enemy, the Kazakhs. En route, they raided Russian settlements and Kazakh and Bashkir encampments.

Many theories have been advanced to explain the reasons for the migration. One generally accepted theory is that there may have been discontent among the Oirat tribes, which arose from the attempt by Khara Khula, Tayishi of the Dzungars, to centralise political and military control over the tribes under his leadership. Some scholars, however, believe that the Torghuts sought uncontested pastures as their territory was being encroached upon by the Russians from the north, the Kazakhs from the south and the Dzungars from the east. The encroachments resulted in overcrowding of people and livestock, thereby diminished the food supply. Lastly, a third theory suggests that the Torghuts grew weary of the militant struggle between the Oirats and the Altan Khanate.

 

Period of self rule, 1630-1724

The image of the former Astrakhan Khanate

An illustration of the former Astrakhan Khanate

Upon arrival to the lower Volga region in 1630, the Oirats encamped on land that was once part of the Astrakhan Khanate, but was now claimed by the Tsarist government. The region was lightly populated, from south of Saratov to the Russian garrison at Astrakhan and on both the east and the west banks of the Volga River. The Tsarist government was not ready to colonize the area and was in no position to prevent the Oirats from encamping in the region. But it had a direct political interest in insuring that the Oirats would not become allied with its Turkic-speaking neighbours.

The Oirats quickly consolidated their position by expelling the majority of the native inhabitants, the Nogai Horde. Large groups of Nogais fled southeast to the northern Caucasian plain and east to the Black Sea steppe, lands claimed by the Crimean Khanate, itself a vassal or ally of Ottoman Turks. Smaller groups of Nogais sought the protection of the Russian garrison at Astrakhan. The remaining nomadic tribes became vassals of the Oirats.

At first, an uneasy relationship existed between the Russians and the Oirats. Mutual raiding by the Oirats of Russian settlements and by the Cossacks and the Bashkirs (Muslim vassals of the Russians) of Oirat encampments was commonplace. Numerous oaths and treaties were signed to ensure Oirat loyalty and military assistance. Although the Oirats became subjects of the Tsar, such allegiance by the Oirats was deemed to be nominal.

An image of Oirat manuscript in "clear script" (todo bichig)

Image of an Oirat manuscript in “clear script” (todo bichig)

In reality, the Oirats governed themselves pursuant to a document known as the Great Code of the Nomads (Iki Tsaadzhin Bichig). The Code was promulgated in 1640 by them, their brethren in Dzungaria and some of the Eastern Mongols who all gathered near the Tarbagatai Mountains in Dzungaria to resolve their differences and to unite under the banner of the Gelugpa sect. Although the goal of unification was not met, the summit leaders did ratify the Code, which regulated all aspects of nomadic life.

Ayuka Khan

Ayuka Khan

In securing their position, the Oirats became a borderland power, often allying themselves with the Tsarist government against the neighboring Muslim population. During the era of Ayuka Khan, the Oirats rose to political and military prominence as the Tsarist government sought the increased use Oirat cavalry in support of its military campaigns against the Muslim powers in the south, such as Persia, the Ottoman Empire, the Nogays and the Kuban Tatars and Crimean Khanate. Ayuka Khan also waged wars against the Kazakhs, subjugated the Mangyshlak Turkmens, and made multiple expeditions against the highlanders of the North Caucasus. These campaigns highlighted the strategic importance of the Kalmyk Khanate which functioned as a buffer zone, separating Russia and the Muslim world, as Russia fought wars in Europe to establish itself as a European power.

A Kalmyk Warrior, painted by Jean-Baptiste Le Prince in 1771

A Kalmyk Warrior, painted by Jean-Baptiste Le Prince in 1771

To encourage the release of Oirat cavalrymen in support of its military campaigns, the Tsarist government increasingly relied on the provision of monetary payments and dry goods to the Oirat Khan and the Oirat nobility. In that respect, the Tsarist government treated the Oirats as it did the Cossacks. The provision of monetary payments and dry goods, however, did not stop the mutual raiding, and, in some instances, both sides failed to fulfil its promises (Halkovic, 1985:41-54).

Another significant incentive the Tsarist government provided to the Oirats was tariff-free access to the markets of Russian border towns, where the Oirats were permitted to barter their herds and the items they obtained from Asia and their Muslim neighbours in exchange for Russian goods. Trade also occurred with neighbouring Turkic tribes under Russian control, such as the Tatars and the Bashkirs. Intermarriage became common with such tribes. This trading arrangement provided substantial benefits, monetary and otherwise, to the Oirat tayishis, noyons and zaisangs.

Fred Adelman described this era as the Frontier Period, lasting from the advent of the Torghut under Kho Orluk in 1630 to the end of the great khanate of Kho Orluk’s descendant, Ayuka Khan, in 1724, a phase accompanied by little discernible acculturative change (Adelman, 1960:14-15):

There were few sustained interrelations between Kalmyks and Russians in the frontier period. Routine contacts consisted in the main of seasonal commodity exchanges of Kalmyk livestock and the products thereof for such nomad necessities as brick tea, grain, textiles and metal articles, at Astrakhan, Tsaritsyn and Saratov. This was the kind of exchange relationship between nomads and urban craftsmen and traders in which the Kalmyks traditionally engaged. Political contacts consisted of a series of treaty arrangements for the nominal allegiance of the Kalmyk Khans to Russia, and the cessation of mutual raiding by Kalmyks on the one hand and Cossacks and Bashkirs on the other. A few Kalmyk nobles became russified and nominally Christian who went to Moscow in hope of securing Russian help for their political ambitions on the Kalmyk steppe. Russian subsidies to Kalmyk nobles, however, became an effective means of political control only later. Yet gradually the Kalmyk princes came to require Russian support and to abide in Russian policy.

During the era of Ayuka Khan, the Kalmyk Khanate reached its peak of military and political power. The Khanate experienced economic prosperity from free trade with Russian border towns, China, Tibet and with their Muslim neighbours. During this era, Ayuka Khan also kept close contacts with his Oirat kinsmen in Dzungaria, as well as the Dalai Lama in Tibet.

 

From Oirat to Kalmyk

Kalmyk16

Historically, the West Mongolian tribes identified themselves by their respective tribal names. Probably, in the 15th century, the four major West Mongolian tribes formed an alliance, adopting “Dörben Oirat” as their collective name. After the alliance dissolved, the West Mongolian tribes were simply called “Oirat.” In the early 17th century, a second great Oirat State emerged, called the Dzungar Empire. While the Dzungars (initially Choros, Dörbet and Khoit tribes) were establishing their empire in Western Inner Asia, the Khoshuts were establishing the Khoshut Khanate in Tibet, protecting the Gelugpa sect from its enemies, and the Torghuts formed the Kalmyk Khanate in the lower Volga region.

After encamping, the Oirats began to identify themselves as “Kalmyk.” This named was supposedly given to them by their Muslim neighbours and later used by the Russians to describe them. The Oirats used this name in their dealings with outsiders, viz., their Russian and Muslim neighbours. But, they continued to refer to themselves by their tribal, clan, or other internal affiliations.

The name Kalmyk, however, wasn’t immediately accepted by all of the Oirat tribes in the lower Volga region. As late as 1761, the Khoshut and Dzungars (refugees from the Manchu Empire) referred to themselves and the Torghuts exclusively as Oirats. The Torghuts, by contrast, used the name Kalmyk for themselves as well as the Khoshut and Dzungars. (Khodarkovsky, 1992:8)

Generally, European scholars have identified all West Mongolians collectively as Kalmyks, regardless of their location (Ramstedt, 1935: v-vi). Such scholars (e.g. Sebastian Muenster) have relied on Muslim sources who traditionally used the word Kalmyk to describe the West Mongolians in a derogatory manner. But the West Mongolians of China and Mongolia have regarded that name as a term of abuse (Haslund, 1935:214-215). Instead, they use the name Oirat or the go by their respective tribal names, e.g., Khoshut, Dörbet, Choros, Torghut, Khoit, Bayid, Mingat, etc. (Anuchin, 1914:57).

Over time, the descendants of the Oirat migrants in the lower Volga region embraced the name Kalmyk, irrespective of their locations, viz., Astrakhan, the Don Cossack region, Orenburg, Stavropol, the Terek and the Urals. Another generally accepted name is Ulan Zalata or the “red buttoned ones” (Adelman, 1960:6).

 

Kalmyks of Volga River

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Reduction in autonomy, 1724-1771

Ubashi Khan

Ubashi Khan, the great-grandson of Ayuka Khan

After the death of Ayuka Khan in 1724, the political situation among the Kalmyks became unstable as various factions sought to be recognised as Khan. The Tsarist government also gradually chipped away at the autonomy of the Kalmyk Khanate. These policies, for instance, encouraged the establishment of Russian and German settlements on pastures the Kalmyks used to roam and feed their livestock. In addition, the Tsarist government imposed a council on the Kalmyk Khan, thereby diluting his authority, while continuing to expect the Kalmyk Khan to provide cavalry units to fight on behalf of Russia. The Russian Orthodox church, by contrast, pressured many Kalmyks to adopt Orthodoxy. By the mid-17th century, Kalmyks were increasingly disillusioned with settler encroachment and interference in its internal affairs.

In the winter of 1770-1771, Ubashi Khan, the great-grandson Ayuka Khan and the last Kalmyk Khan, decided to return his people to their ancestral homeland, Dzungaria, then under control of the Manchu Empire. The Dalai Lama was contacted to request his blessing and to set the date of departure. After consulting the astrological chart, the Dalai Lama set the return date, but at the moment of departure, the weakening of the ice on the Volga River permitted only those Kalmyks who roamed on the left or eastern bank to leave. Those on the right bank were forced to stay behind.

Under Ubashi Khan’s leadership, approximately 200,000 Kalmyks began the journey from their pastures on the left bank of the Volga River to Dzungaria. Approximately five-sixths of the Torghut tribe followed Ubashi Khan. Most of the Khoshuts, Choros and Khoits also accompanied the Torghuts on their journey to Dzungaria. The Dörbet tribe, by contrast, elected not to go at all.

After failing to stop the flight, Catherine the Great abolished the Kalmyk Khanate, transferring all governmental powers to the Governor of Astrakhan. The title of Khan was abolished. The highest native governing office remaining was the Vice-Khan who also was recognised by the government as the highest ranking Kalmyk prince. By appointing the Vice-Khan, the Tsarist government was now permanently the decisive force in Kalmyk government and affairs.

 

Life In Tsarist Russia

Tsar Alexander I presenting the Kalmyks, Cossacks and Bashkirs of Russian army to Napoleon I in Tilsit, July 9, 1807

Tsar Alexander I presenting the Kalmyks, Cossacks and Bashkirs of the Russian army to Napoleon I in Tilsit, July 9, 1807

After the 1771 exodus, the Kalmyks that remained part of the Russian Empire became under the control of the Tsarist government. They however continued their nomadic pastoral lifestyle, ranging the pastures between the Don and the Volga Rivers, wintering in the lowlands along the shores of the Caspian Sea as far as Lake Sarpa to the northwest and Lake Manych to the west. In the spring, they moved along the Don River and the Sarpa lake system, attaining the higher grounds along the Don in the summer, passing the autumn in the Sarpa and Volga lowlands. In October and November they returned to their winter camps and pastures (Krader, 1963:121 citing Pallas, vol. 1, 1776:122-123).

Despite their great loss in population, the Torghuts still remained the numerically superior and dominating Kalmyk tribe. The other Kalmyk tribes in Russia included Dörbets and Khoshuts. Elements of the Choros and Khoits tribes also were present but were too few in number to retain their ulus (divisions of a tribe) as independent administrative units. As a result, they were absorbed by the ulus of the larger tribes.

The factors that caused the 1771 exodus continued to trouble the remaining Kalmyks. In the wake of the exodus, the Torghuts joined the Cossack rebellion of Yemelyan Pugachev in hopes that he would restore the independence of the Kalmyks. After the Pugachev rebellion was defeated, Catherine the Great transferred the office of the Vice-Khan from the Torghut tribe to the Dörbet tribe, whose princes supposedly remained loyal to the government during the rebellion. Thus, the Torghuts were removed from their role as the hereditary leaders of the Kalmyk people. The Khoshuts could not challenge this political arrangement due to their smaller population size.

Tsar Paul I

Tsar Paul I

The disruptions to Kalmyk society caused by the exodus and the Torghut participation in the Pugachev rebellion precipitated a major realignment in Kalmyk tribal structure. The government divided the Kalmyks into three administrative units attached, according to their respective locations, to the district governments of Astrakhan, Stavropol and the Don and appointed a special Russian official bearing the title of “Guardian of the Kalmyk People” for purposes of administration. The government also resettled some small groups of Kalmyks along the Ural, Terek and Kuma rivers and in Siberia.

The redistricting divided the now dominant Dörbet tribe into three separate administrative units. Those in the western Kalmyk steppe were attached to the Astrakhan district government. They were called Baga (Lessor) Dörbet. By contrast, the Dörbets who moved to the northern part of the Stavropol province were called Ike (Greater) Dörbet even though their population was smaller. Finally, the Kalmyks of the Don became known as Buzava. Although they were composed of elements of all the Kalmyk tribes, the Buzava claimed descent from the Torghut tribe. Their name is derived from two tributaries of the Don River: Busgai and Busuluk. In 1798, Tsar Paul I recognised the Don Kalmyks as Don Cossacks. As such, they received the same rights and benefits as their Russian counterparts in exchange for providing national military services (Bajanowa, 1976:68-71). At the end of the Napoleonic wars, Kalmyk cavalry units in Russian service entered Paris.

Kalmyk18

Over time, the Kalmyks gradually created fixed settlements with houses and temples, in place of transportable round felt yurts. In 1865, Elista, the future capital of the Kalmyk Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was founded. This process lasted until well after the Russian Revolution.

 

Russian Revolution and Civil War

Russian soldiers joining the revolution to overthrow the Tsarist regime in February 1917

Russian soldiers joining the revolution to overthrow the Tsarist regime in February 1917

Like most people in Russia, the Kalmyks greeted the February 1917 revolution with enthusiasm. Kalmyk leaders believed that the Russian Provisional Government, which replaced the Tsarist government, would allow greater autonomy and freedom with respect to their culture, religion and economy. This enthusiasm, however, would soon dissolve after the Bolsheviks took control over the national government during the second revolution in November 1917.

After the Bolsheviks took control, various political and ethnic groups opposed to Communism organized a loose political and military coalition called the “White Movement”. A volunteer army (called the “White Army”) was raised to fight the Red Army, the military arm of the Bolshevik government. Initially, this army was composed primarily of volunteers and Tsarist supporters but were later joined by the Cossacks (including Don Kalmyks), many of whom resisted the Bolshevik policy of de-Cossackization.

The second revolution split the Kalmyk people into opposing camps. Many were dissatisfied with the Tsarist government for its historic role in promoting the colonisation of the Kalmyk steppe and in encouraging the russification of the Kalmyk people. But others also felt hostility towards Bolshevism for two reasons: (1) the loyalty of the Kalmyk people to their traditional leaders (i.e., nobility and clergy) – sources of anti-Communism – was deeply ingrained; and (2) the Bolshevik exploitation of the conflict between the Kalmyks and the local Russian peasants who seized Kalmyk land and livestock (Loewenthal, 1952:4).

The Astrakhan Kalmyk nobility, led by Prince Dmitri Tundutov of the Baga Dörbets and Prince Sereb-Djab Tiumen of the Khoshuts, expressed their anti-Bolshevik sentiments by seeking to integrate the Astrakhan Kalmyks into the military units of the Astrakhan Cossacks. But before a general mobilisation of Kalmyk horsemen could occur, the Red Army seized power in Astrakhan and in the Kalmyk steppe thereby preventing the mobilisation from occurring.

White Army in the Battle during the Russian Civil War

The White Army in battle during the Russian Civil War

After the capture of Astrakhan, the Bolsheviks engaged in savage reprisals against the Kalmyk people, especially against Buddhist temples and the Buddhist clergy (Arbakov, 1958:30-36). Eventually the Bolsheviks would draft as many as 18,000 Kalmyk horsemen in the Red Army to prevent them from joining the White Army (Borisov, 1926:84). This objective, however, failed to prevent many Red Army Kalmyk horsemen from defecting to the White side.

The majority of the Don Kalmyks also sided with the White Movement to preserve their Cossack lifestyle and proud traditions. As Don Cossacks, the Don Kalmyks first fought under White army General Anton Denikin and then under his successor, General Pyotr Wrangel. Because the Don Cossack Host to which they belonged was the main centre of the White Movement and of Cossack resistance, the battles were fought on Cossack lands and was very disastrous for the Don Cossacks as villages and entire regions changed hands repeatedly in a fratricidal conflict in which both sides committed terrible atrocities. The Don Cossacks, including the Don Kalmyks, experienced heavy military and civilian losses, either from the fighting itself or from starvation and disease induced by the war. Some argue that the Bolsheviks were guilty of the mass extermination of the Don Cossack people, killing an estimated 70 percent (or 700,000 persons) of the Don Cossack population (Heller and Nekrich, 1988:87).

By October 1920 the Red Army smashed General Wrangel’s resistance in the Crimea, forcing the evacuation of some 150,000 White army soldiers and their families to Constantinople, Turkey. A small group of Don Kalmyks managed to escape on the British and French vessels. The chaos at the Russian port city of Novorossiysk was described by Major H.N.H. Williamson of the British Military Mission to the Don Cossacks as follows:

…We could still hear scattered rifle fire and the sound of naval guns, and the Bolshevik sympathisers were sniping from the rooftops. In places Red infantry had infiltrated into the town, and were going in for murder, rape and every kind of bestiality, while explosions rocked the towns as Whites set fire to petrol tanks, and the wind blew an immense pall of smoke across the bay. The waterfront was black with people, begging to be allowed on board the ships. Some of the Kalmuk Cossacks still had their horses and the little tented carts in which they had travelled, and in the water all sorts of rubbish floated – trunks, clothes, furniture, even corpses. Conditions were appalling. The refugees were still starving and the sick and the dead lay where they had collapsed. Masses of them had even tried to rush the evacuation office and the British troops had had to disperse then at bayonet point. Women were offering jewels, everything they possessed – even themselves – for the chance of a passage. But they hadn’t a ghost of chance. The rule was only White troops, their dependents and the families of men who had worked with the British were allowed on board.

From there, this group resettled in Europe, primarily in Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia and France where its leaders remained active in the White movement. In 1922, several hundred Don Kalmyks returned home under a general amnesty. Some returnees, including Prince Dmitri Tundutov, were imprisoned and then executed soon after their return.

 

Formation of the Kalmyk Soviet Republic

 

Kalmyk Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic Top 6 Facts

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The Soviet government established the Kalmyk Autonomous Oblast in November 1920. It was formed by merging the Stavropol Kalmyk settlements with a majority of the Astrakhan Kalmyks. A small number of Don Kalmyks (Buzava) from the Don Host migrated to this Oblast. The administrative centre was Elista, a small village in the western part of the Oblast that was expanded in the 1920s to reflect its status as the capital of the Oblast.

In October 1935, the Kalmyk Autonomous Oblast was reorganised into the Kalmyk Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. The chief occupations of the Republic were cattle breeding, agriculture, including the growing of cotton and fishing. There was no industry.

 

Collectivization

 

Collectivisation Documentary

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In 1929 Joseph Stalin ordered the forced collectivisation of agriculture, forcing the Astrakhan Kalmyks to abandon their traditional nomadic pastoralist lifestyle and to settle in villages. All Kalmyk herdsmen owning more than 500 sheep were deported to labor camps in Siberia. Kalmyk resistance to Stalin’s collectivisation campaign and the famine that was induced by such campaign resulted in the deaths of a substantial number of Kalmyks.

In the 1930s, Stalin ordered the closure of all Buddhist monasteries and libraries, burning temples and religious texts in the process[citation needed]. The Buddhist clergy was either shot or condemned to long terms of confinement in the labor camps in Siberia where they all perished.

 

World War II and exile

A Kalmyk guardsman during World War II

A Kalmyk guardsman during World War II

In June 1941 the German army invaded the Soviet Union, taking control of the Kalmyk Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. In December 1942, however, the Red Army liberated the Republic from German control. On 28 December 1943, the Soviet government accused the Kalmyks of collaborating with the Germans and deported the entire population, including Kalmyk Red Army soldiers, to various locations in Central Asia and Siberia. Within 24 hours the population transfer occurred at night during winter without notice in unheated cattle cars.

According to N. F. Bugai, the leading Russian expert on deportations, 4.9% of the Kalmuk population died during the first three months of 1944; 1.5% in the first three months of 1945; and 0.7% in the same period of 1946. From 1945-1950 15,206 Kalmuks died and 7843 were born.

The Kalmyk Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was quickly dissolved. Its territory was divided and transferred to the adjacent regions, viz., the Astrakhan and Stalingrad Oblasts and Stavropol Krai. Since no Kalmuks lived there any longer the Soviet authorities changed the names of towns and villages from Kalmyk names to Russian names. For example, Elista became Stepnoi.

 

Return from Siberian exile

Nikita Khrushchev

Nikita Khrushchev

In 1957, Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev permitted the Kalmyk people to return to their home. Upon return, however, the Kalmyks found their homeland had become settled by Russians and Ukrainians, many of whom chose to remain. On January 9, 1957, Kalmykia once again became an autonomous oblast, and on 29 July 1958, an autonomous republic within the Russian SFSR.

In the following years bad planning of agricultural and irrigation projects resulted in widespread desertification. In addition, industrial plants were constructed without an analysis of the economic viability of such plants.

In 1992, after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Kalmykia chose to remain an autonomous republic of the successor government, the Russian Federation. The dissolution, however, facilitated the collapse of the economy at both the national and the local level, causing widespread economic and social hardship. The resulting upheaval caused many young Kalmyks to leave Kalmykia, especially in the rural areas, for economic opportunities in and outside the Russian Federation.

 

Treatment as non-Mongols

Kalmyk26

Historically, the Eastern Mongols regarded the Oirats as non-Mongols. The name “Mongols,” the title “Khan,” and the historic legacy attached to that name and title were claimed exclusively by the Eastern Mongols, viz., the Halh, Chahar and Tümed tribes.[dubious – discuss] They considered this claim as their birthright, since their lineage was traced back directly to the Mongolian Yuan Dynasty and its progenitor, Genghis Khan.

Until the mid-17th century, when bestowal of the title of Khan was transferred to the Dalai Lama, all Mongol tribes recognized this claim and the political prestige attached to it. Although the Oirats could not assert this claim prior to the mid-17th century, they did in fact have a close connection to Genghis Khan by virtue of the fact that Genghis Khan’s brother, Hasar, was in command of the Khoshut tribe.

In response to the Western Mongols’ self-designation as the “Dörben Oirat” (Four Oirat), the Eastern Mongols began to refer to themselves as the “Döchin Mongols” (Forty Mongols), expressed otherwise as “Döchin Dörben Khoyar” (The Forty and Four). This means that the Eastern Mongols claimed to have forty tümen (a cavalry unit of 10,000 horsemen) to the four tümen maintained by the Dörben Oirat. Simply put, it’s another way for them to clearly separate themselves from the Oirats (Khodarkovsky, 1992:7). Ironically, by the early 1690s, the Dzungar (successor state to the Dörben Oirat) attacks against the Eastern Mongols were so persistent and ferocious, the Eastern Mongol princes voluntarily led their people and Outer Mongolia into submission to the Manchu state.

Until recently, the Oirats (including the Kalmyks) have not recognized themselves as Mongols. Nor have they considered themselves Western Mongols. Nevertheless, the close relationship among all Mongolian-speaking peoples, principally the Kalmyks, Oirats, Khalkhas and Buriats, is evident from the well-established fact that they all:

  1. Share similar physical features with the Mongol people
  2. Speak languages known by their close linguistic affinity;
  3. Adhere to Tibetan Buddhism; and
  4. Maintain similar customs and traditions, despite centuries of internecine warfare and extensive and far-reaching migrations (Bormanshinov, 1990:3)

It is also noted that they share similar sub-tribal names as well, e.g., Kereit, Taichuud, Mergid and Chonos.

A recent publication of genetic studies of the Kalmyks seem to support their Mongol origins as well.

The genetic results support the historical record in that they indicate a close relationship between Kalmyks and Mongolians. Moreover, the genetic results indicate that the Kalmyk migration involved substantial numbers of individuals, and that Kalmyks have not experienced detectable admixture with Russians.

The Kalmyks’ ability to maintain a mostly homogenous existence contrasts with the Russian admixture with other similar people, “as there is evidence for Russian admixture with Yakuts,” for example. Thus far, genetic analysis of the Kalmyks supports their Mongol roots that also shows that entire families of Kalmyks moved to Volga region and not simply males as is generally the case with most nomadic tribal groups.

 

Origin of the name “Kalmyk”

The name “Kalmyk” is a word of Turkic origin that means “remnant” or “to remain.” Turkic tribes may have used this name as early as the thirteenth century. Arab geographer Ibn al-Wardi is documented as the first person to use the term in referring to the Oirats in the fourteenth century (Khodarkovsky, 1992:5 citing Bretschneider, 1910:2:167). The khojas of Kashgaria applied the name to Oirats in the fifteenth century (Grousset, 1970:506). Russian written sources mentioned the name “Kolmak Tatars” as early as 1530, and cartographer Sebastian Muenster (1488–1552) circumscribed the territory of the “Kalmuchi” on a map in his Cosmographia, which was published in 1544. The Oirats themselves, however, did not accept the name as their own.

 

Subgroups

There are three main ethnic subgroups of Kalmyks: Torghut, Dörbet, and Buzava. The Torghuts are numerically dominant. The Buzavs are a small minority and are considered to be the most russified Kalmyks.

 

Location

The map  illustration of the Republic of Kalmykia

The Republic of Kalmykia – click to enlarge

The Kalmyks live primarily in the Republic of Kalmykia, a federal subject of Russia. Kalmykia is located in the southeast European part of Russia, between the Volga and the Don rivers. It has borders with the Republic of Dagestan in the south; the Stavropol Krai in the southwest; and the Rostov Oblast and the Volgograd Oblast in the west and the northwest, respectively. Its eastern border is the Astrakhan Oblast. The southeast border is the Caspian Sea.

After the collapse of the Soviet Union, a large number of Kalmyks, primarily the young, moved from Kalmykia to larger cities in Russia, such as Moscow and St. Petersburg, and to the United States. The move was precipitated by the desire of these Kalmyks to pursue better educational and economic opportunities and continues today.

 

Religion

Kalmyk lamas in front of a Kalmyk buddhist temple or also known as a khurul

Kalmyk lamas in front of a Kalmyk buddhist temple which is known as a ‘Khurul’ in Kalmyk

The Kalmyks are the only inhabitants of Europe whose national religion is Buddhism. They embraced Buddhism in the early part of the 17th century and belong to the Tibetan Buddhist sect known as the Gelugpa (Virtuous Way). The Gelugpa are commonly referred to as the Yellow Hat sect. The religion is derived from the Indian Mahayana form of Buddhism. In the West, it is commonly referred to as Lamaism, from the name of the Tibetan monks, the lamas (“heavy with wisdom”). Prior to their conversion, the Kalmyks practiced shamanism.

Historically, Kalmyk clergy received their training either on the steppe or in Tibet. The pupils who received their religious training on the steppe joined Kalmyk monasteries, which were active centers of learning. Many of these monasteries operated out of felt tents, which accompanied the Kalmyk tribes as they migrated. The Oirats maintained tent monasteries throughout present-day eastern Kazakhstan and along the migratory route they took across southern Siberia to the Volga. They also maintained tent monasteries around Lake Issyk Kul in present-day Kyrgyzstan.

The Oirats also built stone monasteries in the regions of eastern Kazakhstan. For instance, the remains of stone Buddhist monasteries have been found at Almalik and at Kyzyl-Kent. In addition, there was a great Buddhist monastery in Semipalatinsk (seven palaces), which derives its name from that seven-halled Buddhist temple. Further, remains of Buddhist monasteries have been found at Ablaiket near Ust Kamenogorsk and at Talgar, near Almaty, and at Sumbe in the Narynkol region, bordering China.

A Kalmyk Buddhist Temple near Astrakhan in the 1890s

A Kalmyk Buddhist Temple near Astrakhan in the 1890s

Upon completion of training, Kalmyk clergy dispensed not only spiritual guidance but also medical advice. As clergyman, the Kalmyk lamas enjoyed great political clout among the nobility and held a strong influence over the general tribal population. For many commoners, the only path to literacy and prestige was to join the Kalmyk monastic system.

As a matter of policy, the Tsarist government and the Russian Orthodox Church sought to gradually absorb and convert any subject of another creed or nationality. The aim of the policy was to eliminate foreign influence and to entrench newly annexed areas. The baptized indigenous population would then become loyal to the Russian empire and would agree to be governed by Russian officials.

The Kalmyks migrated to territory annexed by the Tsarist government and were subject to this policy as long as they remained in this territory. At first, the policies contributed to the conversion of the Kalmyk nobility. One of the earliest converts were the children of Donduk-Ombo, the sixth Khan of the Kalmyks who reigned between 1737 and 1741, and his Circassian-born wife (See Dondukov family). Another important convert was Baksaday-Dorji, the grandson of Ayuka Khan who adopted the Christian name, Peter Taishin. Each conversion was motivated by political ambition to become the Kalmyk Khan. Kalmyk Tayishis, by contrast, were given salaries and towns and settlements were established for them and their ulus (Khodarkovsky, 1992:39).

Illustration of a Khurul 's interior

Illustration of a Khurul’s interior

Later on, the Tsarist government policy of encouraging Russian and German settlements along the Volga indirectly pressured Kalmyks to convert for economic reasons. The settlers took the most fertile land along the river, leaving barren lands for the Kalmyks to graze their herds. The resulting reduction of herds led to impoverishment for Kalmyk Tayishis, some of whom led their ulus to Christianity to obtain economic benefits.

To discourage the monastic lifestyle, the government required the building of permanent structures at government determined construction sites while imposing Russian architects (Pozdneev, 1914). This policy resulted in the suspension of Lamaist canonical regulations governing monastery construction and in Kalmyk temples resembling Russian Orthodox churches. For example, the Khoshutovsky Khurul is modeled after the Kazan Cathedral in St. Petersburg, Russia.

Other policies the Tsarist government implemented sought to gradually weaken the influence of the lamas. For instance, the government limited Kalmyk contact with Tibet. In addition, the Tsar began appointing the Šajin Lama (title of the High Lama of the Kalmyks). Further, the economic crises that resulted from settler encroachment forced many monasteries and temples to close and lamas to adopt a secularized lifestyle. The success of this policy is borne out by the decrease in the number of Kalmyk monasteries in the Volga region during the 19th century (Loewenthal, 1952 citing Riasanovsky, 1929).

Like the Tsarist government, the Communist regime was aware of the influence the Kalmyk clergy held over the general population. In the 1920s and the 1930s, the Soviet government implemented policies to eliminate religion through control and suppression. Towards that end, Kalmyk khuruls (temples) and monasteries were destroyed and property confiscated; the clergy and many believers were harassed, killed, or sent to labor camps; religious artifacts and books were destroyed; and young men were prohibited from religious training.

By 1940 all Kalmyk Buddhist temples were either closed or destroyed and the clergy systematically oppressed. Dr. Loewenthal writes that the policies were so enforced that the Kalmyk clergy and Buddhism were not mentioned in the work by B. Dzhimbinov, “Sovetskaia Kalmykiia,” published in 1940. In 1944, the Soviet government exiled all Kalmyks not fighting in the Soviet army to Central Asia and Siberia, accusing them of collaborating with the German Army. Upon rehabilitation in 1957, the Kalmyks were permitted to return home from exile, but all attempts by them to restore their religion and to build a temple failed.

By the 1980s, the Soviet campaign against religion was so successful that a majority of the Kalmyks had never received any formal spiritual guidance. By the late 1980s, however, the Soviet government reversed course and implemented policies favoring the liberalization of religion. As a result, the first Buddhist community was organized in 1988. By 1995, there were 21 Buddhist temples, 17 places of worship for various Christian denominations, and 1 mosque in the Republic of Kalmykia (Grin, 2000:7).

On December 27, 2005, a new khurul opened in Elista, the capital of the Republic of Kalmykia. The khurul was named “Burkhan Bakshin Altan Sume”. It is the largest Buddhist temple in Europe. The government of the Republic of Kalmykia sought to build a magnificent temple of a monumental scale in hopes of creating an international learning center for Buddhist scholars and students from all over the world. More significantly, the temple is a monument to the Kalmyk people who died in exile between 1944 and 1957.

The Golden Temple of Shakyamuni Buddha at Elista, the Republic of Kalmykia

The Golden Temple of Shakyamuni Buddha at Elista, the Republic of Kalmykia

The Kalmyks of Kyrgyzstan live primarily in the Karakol region of eastern Kyrgyzstan. They are referred to as “Sart Kalmyks.” The origin of this name is unknown. Likewise, it is not known when, why and from where this small group of Kalmyks migrated to eastern Kyrgyzstan. Due to their minority status, the Sart Kalmyks have adopted the Turkic language and culture of the majority Kyrgyz population. As a result, nearly all now belong to the Muslim faith.

Although Sart Kalmyks are Muslims, Kalmyks elsewhere by and large remain faithful to the Gelugpa Order of Tibetan Buddhism. In Kalmykia, for example, the Gelugpa Order with the assistance of the government has constructed numerous Buddhist temples. In addition, the Kalmyk people recognize Tenzin Gyatso, 14th Dalai Lama as their spiritual leader and Erdne Ombadykow, a Kalmyk American, as the supreme lama of the Kalmyk people. The Dalai Lama has visited Elista on a number of occasions.

Kalmyk29

 

Language

Kalmyk31

According to Robert G. Gordon, Jr., editor of the Ethnologue: Languages of the World, the Kalmyk-Oirat language belongs to the eastern branch of the Mongolian language division. Gordon further classifies Kalmyk-Oirat under the Oirat-Khalkha group, since he contends that Kalmyk-Oirat is related to Khalkha Mongolian – the national language of Mongolia.

Other linguists, such as Nicholas N. Poppe, have classified the Kalmyk-Oirat language group as belonging to the western branch of the Mongolian language division, since the language group developed separately and is distinct. Moreover, Poppe contends that, although there is little phonetic and morphological difference, Kalmyk and Oirat are two distinct languages. The major distinction is in their lexicons. The Kalmyk language, for example, has adopted many words of Russian origin. Consequently, mainly on lexiconal grounds, Kalmyk is classified as a distinct language (Poppe 1970).

By population, the major dialects of Kalmyk are Torghut, Dörbet and Buzava (Bormanshinov 1990). Minor dialects include Khoshut and Olöt. The Kalmyk dialects vary somewhat, but the differences are insignificant. Generally, the Russian Language less influenced the dialects of the pastoral nomadic Kalmyk tribes of the Volga region.

In contrast, the Dörbets (and later on, Torghuts) who migrated from the Volga region to the Sal’sk District of the Don region took the name Buzava (or Don Kalmyks). The Buzava dialect developed from their close interaction with Russians. In 1798 the Tsarist government recognized the Buzava as Don Cossacks, both militarily and administratively. As a result of their integration into the Don Host, the Buzava dialect incorporated many words of Russian origin. (Anon. 1914: 653-660)

During World War II, all Kalmyks not fighting in the Soviet Army were forcibly exiled to Siberia and Central Asia, where they were dispersed and not permitted to speak the Kalmyk language in public places. As a result, the Kalmyk language was not formally taught to the younger generation of Kalmyks.

Upon return from exile in 1957, the Kalmyks spoke and published primarily in Russian. Consequently, the younger generation of Kalmyks primarily speak Russian and not their own native language. This is a subject of popular concern. In recent years, attempts have been made by the Kalmyk government to revive the Kalmyk language. As such, some laws have been passed regarding the usage of Kalmyk on shop signs; for example, on entrance doors, the words ‘Entrance’ and ‘Push-Pull’ appear in Kalmyk.

The attempt to re-establish the Kalmyk language has suffered setbacks, however. Recently, the Russian Broadcasting Corporation cut broadcast time allocated to Kalmyk language programs on radio and television, choosing instead to purchase pre-produced programs, such as English language productions. This measure was undertaken to reduce production costs.

 

Immigration from China (the 2nd time)

In 2006, Kirsan Ilyumzhinov claim to prepare to immigrate 10000 people from China, since Torghuts in China speak the Torgut dialect. However, the Chinese side does not confirm the information.

 

Writing system

Zaya Pandita

Zaya Pandita

In the 17th century, Zaya Pandita, a monk belonging to the Khoshut tribe, devised a script called Todo Bichig (clear script). The script, which is based on the classical vertical Mongol script, phonetically captured the Oirat language. In the later part of the 19th and early part of the 20th centuries, todo bichig fell into disuse until the Kalmyks abandoned it in 1923 and introduced the Russian Cyrillic alphabet. But soon afterwards, around 1930, Kalmyk language scholars introduced a modified Latin alphabet, which did not last long.

 

List of modern oyirad groups

Mongolia
Торгууд, Дөрвөд (Дөрвөд дотор Хотон), Баяд, Захчин, Мянгад, Хойд, Дархад, Хошууд, Өөлд, Урианхай

China
Хөх нуур – Хошууд (Дээд Монгол)
Өвөр Монголын Алшаа аймаг – Алшаа Өөлд Хошууд, Эзнээ Торгууд
Шинжаань – Торгууд, Хошууд

Kyrgyzstan
Сарт-калмак (Хотон-Халимаг)

Russian Federation
Халимаг – Бузава (Бузаава), Торгууд, Дөрвөд, Хойд, Хошууд

USA
Халимаг – Бузава (Бузаава), Торгууд, Дөрвөд

 
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  • Ivan Nasidze, Dominique Quinque, Isabelle Dupanloup, Richard Cordaux, Lyudmila Kokshunova, Mark Stoneking, Genetic Evidence for the Mongolian Ancestry of Kalmyks, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, December 2005, 128(4):846-54. DOI 10.1002/ajpa.20159
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  • Europe’s biggest Buddhist temple opens in Kalmykia, The Buddhist Channel, 2005-12-27. Retrieved on 2008-11-01.
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  • Khoyt S.K. Last data by localisation and number of oyirad (oirat) (rar) – in russian [www.hamagmongol.narod.ru/library/pe_2008/hoyt_locnum_2008_r.htm]
  • Adelman, Fred. Kalmyk Cultural Renewal, PhD Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania,1960.
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  • Anuchin, D. “Kalmyki”, Entsiklopedicheskii Slovar Brokgauz-Efrona, XIV, St. Petersburg, 1914.
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  • Санчиров В. П. О Происхождении этнонима торгут и народа, носившего это название // Монголо-бурятские этнонимы: cб. ст. — Улан-Удэ: БНЦ СО РАН, 1996. C. 31—50.
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  • Хойт С.К. Генетическая структура европейских ойратских групп по локусам ABO, RH, HP, TF, GC, ACP1, PGM1, ESD, GLO1, SOD-A // Проблемы этнической истории и культуры тюрко-монгольских народов. Сборник научных трудов. Вып. I. Элиста: КИГИ РАН, 2009. с. 146-183.

 
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16 Responses to Kalmyk People’s Origin – VERY INTERESTING

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  1. Valentina Suhendra on Dec 14, 2018 at 5:18 am

    1984 Los Angeles-Left to right: Geshe Tsultrim Gyeltsen, His Holiness Kyabje Zong Rinpoche, monk assistant to Zong Rinpoche and the 18-year-old Tsem Rinpoche prior to ordination. Read more- https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/category/me

    ZongRinpocheAdvice-001

  2. Pastor Shin Tan on Jul 20, 2018 at 5:33 pm

    Tsem Rinpoche at Kechara Forest Retreat, Bentong, Malaysia

    TR Pic

  3. Ragnar lee on Jul 5, 2018 at 8:05 am

    Interesting history of this ppl,
    Fits in with my own search of the
    Buryat ppl and the Kalmyk ppl
    Looking at the blood type B so prevalent among them

  4. Stella Cheang on Mar 26, 2018 at 10:22 pm

    The history of the Kalmyks, also known as the Oirat-Mongolians is nothing less than dynamic. From the time of Ghengkis Khan to an independent regime under the Tsardom and to the recent tragic during the Stalin Purge, Kalymks experienced glory, freedom, oppression and they survived. Even so, they have kept their culture, religion, faith and tradition in tact. It is very wonderful to see Kalmyk people live well and prosper today. Elista, the capital of Kalmykia in the Russia Federation houses the largest Buddha statue in Europe. Rejoice!

  5. Samfoonheei on Jan 9, 2018 at 11:51 am

    The name Kalmyk is the name given to western Mongolian people and later adopted by those Oirats who migrated from Central Asia to an area around the Volga River in the seventeenth century. The Kalmyks are the only inhabitants of Europe whose national religion is Buddhism, which they embraced in the early part of the seventeenth century. Kalmyks belong to the Tibetan Buddhist sect known as the Gelugpa. As it is also related to Rinpoche’s family history. The Kalmyk people has a long historical, religious, and cultural interesting background. Thank you Rinpoche for sharing this interesting read.

  6. David Lai on Nov 12, 2013 at 1:42 am

    This is indeed an interesting read. Although it is basically an intellectual read but one can’t help but feel the poignant fate of a powerful nomadic tribe that struggled to survive in hostile environments in Eastern Europe and finally America. It provides an interesting perspective of the background that Rinpoche’s foster parents came from. I guess the Kalmyk people truly found home at last in America and their uncertainty is not of survival anymore but on keeping their religious and social identity amidst the dominant American pop culture and intermarriage.

  7. […] Kalmyk People’s Origin -VERY INTERESTINGhttps://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/me/kalmyk-peoples-origin-very-interesting.html […]

  8. arn on Jan 29, 2013 at 8:34 am

    yellow hat &yellow jersey & mantras have been made for the great rider of the mountains CADEL EVANS & his family extended

  9. Jani Roszales on Oct 28, 2010 at 12:34 am

    Intriguing. Been trying to learn a different language for a while so this is extremely relevant! Thanks.

    • Wan Wai Meng on Oct 29, 2010 at 4:21 pm

      thank you carmen for sharing your insights into the Kalmyks in the US. The Kalmyks have gone to quite a lot and survived . I do feel Rinpoche picked the Kalmyk spirit of surviving against all odds and become a dharma teacher in barbaric Malaysia 🙂 . Malaysia incidentally has the lowest number of ordained people in the world, hence Malaysia is very samsaric.

  10. Carmen Koo on Oct 17, 2010 at 9:42 pm

    Its only the 4th day that we have been here in New Jersey and although each day seems to pass by so fast because we are packed with interviews with Rinpoche’s family and friends, we are all extremely motivated knowing that the result this project is going to bring is far greater than we would imagine.

    Last night, we had the utmost privilege and honour to attend a Kalmyk dinner together with Rinpoche’s family and friends at Rinpoche’s aunt (Aunt Matza’s) house that was organized by Sara (Rinpoche’s cousin). I had so much fun at the dinner; the smiles, the joy, the jokes, how close the family is, how loud everyone was, it all combined to create an atmosphere that was simple and comfortable yet highly interesting. Everyone’s smile resembled that of Rinpoche’s highly contagious grin. There was so much food, and drinks, and all of Rinpoche’s relatives and friends were very accomodating and extremely pleased to hear of Rinpoche’s dharma work in Malaysia and how beneficial it has been to society. It was a very enjoyable night that was filled with discoveries and plenty of drinks. No doubt, an experience that I will never forget (oh the food was excellent as well – they made alot of nice vegetarian dishes for us!!).

    It never fails to amaze me how much Rinpoche has put into the Dharma and what Rinpoche has achieved despite growing up in such difficult circumstances, and how Kechara has establised to what it is today. The people behind Kechara are truly inspiring.

  11. Carmen Koo on Oct 16, 2010 at 9:26 pm

    Day 3 in NJ.. The Kalmykians have a very rich history and now, quite a large population have settled in Howell, New Jersey. Mostly following Tibetan Buddhism, they have played an integral role in first bringing H.H. The Dalai Lama over to the United States and their role within the Tibetan Buddhism community here in Howell have been influential.

    Each day, not only do I learn more about Rinpoche, and more about myself but also I get to feel, to be part of, learn and understand more about a culture that has so much history and who have persevered so much to establish themselves today.

  12. Knut Eggers on Sep 26, 2010 at 4:44 pm

    I am so sorry, I would like to put more attention to this information,
    but since my time in school I have difficulties in putting my attention on historical information. Love.

  13. Shirley Maya Tan on Sep 21, 2010 at 7:37 pm

    Wow, this is really a info-rich post – I mean, really well researched and thorough. Thank you so much for always educating us, Rinpoche.

    Rinpoche truly finds all kinds of ways to enrich our minds.

    I will take my time to read and re-read this post in order to understand it fully. As it is also related to Rinpoche’s family history, it is extra important and special.

    Thank you again, Rinpoche.

  14. Sharon Saw on Sep 21, 2010 at 11:43 am

    Thank you for posting this fantastic history of the Kalmyks, which is part of Rinpoche’s genealogy as a descendant of the Torghuts royalty. Most people would not associate Buddhism with this region and not know that it’s the only republic in Europe that has Buddhism as its state religion! It’s also not coincidence that Rinpoche’s cousin, HE Telo Rinpoche, is the head of Kalmyk Buddhists.

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Blog Chat

BLOG CHAT

Dear blog friends,

I’ve created this section for all of you to share your opinions, thoughts and feelings about whatever interests you.

Everyone has a different perspective, so this section is for you.

Tsem Rinpoche


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UPCOMING TOPICS FOR DEC / 十二月份讨论主题

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Be friendly

Remember that these are real people you are chatting with. They may have different opinions to you and come from different cultures. Treat them as you would face to face, and respect their opinions, and they will treat you the same.

Be Patient

Give the room a chance to answer you. Patience is a virtue. And if after awhile, people don't respond, perhaps they don't know the answer or they did not see your question. Do ask again or address someone directly. Do not be offended if people do not or are unable to respond to you.

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Be polite

Avoid the use of language or attitudes which may be offensive to others. If someone is disrespectful to you, ignore them instead of arguing with them.

Please be advised that anyone who contravenes these guidelines may be banned from the chatroom. Banning is at the complete discretion of the administrator of this blog. Should anyone wish to make an appeal or complaint about the behaviour of someone in the chatroom, please copy paste the relevant chat in an email to us at care@kechara.com and state the date and time of the respective conversation.

Please let this be a conducive space for discussions, both light and profound.

KECHARA FOREST RETREAT PROGRESS UPDATES

Here is the latest news and pictorial updates, as it happens, of our upcoming forest retreat project.

The Kechara Forest Retreat is a unique holistic retreat centre focused on the total wellness of body, mind and spirit. This is a place where families and individuals will find peace, nourishment and inspiration in a natural forest environment. At Kechara Forest Retreat, we are committed to give back to society through instilling the next generation with universal positive values such as kindness and compassion.

For more information, please read here (english), here (chinese), or the official site: retreat.kechara.com.

Noticeboard

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  • Samfoonheei
    Wednesday, Dec 19. 2018 02:10 PM
    Kyabje Zong Rinpoche’s profound advice reaches many across the globe. Kyabje Zong Rinpoche’s penetrating insights into everything he has advice and had a profound effect on those who hear his powerful voice. Hearing his voice is already a blessing as he was an erudite highly accomplished spiritual master who returned to our world lifetime after lifetime for the benefits of all sentient beings.. His explanation on the benefits of this powerful Dharma Protector of Dorje Shugden’s practice and lineage will bring a remarkable knowledge to those who is still doubtful about it.
    Thank you Rinpoche for this sharing.

    https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/one-minute-story/kyabje-zong-rinpoches-profound-advice-reaches-many
  • Sofi
    Wednesday, Dec 19. 2018 01:30 AM
    Mongols believed 5th Dalai Lama was someone else!

    Interesting! Who and why would the Mongolians believe that the 5th Dalai Lama should be someone else? An insight into the politics of Tibetan Religious Hierarchy and treachery that exists even in Buddhist communities.

    https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/dorje-shugden/mongols-believed-5th-dalai-lama-was-someone-else.html
  • Sofi
    Wednesday, Dec 19. 2018 01:25 AM
    Powerhouse Pujas in December 2018. Don’t Miss Out!

    Reminder! Pujas by Kechara with monks for powerful blessings. Make your date available to attend with your family. Good welcome for the New Year.

    Powerhouse Pujas in December 2018. Don’t Miss Out!
  • Sofi
    Wednesday, Dec 19. 2018 01:22 AM
    Vows: The Roots of All Attainments

    Have you ever thought of this? Why do Buddhists take Vows? What are the benefits and what vows to take? Are vows binding and restricting us from freedom? Find out more from this comprehensive post.

    https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/students-friends/vows-the-roots-of-all-attainments.html
  • Lin Mun
    Tuesday, Dec 18. 2018 10:10 PM
    There are just so many points to prove that the allegation towards Dorje Shugden is a spirit is wrong. Tibetan Buddhism stress on lineage, origins and transmission teaching from the lineage master. How can the lineage master such as Pabongka Rinpoche and Trijang Rinpoche be wrong in giving Dorje Shugden practise. If it is so, then HH Dalai Lama would be wrong too since he follow the teaching from his Guru, HH Trijang Rinpoche.

    If Dorje Shugden is indeed a spirit, then all the high lamas would have broken their vow and reborn in the lower realms. But many highly attained lamas reincarnate and continue to spread the dharma for example, HH Trijang Rinpoche, HH Zong Rinpoche and many more.

    Therefore it is important for us to understand the ban and the real reason it is initiated by CTA , of which is driven by personal agenda.

    https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/great-lamas-masters/our-lama-vs-the-dalai-lama-the-underlying-reasons-for-the-ban.html
  • Lin Mun
    Tuesday, Dec 18. 2018 09:49 PM
    Wonderful news and great way to end the 2018. Everyone will have the opportunities to engage in all the powerful pujas in the holy land and with monks from monastery. An opportunity not to be missed. Thank you Rinpoche for organising these pujas.

    https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/kechara-13-depts/powerhouse-pujas-in-december-2018-dont-miss-out.html
  • Yee Yin
    Tuesday, Dec 18. 2018 05:35 PM
    Do you do meditation? Meditation is a very good way to calm ourselves and our mind down and observe our own thinking. In the UK, some of the schools have introduced meditation session to the school children. In some of the prisons in the US, meditation is also introduced to the prisoners to help them calm their mind. Meditation is not a religious practice but a practice that can be carried out by anyone for their wellbeings. Read here to see how people around the world are meditating for a better wellbeing.

    https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/etc/6-incredible-global-mass-meditation.html
    [no sender]
  • Chris
    Tuesday, Dec 18. 2018 05:35 PM
    Thank you, Rinpoche and the blog team for this amazing article. Panchen Sonam Drakpa, in my opinion, is the most erudite and powerful lama among all other Dorje Shugden’s incarnations. He is the only who served as the Gaden Tripa as well as the Abbot of all three major monasteries of the Gelug traditions

    There are no other lamas in the history that manage to do that. This is how good he is. So, how can a high lama with such calibre or attainments become an evil spirit when he dies? Lamas that have such attainments or accomplishment will be regarded as enlightened due to the nature of their work. Minds that have such level of attainments will not degenerate, unlike normal minds.

    Hence, it is not logical to say that the reincarnation of this very same mind which is Tulku Drakpa Gyeltsen will become an evil spirit that will harm Tibet and also His Holiness the Dalai Lama. It is just not possible. Anyone that actually knows a little bit about Tibetan Buddhism will be able to know that it is a lie. That is why it is safe for us to conclude that Dorje Shugden is an enlightened protector because before he arose as a Dharma Protector, his mind had already reached enlightenment.

    https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/buddhas-dharma/the-most-illustrious-panchen-sonam-drakpa.html
  • Yee Yin
    Tuesday, Dec 18. 2018 05:25 PM
    A reincarnated lama will often do things that are similar to what he was doing in his previous lives. For Tsem Rinpoche, his immediate previous life was Kentrul Rinpoche Thubten Lamsang. Kentrul Rinpoche was sent to a remote area in Tibet by his teacher, Trijang Rinpoche to spread Dharma. The place he went to was considered a ‘barbaric’ place because people there did not know Dharma. Similarly, in this life, Tsem Rinpoche was sent by his teacher to Malaysia to spread Dharma. Even though there are many Buddhists in Malaysia but many of us do not really know Dharma, so this is also considered to be a barbaric place. Read the article below and you will find more similarities between these 2 life times.

    https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/autobiography/kentrul-thubten-lamsang.html
    [no sender]
  • Yee Yin
    Tuesday, Dec 18. 2018 05:06 PM
    Is being born in a wealthy and comfortable environment a good fortune? Is it a bad fortune if we are born in an environment where there is a lot of hardships? It is not necessarily true. Many people who are born in a wealthy family end up being a spoilt brat who doesn’t achieve much in their lives. People who have gone through much hardship often train themselves to become a better and successful person. In this article, Mr. Sung-Bong Choi has gone through a lot of hardship in his life but he did not become bitter. He works hard for what he wants and he does his best. Do read about his story here:

    https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/inspiration-worthy-words/hardship-pushes-us-to-the-top-korea.html
    [no sender]
  • Samfoonheei
    Tuesday, Dec 18. 2018 02:27 PM
    Ann Dustin Wilson is an American musician, best known as the lead singer and songwriter of the hard rock band Heart. She was listed as one of the “Top Heavy Metal Vocalists of All Time” by Hit Parader magazine. Amazing she has such a powerful soprano vocal range voice for her age. She sang in tribute to Led Zeppelin where every one in the audience were stunned and moved by her songs. She was one of the most legendary and respected female voices in modern rock music.
    Thank you Rinpoche for this sharing of a super talented singer.

    https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/one-minute-story/legendary-heart
  • Samfoonheei
    Tuesday, Dec 18. 2018 02:26 PM
    Tsawa Pulthok Rinpoche a student of His Holiness Kyabje Pabongka Rinpoche. He has gone through much hardship, torture and beatings while in detention during the Chinese invasion for 19 long years. Yet he was one nice and respected Lama who kept his monk vows. He has accepted it with no hard feelings against the soldiers who has tortured him. Spending most of his remaining time in meditation, retreats and pujas for the public.
    In life all of us have the right to make decisions and have choices about how we live our life. Making our own choices about the things we do is very important because it gives us the meaning of life to be happy and those around us.
    Thank you Rinpoche for this sharing.

    https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/one-minute-story/tsawa-pulthok-rinpoche
  • Samfoonheei
    Tuesday, Dec 18. 2018 02:25 PM
    The practice of Dorje Shugden has been passed down within the Sakya lineage for several generations. Dorje Shugden was first practised by the Sakyas in the early 17th century. There were many other great Sakya throneholders who practised and proliferated Dorje Shugden Tanag within the Sakya tradition. This unique form of Dorje Shugden riding on a black horse can found on numerous older Sakya thangkas. We are fortunate able to see now with this new printing as shown in this post.
    Thank you Rinpoche for this sharing.

    https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/one-minute-story/sakya-dorje-shugden-tanag
  • Chris
    Tuesday, Dec 18. 2018 12:22 AM
    It is quite shocking to hear His Holiness the Dalai Lama to talk about refugee should go back to their own country and Europe belongs to Europeans. This is because the Tibetans have been refugees for over six decades now and they are still staying in India. If His Holiness meant what he says, then all Tibetans should move back to Tibet and develop Tibet instead of hanging around in India because India belongs to Indians.

    Why is it okay for Tibetans to stay in India for over six decades while other refugees need to return to their own country? Why is His Holiness being two-faced when it comes to this issue? Why is it okay for Tibetans to stay in India and be a freeloader for so long while other refugees from another nation need to return to their own country.

    Tibetans have been freeloading in India for over six decades now and India still continues to host them. India’s kindness should not be taken granted for and Tibetans should at least contribute back to Indian’s society. I don’t think they will be going back to Tibet looking at the current government and how they are sabotaging their chance to return to Tibet by irritating China with their actions here and there.

    https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/current-affairs/dalai-lama-says-too-many-refugees-in-europe.html
  • Sofi
    Monday, Dec 17. 2018 11:58 PM
    How to Purify Your Karma in Kechara Forest Retreat?

    Kechara Forest Retreat is so highly blessed that many miracles had been shared by the visitors. Read more here for how you can purify your karma and gain merits too.

    https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/buddhas-dharma/how-to-purify-your-karma-in-kechara-forest-retreat.html

1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · »

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The Unknown

The Known and unknown are both feared,
Known is being comfortable and stagnant,
The unknown may be growth and opportunities,
One shall never know if one fears the unknown more than the known.
Who says the unknown would be worse than the known?
But then again, the unknown is sometimes worse than the known. In the end nothing is known unless we endeavour,
So go pursue all the way with the unknown,
because all unknown with familiarity becomes the known.
~Tsem Rinpoche

Photos On The Go

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The forward on the book authored by the erudite Panchen Sonam Drakpa is highly unusual but good. The background on this great master is even more interesting. Read here- https://bit.ly/2EzT5Kx
2 days ago
The forward on the book authored by the erudite Panchen Sonam Drakpa is highly unusual but good. The background on this great master is even more interesting. Read here- https://bit.ly/2EzT5Kx
Kechara Saraswati Arts (KSA) offers a comprehensive statue and tsa tsa painting service. We are able to paint both the face and body, using traditional Tibetan techniques and materials.

KSA can transform a ‘bare’ or ‘raw’ object of art into a living masterpiece through a variety of painting techniques. There are several ‘finishes’ to choose from. Be it an ‘antique’ look, a fully-painted colourful finish or a simple ‘gold dusted look’, your imagination and heart’s wishes are fulfilled through KSA’s mastery and artistry in action.

Our team have learnt the techniques of traditional statue painting from the finest artists of India, Tibet and Nepal. Through months of intense training and practice, our talented artists have mastered the art of painting both peaceful and wrathful features.
5 days ago
Kechara Saraswati Arts (KSA) offers a comprehensive statue and tsa tsa painting service. We are able to paint both the face and body, using traditional Tibetan techniques and materials. KSA can transform a ‘bare’ or ‘raw’ object of art into a living masterpiece through a variety of painting techniques. There are several ‘finishes’ to choose from. Be it an ‘antique’ look, a fully-painted colourful finish or a simple ‘gold dusted look’, your imagination and heart’s wishes are fulfilled through KSA’s mastery and artistry in action. Our team have learnt the techniques of traditional statue painting from the finest artists of India, Tibet and Nepal. Through months of intense training and practice, our talented artists have mastered the art of painting both peaceful and wrathful features.
Unusual depiction of Lord Manjushri. I like it.
6 days ago
Unusual depiction of Lord Manjushri. I like it.
Stunning!!!
6 days ago
Stunning!!!
If we have eye problems, this is a good practice and it\'s simple- https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/?p=180488
6 days ago
If we have eye problems, this is a good practice and it's simple- https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/?p=180488
Many times in the morning my Oser girl will go sunbathe. She really enjoys it. Tsem Rinpoche
6 days ago
Many times in the morning my Oser girl will go sunbathe. She really enjoys it. Tsem Rinpoche
My Oser girl is very photogenic. Tsem Rinpoche
6 days ago
My Oser girl is very photogenic. Tsem Rinpoche
Vintage stunning thangka of Lord Tsongkapa with many other enlightened beings.
6 days ago
Vintage stunning thangka of Lord Tsongkapa with many other enlightened beings.
Beautiful antique thangka of Sakya Pandita
6 days ago
Beautiful antique thangka of Sakya Pandita
The last Lama-Ruler of Mongolia was 8th Jebtsundamba Khutughtu. He did not have a good ending as Mongolia \'fell\'. Read about him- https://bit.ly/2UD83oa
1 week ago
The last Lama-Ruler of Mongolia was 8th Jebtsundamba Khutughtu. He did not have a good ending as Mongolia 'fell'. Read about him- https://bit.ly/2UD83oa
Last Queen of Mongolia-Very interesting what happened to her and tragic too- https://bit.ly/2GcfhfF
1 week ago
Last Queen of Mongolia-Very interesting what happened to her and tragic too- https://bit.ly/2GcfhfF
The famous and powerful state oracle of Mongolia- Interesting and must read- 
 https://bit.ly/2Py3QhI
1 week ago
The famous and powerful state oracle of Mongolia- Interesting and must read- https://bit.ly/2Py3QhI
1984 Los Angeles-Left to right: Geshe Tsultrim Gyeltsen, His Holiness Kyabje Zong Rinpoche, monk assistant to Zong Rinpoche and the 18 year old Tsem Rinpoche prior to ordination. Read more-  https://bit.ly/2C5OM7l
1 week ago
1984 Los Angeles-Left to right: Geshe Tsultrim Gyeltsen, His Holiness Kyabje Zong Rinpoche, monk assistant to Zong Rinpoche and the 18 year old Tsem Rinpoche prior to ordination. Read more- https://bit.ly/2C5OM7l
Nice to see Blog Chat going on
1 week ago
Nice to see Blog Chat going on
In the middle of the metropolitan city of Bangkok near the upmarket shopping district is a chapel dedicated to Tara right in the centre of town. Lovely. Tsem Rinpoche
1 week ago
In the middle of the metropolitan city of Bangkok near the upmarket shopping district is a chapel dedicated to Tara right in the centre of town. Lovely. Tsem Rinpoche
Cheeky and cute little He Wei is telling you to get a Dorje Shugden pamphlet now!!!
1 week ago
Cheeky and cute little He Wei is telling you to get a Dorje Shugden pamphlet now!!!
My little cute Oser girl doggie is always nearby. Tsem Rinpoche
1 week ago
My little cute Oser girl doggie is always nearby. Tsem Rinpoche
Tsem Rinpoche\'s father with His Holiness the Dalai Lama. The little girl is his brother\'s daughter. Her name is Tara.
1 week ago
Tsem Rinpoche's father with His Holiness the Dalai Lama. The little girl is his brother's daughter. Her name is Tara.
Our Gyenze Chapel in Kechara Forest Retreat is visited by people from all over Malaysia now. Many have had their wishes fulfilled.
1 week ago
Our Gyenze Chapel in Kechara Forest Retreat is visited by people from all over Malaysia now. Many have had their wishes fulfilled.
Very nice class going on in Kechara Forest Retreat-Malaysia. Learning Dharma is the key to overcoming our mind that is unsettled. Tsem Rinpoche
1 week ago
Very nice class going on in Kechara Forest Retreat-Malaysia. Learning Dharma is the key to overcoming our mind that is unsettled. Tsem Rinpoche
Left to right: 103rd Gaden Tripa Lobsang Tenzin, Gaden Shartse Kensur Jampa Yeshe Rinpoche and Tsem Rinpoche.
1 week ago
Left to right: 103rd Gaden Tripa Lobsang Tenzin, Gaden Shartse Kensur Jampa Yeshe Rinpoche and Tsem Rinpoche.
Tsem Rinpoche holding the young incarnation of Zong Rinpoche in Gaden Shartse Monastery.
1 week ago
Tsem Rinpoche holding the young incarnation of Zong Rinpoche in Gaden Shartse Monastery.
In Gaden Monastery.

Left to right: Tenzin Trinley Rinpoche, Kari Kentrul Rinpoche, Zong Rinpoche, Tsem Rinpoche, Gyalkhangtse Rinpoche, Kating Rinpoche and Genpa Rinpoche. Extreme right is the senior Dorje Shugden oracle of Gaden Monastery, Choyang Dulzin Kuten.
1 week ago
In Gaden Monastery. Left to right: Tenzin Trinley Rinpoche, Kari Kentrul Rinpoche, Zong Rinpoche, Tsem Rinpoche, Gyalkhangtse Rinpoche, Kating Rinpoche and Genpa Rinpoche. Extreme right is the senior Dorje Shugden oracle of Gaden Monastery, Choyang Dulzin Kuten.
Tsem Rinpoche with the Abbots of Gaden Jangtse Monastery and Gaden Shartse Monastery escorting a photo of His Holiness the Dalai Lama. This is in the main prayer hall of Gaden Monastery.
1 week ago
Tsem Rinpoche with the Abbots of Gaden Jangtse Monastery and Gaden Shartse Monastery escorting a photo of His Holiness the Dalai Lama. This is in the main prayer hall of Gaden Monastery.
Tsem Rinpoche in Gaden Monastery
1 week ago
Tsem Rinpoche in Gaden Monastery
My father Mr. Lobsang Gyatso and myself. He came to Gaden Monastery to visit me. While he was alive he lived in Taiwan. Tsem Rinpoche
1 week ago
My father Mr. Lobsang Gyatso and myself. He came to Gaden Monastery to visit me. While he was alive he lived in Taiwan. Tsem Rinpoche
The most precious Buddha Shakyamuni of Tibet. He is called Jowo Rinpoche and He is in the central Cathedral of Lhasa, Tibet. All the crowns, earrings, necklaces and jewels were constructed and offered by Je Tsongkapa onto this Buddha 600 years ago. Tsem Rinpoche
1 week ago
The most precious Buddha Shakyamuni of Tibet. He is called Jowo Rinpoche and He is in the central Cathedral of Lhasa, Tibet. All the crowns, earrings, necklaces and jewels were constructed and offered by Je Tsongkapa onto this Buddha 600 years ago. Tsem Rinpoche
Click on picture to enlarge, I have something to share.
1 week ago
Click on picture to enlarge, I have something to share.
This is how you can practice Tantric Buddhas without initiation or commitment- https://bit.ly/2PstN28
1 week ago
This is how you can practice Tantric Buddhas without initiation or commitment- https://bit.ly/2PstN28
Many great lamas are pictured here together. I have met many of them and they are very learned and holy. Tsem Rinpoche
1 week ago
Many great lamas are pictured here together. I have met many of them and they are very learned and holy. Tsem Rinpoche
Do share this picture message with friends.
1 week ago
Do share this picture message with friends.
Faster, Faster!!! Can\'t you go any faster! We are late for our puja! Read on- https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/?p=179695
1 week ago
Faster, Faster!!! Can't you go any faster! We are late for our puja! Read on- https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/?p=179695
Has Pastor David achieved enlightenment under the bodhi tree?
1 week ago
Has Pastor David achieved enlightenment under the bodhi tree?
Very nice. Pastor Seng Piow\'s beautiful Kalarupa statue has finally arrived.
1 week ago
Very nice. Pastor Seng Piow's beautiful Kalarupa statue has finally arrived.
Animals are made to suffer so much. We should never add to their sufferings. We should never beat, abuse, use, kill or eat them. We should be loving with them or just leave them to live their lives.~Tsem Rinpoche
1 week ago
Animals are made to suffer so much. We should never add to their sufferings. We should never beat, abuse, use, kill or eat them. We should be loving with them or just leave them to live their lives.~Tsem Rinpoche
It will break your heart, but you need to see this- https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/?p=179733



Thank you, Tsem Rinpoche
1 week ago
It will break your heart, but you need to see this- https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/?p=179733 Thank you, Tsem Rinpoche
Find out what happened to this baby- https://bit.ly/2RdxM4o
1 week ago
Find out what happened to this baby- https://bit.ly/2RdxM4o
A very sad true story

Please sign to help end animal experimentation:
https://www.change.org/p/tell-neutrogena-to-stop-all-animal-testing
1 week ago
A very sad true story Please sign to help end animal experimentation: https://www.change.org/p/tell-neutrogena-to-stop-all-animal-testing
My grandaunt Nirgidma whom I have never met but learning more about her now. She lived and died in France. Tsem Rinpoche
1 week ago
My grandaunt Nirgidma whom I have never met but learning more about her now. She lived and died in France. Tsem Rinpoche
Did you know we can grow vegetables under water contrary to need the bright sun, earth and on the surface? Very interesting- https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/?p=179595
1 week ago
Did you know we can grow vegetables under water contrary to need the bright sun, earth and on the surface? Very interesting- https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/?p=179595
A very rare Buddha hardly seen. He is said to help us overcome laziness. Understand more- https://bit.ly/2EaEtk3
2 weeks ago
A very rare Buddha hardly seen. He is said to help us overcome laziness. Understand more- https://bit.ly/2EaEtk3
 
 
When you are sleeping, do you get disturbed by supernatural entities or re-occurring dreams that are frightening? Do you sometimes feel a presence in the room with you when sleeping? I have something here that might help you as I have been asked many times about these occurrences. - https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/?p=179116
2 weeks ago
When you are sleeping, do you get disturbed by supernatural entities or re-occurring dreams that are frightening? Do you sometimes feel a presence in the room with you when sleeping? I have something here that might help you as I have been asked many times about these occurrences. - https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/?p=179116
Foretelling the future in the Tibetan tradition- https://bit.ly/2AKzSl8
2 weeks ago
Foretelling the future in the Tibetan tradition- https://bit.ly/2AKzSl8
Malaysian Brickfields Chief Monk Sri Dhammaratana Fosters Harmony with Tibetan Buddhism- https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/?p=178837
2 weeks ago
Malaysian Brickfields Chief Monk Sri Dhammaratana Fosters Harmony with Tibetan Buddhism- https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/?p=178837
马来西亚十五碑锡兰佛寺达摩拉达纳长老与藏传佛教界建交- https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/?p=179077
2 weeks ago
马来西亚十五碑锡兰佛寺达摩拉达纳长老与藏传佛教界建交- https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/?p=179077
For high resolution download of this beautiful artwork of Dorje Shugden, please click here: https://bit.ly/2Nt3FHz
2 weeks ago
For high resolution download of this beautiful artwork of Dorje Shugden, please click here: https://bit.ly/2Nt3FHz
A stupa built dedicated to Dorje Shugden in Tibet.
2 weeks ago
A stupa built dedicated to Dorje Shugden in Tibet.
Repetitive Bad Dreams Disturbing Your Sleep?This might help you- https://bit.ly/2TTp8tw
3 weeks ago
Repetitive Bad Dreams Disturbing Your Sleep?This might help you- https://bit.ly/2TTp8tw
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Videos On The Go

Please click on the images to watch video
  • Nice cups from Kechara!!
    2 days ago
    Nice cups from Kechara!!
    Dorje Shugden people's lives matter!
  • Enjoy a peaceful morning at Kechara Forest Retreat
    4 days ago
    Enjoy a peaceful morning at Kechara Forest Retreat
    Chirping birds and other forest animals create a joyful melody at the Vajrayogini stupa in Kechara Forest Retreat (Bentong, Malaysia).
  • His Holiness Kyabje Trijang Rinpoche makes offering of khata to Dorje Shugden.
    6 days ago
    His Holiness Kyabje Trijang Rinpoche makes offering of khata to Dorje Shugden.
    Trijang Rinpoche never gave up his devotion to Dorje Shugden no matter how much Tibetan government in exile pressured him to give up. He stayed loyal inspiring so many of us.
  • Very rare video of His Holiness Panchen Rinpoche the 10th, the all knowing and compassionate one. I pay deep respects to this attained being who has taken many rebirths since the time of Lord Buddha to be of benefit to sentient beings tirelessly. Tsem Rinpoche
    1 week ago
    Very rare video of His Holiness Panchen Rinpoche the 10th, the all knowing and compassionate one. I pay deep respects to this attained being who has taken many rebirths since the time of Lord Buddha to be of benefit to sentient beings tirelessly. Tsem Rinpoche
  • This bigfoot researcher gives good reasonings on bigfoot. Interesting short video.
    1 week ago
    This bigfoot researcher gives good reasonings on bigfoot. Interesting short video.
  • His Holiness Kyabje Zong Rinpoche of Gaden Shartse Monastery was one of the teachers of Venerable Geshe Kelsang Gyatso. Here in this beautiful video is Geshe Kelsang Gyatso showing his centre to Kyabje Zong Rinpoche, then proceeding to sit down to receive teachings. For more information- https://bit.ly/2QNac1u
    1 week ago
    His Holiness Kyabje Zong Rinpoche of Gaden Shartse Monastery was one of the teachers of Venerable Geshe Kelsang Gyatso. Here in this beautiful video is Geshe Kelsang Gyatso showing his centre to Kyabje Zong Rinpoche, then proceeding to sit down to receive teachings. For more information- https://bit.ly/2QNac1u
  • Tsem Rinpoche’s dog, Oser girl always sits on Rinpoche’s chair. When Rinpoche’s other dog, Dharma tries to get into the chair, he is chased away. Oser is the boss. She is possessive. Cute.
    2 weeks ago
    Tsem Rinpoche’s dog, Oser girl always sits on Rinpoche’s chair. When Rinpoche’s other dog, Dharma tries to get into the chair, he is chased away. Oser is the boss. She is possessive. Cute.
  • Lama Yeshe talks about how to practice at the beginning and at the end of each day during teachings given in London during the Lamas’ first European teaching tour in 1975. Lama Yeshe was a brilliant teacher and I wanted to share this with everyone so his teachings can reach more people. Tsem Rinpoche
    3 weeks ago
    Lama Yeshe talks about how to practice at the beginning and at the end of each day during teachings given in London during the Lamas’ first European teaching tour in 1975. Lama Yeshe was a brilliant teacher and I wanted to share this with everyone so his teachings can reach more people. Tsem Rinpoche
  • Our beautiful Dorje Shugden shop in the busiest part of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Many tourists visit our store and this area.
    3 weeks ago
    Our beautiful Dorje Shugden shop in the busiest part of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Many tourists visit our store and this area.
  • Living off the grid in Australia
    3 weeks ago
    Living off the grid in Australia
    A Jill Redwood is a jack of all trades, Jill built her own house on her property and lives entirely off the grid with no mains power or town water, mobile reception or television. Living on around $80 a week, Jill has over sixty animals to keep her company and an abundant garden that out serves as an organic supermarket right at her doorstep. Her main expenses are animal feed and the rates on her property. Watch this incredible three minute video and be inspired to live differently.
  • Kyabje Dagom Choktrul Rinpoche offering gold on a 350 year-old Dorje Shugden statue in his chapel in Lhasa. This is how Tibetans show homage and pay respect to a holy image. This chapel and statue of Dorje Shugden in Lhasa dedicated to Dorje Shugden was built by the Great 5th Dalai Lama. Tsem Rinpoche
    4 weeks ago
    Kyabje Dagom Choktrul Rinpoche offering gold on a 350 year-old Dorje Shugden statue in his chapel in Lhasa. This is how Tibetans show homage and pay respect to a holy image. This chapel and statue of Dorje Shugden in Lhasa dedicated to Dorje Shugden was built by the Great 5th Dalai Lama. Tsem Rinpoche
  • My sweet little Oser girl is so photogenic and adorable. Tsem Rinpoche
    4 weeks ago
    My sweet little Oser girl is so photogenic and adorable. Tsem Rinpoche
  • Heart Sutra sang by a monk for the modern crowd. Very interesting and beautiful. Tsem Rinpoche
    4 weeks ago
    Heart Sutra sang by a monk for the modern crowd. Very interesting and beautiful. Tsem Rinpoche
  • Submerging powerful mantra stones in water at Kechara Forest Retreat in Malaysia.
    4 weeks ago
    Submerging powerful mantra stones in water at Kechara Forest Retreat in Malaysia.
  • Wylfred explains in Chinese the benefits of mantra stones at Kechara Forest Retreat-Malaysia   |  黄明川以华语解释在马来西亚克切拉禅修林的玛尼堆(刻有心咒的石头)的利益
    4 weeks ago
    Wylfred explains in Chinese the benefits of mantra stones at Kechara Forest Retreat-Malaysia | 黄明川以华语解释在马来西亚克切拉禅修林的玛尼堆(刻有心咒的石头)的利益
  • My Oser girl and Dharma boy love the verandah where they can see the greens. Tsem Rinpoche
    4 weeks ago
    My Oser girl and Dharma boy love the verandah where they can see the greens. Tsem Rinpoche
  • If there were more schools like this, then our kids would grow up with more caring awareness and kind emotions towards our environment and the people around them. They would grow up knowing that chasing materialism is not going to bring any happiness. I hope very much more schools like this would materialise. I hope in my future life I can attend a school like this. Tsem Rinpoche
    1 month ago
    If there were more schools like this, then our kids would grow up with more caring awareness and kind emotions towards our environment and the people around them. They would grow up knowing that chasing materialism is not going to bring any happiness. I hope very much more schools like this would materialise. I hope in my future life I can attend a school like this. Tsem Rinpoche
  • My Oser girl and Dharma boy in their cosy little bedroom next to me sleeping away. Cute.
    2 months ago
    My Oser girl and Dharma boy in their cosy little bedroom next to me sleeping away. Cute.
  • It is incredible how smart Oser girl is. She can steal the treat away from Dharma boy and so casually. Wow. She is so smart. Tsem Rinpoche
    2 months ago
    It is incredible how smart Oser girl is. She can steal the treat away from Dharma boy and so casually. Wow. She is so smart. Tsem Rinpoche
  • Kechara Forest Retreat Dogs. Dharma boy is tiny and trying to scare off big boy Johnny. Johnny is so patient and just ignores Dharma. They are both cute and both live in Kechara Forest Retreat-Malaysia. Tsem Rinpoche
    2 months ago
    Kechara Forest Retreat Dogs. Dharma boy is tiny and trying to scare off big boy Johnny. Johnny is so patient and just ignores Dharma. They are both cute and both live in Kechara Forest Retreat-Malaysia. Tsem Rinpoche
  • BREAKING EYEWITNESS FOOTAGE: Workers violently punched, kicked, cussed out, & left sheep to die on dozens of Scottish farms 💔 Sheep bled after rough shearing & were stitched up without painkillers.–From Peta2
    2 months ago
    BREAKING EYEWITNESS FOOTAGE: Workers violently punched, kicked, cussed out, & left sheep to die on dozens of Scottish farms 💔 Sheep bled after rough shearing & were stitched up without painkillers.–From Peta2
  • Super cute seal and so gentle. Must watch this video and realize we are all one. Tsem Rinpoche
    2 months ago
    Super cute seal and so gentle. Must watch this video and realize we are all one. Tsem Rinpoche
  • Legendary Heart sings “Stairway to Heaven” in tribute to Led Zeppelin. Incredible tribute and rendition. Everyone is blown away. TR
    2 months ago
    Legendary Heart sings “Stairway to Heaven” in tribute to Led Zeppelin. Incredible tribute and rendition. Everyone is blown away. TR
  • In a low-income neighbourhood, this man is growing his own organic produce, and giving extras away for free to neighbours who can’t afford fresh ingredients from the store. Must watch!
    2 months ago
    In a low-income neighbourhood, this man is growing his own organic produce, and giving extras away for free to neighbours who can’t afford fresh ingredients from the store. Must watch!
  • Neat little video
    2 months ago
    Neat little video
  • It is nice to see sangha release animals into the wild. Gen Kunchok Palden and Chodrak contributed to releasing of frogs back into the wild. This is wonderful. Compassion is the mainstay of all spirituality. Tsem Rinpoche
    2 months ago
    It is nice to see sangha release animals into the wild. Gen Kunchok Palden and Chodrak contributed to releasing of frogs back into the wild. This is wonderful. Compassion is the mainstay of all spirituality. Tsem Rinpoche
  • This is a special ‘carpet’ for dogs that you hide their snacks and they have to go digging for it. It is challenging and fun where they use their nose, paws and all to dig and find the snacks in between. This dog play carpet is ordered online. You can see little Zopa baby who is a Kechara resident doggie looking for the snacks in this cute video. She is kept busy and entertained! Tsem Rinpoche
    2 months ago
    This is a special ‘carpet’ for dogs that you hide their snacks and they have to go digging for it. It is challenging and fun where they use their nose, paws and all to dig and find the snacks in between. This dog play carpet is ordered online. You can see little Zopa baby who is a Kechara resident doggie looking for the snacks in this cute video. She is kept busy and entertained! Tsem Rinpoche
  • Kechara Forest Retreat in Bentong, Malaysia’s dog Pema is super adorable and cute. Everyone loves her. She is wearing a Manjushri blessing pendant.
    3 months ago
    Kechara Forest Retreat in Bentong, Malaysia’s dog Pema is super adorable and cute. Everyone loves her. She is wearing a Manjushri blessing pendant.
  • Spontaneous trance in Tibet by powerful healing Protector Dorje Shugden of a monk who usually takes trance.
    3 months ago
    Spontaneous trance in Tibet by powerful healing Protector Dorje Shugden of a monk who usually takes trance.
  • 喀切玛波向詹杜固仁波切献供养
    3 months ago
    喀切玛波向詹杜固仁波切献供养
    喀切玛波护法降神,向詹杜固仁波切献供曼扎及身语意之供养,同时也加持马来西亚克切拉禅修林道场。喀切玛波护法乃古时候的紫玛护法,他是藏地首座佛教寺院桑耶寺的护法神
  • This topic is so hot in many circles right now.
    1 years ago
    This topic is so hot in many circles right now.
    This video is thought-provoking and very interesting. Watch! Thanks so much to our friends at LIVEKINDLY.
  • Chiropractic CHANGES LIFE for teenager with acute PAIN & DEAD LEG.
    1 years ago
    Chiropractic CHANGES LIFE for teenager with acute PAIN & DEAD LEG.
  • BEAUTIFUL PLACE IN NEW YORK STATE-AMAZING.
    1 years ago
    BEAUTIFUL PLACE IN NEW YORK STATE-AMAZING.
  • Leonardo DiCaprio takes on the meat Industry with real action.
    1 years ago
    Leonardo DiCaprio takes on the meat Industry with real action.
  • Do psychic mediums have messages from beyond?
    1 years ago
    Do psychic mediums have messages from beyond?
  • Lovely gift for my 52nd Birthday. Tsem Rinpoche
    1 years ago
    Lovely gift for my 52nd Birthday. Tsem Rinpoche
  • This 59-year-old chimpanzee was refusing food and ready to die until...
    1 years ago
    This 59-year-old chimpanzee was refusing food and ready to die until...
    she received “one last visit from an old friend” 💔💔
  • Bigfoot sighted again and made it to the news.
    1 years ago
    Bigfoot sighted again and made it to the news.
  • Casper is such a cute and adorable. I like him.
    1 years ago
    Casper is such a cute and adorable. I like him.
  • Dorje Shugden Monastery Amarbayasgalant  Mongolia's Ancient Hidden Gem
    1 years ago
    Dorje Shugden Monastery Amarbayasgalant Mongolia's Ancient Hidden Gem
  • Don't you love Hamburgers? See how 'delicious' it is here!
    1 years ago
    Don't you love Hamburgers? See how 'delicious' it is here!
  • Such a beautiful and powerful message from a person who knows the meaning of life. Tsem Rinpoche
    1 years ago
    Such a beautiful and powerful message from a person who knows the meaning of life. Tsem Rinpoche
  • What the meat industry figured out is that you don't need healthy animals to make a profit.
    1 years ago
    What the meat industry figured out is that you don't need healthy animals to make a profit.
    Sick animals are more profitable... farms calculate how close to death they can keep animals without killing them. That's the business model. How quickly they can be made to grow, how tightly they can be packed, how much or how little can they eat, how sick they can get without dying... We live in a world in which it's conventional to treat an animal like a block of wood. ~ Jonathan Safran Foer
  • This video went viral and it's a must watch!!
    1 years ago
    This video went viral and it's a must watch!!
  • SEE HOW THIS ANIMAL SERIAL KILLER HAS NO ISSUE BLUDGEONING THIS DEFENSELESS BEING.
    1 years ago
    SEE HOW THIS ANIMAL SERIAL KILLER HAS NO ISSUE BLUDGEONING THIS DEFENSELESS BEING.
    This happens daily in slaughterhouse so you can get your pork and Bak ku teh. Stop eating meat.

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CHAT PICTURES

Thanks, Astro team for volunteering with us. They delivered monthly provisions to urban poor families. Join us if you’re interested by dropping us a WhatsApp message at 010-3333260. ❤️ #Kechara #foodbank #urbanpoor - Vivian @ Kechara Soup Kitchen
15 hours ago
Thanks, Astro team for volunteering with us. They delivered monthly provisions to urban poor families. Join us if you’re interested by dropping us a WhatsApp message at 010-3333260. ❤️ #Kechara #foodbank #urbanpoor - Vivian @ Kechara Soup Kitchen
This is the first time Mr Raymond Chew attend our Chinese DS puja in Ipoh. Yee Mun (KISG)
2 days ago
This is the first time Mr Raymond Chew attend our Chinese DS puja in Ipoh. Yee Mun (KISG)
Nice to see people committed to attend our monthly Chinese Dorje Shugden puja. Yee Mun (KISG)
2 days ago
Nice to see people committed to attend our monthly Chinese Dorje Shugden puja. Yee Mun (KISG)
Throwback KSDS Graduation 2018 - Registration counter getting ready to register for parents attending the event. Lin Mun KSDS
3 days ago
Throwback KSDS Graduation 2018 - Registration counter getting ready to register for parents attending the event. Lin Mun KSDS
Throwback KSDS Graduation 2018 - Nice arrangement from Louise. Glad that we collaborate with gift team for KSDS event. Lin Mun KSDS
3 days ago
Throwback KSDS Graduation 2018 - Nice arrangement from Louise. Glad that we collaborate with gift team for KSDS event. Lin Mun KSDS
Throwback KSDS Graduation 2018 - Long time no see and it’s great time to catch up. Lin Mun KSDS
3 days ago
Throwback KSDS Graduation 2018 - Long time no see and it’s great time to catch up. Lin Mun KSDS
Throwback KSDS Graduation 2018 - Great technical team who gave us nice music and slide show. Lin Mun KSDS
3 days ago
Throwback KSDS Graduation 2018 - Great technical team who gave us nice music and slide show. Lin Mun KSDS
Throwback KSDS Graduation 2018 - Teacher Asyley having a light moment with children before performance. Lin Mun KSDS
3 days ago
Throwback KSDS Graduation 2018 - Teacher Asyley having a light moment with children before performance. Lin Mun KSDS
So glad to see family members involve in dharma work together. Lin Mun KSDS
3 days ago
So glad to see family members involve in dharma work together. Lin Mun KSDS
Throwback KSDS Graduation 2018 - Let’s go team, together we will do a great show :) , Lin Mun KSDS
3 days ago
Throwback KSDS Graduation 2018 - Let’s go team, together we will do a great show :) , Lin Mun KSDS
Mr. Cheah Fook Wan offered lights to Lama Tsongkhapa & all Buddhas before the prayer session started. So Kin Hoe (KISG)
3 days ago
Mr. Cheah Fook Wan offered lights to Lama Tsongkhapa & all Buddhas before the prayer session started. So Kin Hoe (KISG)
Glian Sim has offered a cup of tea to Rinpoche’s shrine on behalf of KISG. So Kin Hoe (KISG)
3 days ago
Glian Sim has offered a cup of tea to Rinpoche’s shrine on behalf of KISG. So Kin Hoe (KISG)
KISG has completed a session of prayer recitations to Mother Tara in Ipoh today. So Kin Hoe (KISG)
3 days ago
KISG has completed a session of prayer recitations to Mother Tara in Ipoh today. So Kin Hoe (KISG)
Wow! JB Kechara office is receiving 5 desktop computers from our sponsors. Now the urban poor children can learn to use computers. Now the passionate volunteers can burn the mid night oil in the office planning, coordinating and review events. Thanks to our sponsors, Style Vision, Meadow IT, KS IT, Grex Multimedia, New Century, Ascentouch, Softcom, E cube, Via Global, Edmond, Nelly, Jasmine, Bill Kee, DML Beauty, Goh and Team for providing us with such an awesome convenience and cool facilities. - Vivian @ Kechara Soup Kitchen
4 days ago
Wow! JB Kechara office is receiving 5 desktop computers from our sponsors. Now the urban poor children can learn to use computers. Now the passionate volunteers can burn the mid night oil in the office planning, coordinating and review events. Thanks to our sponsors, Style Vision, Meadow IT, KS IT, Grex Multimedia, New Century, Ascentouch, Softcom, E cube, Via Global, Edmond, Nelly, Jasmine, Bill Kee, DML Beauty, Goh and Team for providing us with such an awesome convenience and cool facilities. - Vivian @ Kechara Soup Kitchen
5 days ago
1984 Los Angeles- Left to right: Geshe Tsultrim Gyeltsen, His Holiness Kyabje Zong Rinpoche, monk assistant to Zong Rinpoche and the 18 year old Tsem Rinpoche prior to ordination.
1 week ago
1984 Los Angeles- Left to right: Geshe Tsultrim Gyeltsen, His Holiness Kyabje Zong Rinpoche, monk assistant to Zong Rinpoche and the 18 year old Tsem Rinpoche prior to ordination.
Very nice class going on in Kechara Forest Retreat-Malaysia. Learning Dharma is the key to overcoming our mind that is unsettled. Tsem Rinpoche
1 week ago
Very nice class going on in Kechara Forest Retreat-Malaysia. Learning Dharma is the key to overcoming our mind that is unsettled. Tsem Rinpoche
Tsem Rinpoche holding the young incarnation of Zong Rinpoche in Gaden Shartse Monastery.
1 week ago
Tsem Rinpoche holding the young incarnation of Zong Rinpoche in Gaden Shartse Monastery.
Left to right: 103rd Gaden Tripa Lobsang Tenzin, Gaden Shartse Kensur Jampa Yeshe Rinpoche and Tsem Rinpoche.
1 week ago
Left to right: 103rd Gaden Tripa Lobsang Tenzin, Gaden Shartse Kensur Jampa Yeshe Rinpoche and Tsem Rinpoche.
In Gaden Monastery. Left to right: Tenzin Trinley Rinpoche, Kari Kentrul Rinpoche, Zong Rinpoche, Tsem Rinpoche, Gyalkhangtse Rinpoche, Kating Rinpoche and Genpa Rinpoche. Extreme right is the senior Dorje Shugden oracle of Gaden Monastery, Choyang Dulzin Kuten.
1 week ago
In Gaden Monastery. Left to right: Tenzin Trinley Rinpoche, Kari Kentrul Rinpoche, Zong Rinpoche, Tsem Rinpoche, Gyalkhangtse Rinpoche, Kating Rinpoche and Genpa Rinpoche. Extreme right is the senior Dorje Shugden oracle of Gaden Monastery, Choyang Dulzin Kuten.
Tsem Rinpoche with the Abbots of Gaden Jangtse Monastery and Gaden Shartse Monastery escorting a photo of His Holiness the Dalai Lama. This is in the main prayer hall of Gaden Monastery.
1 week ago
Tsem Rinpoche with the Abbots of Gaden Jangtse Monastery and Gaden Shartse Monastery escorting a photo of His Holiness the Dalai Lama. This is in the main prayer hall of Gaden Monastery.
Tsem Rinpoche in Gaden Monastery.
1 week ago
Tsem Rinpoche in Gaden Monastery.
Tsem Rinpoche's father Mr. Lobsang Gyatso and Rinpoche. He came to Gaden Monastery to visit Rinpoche. While he was alive he lived in Taiwan.
1 week ago
Tsem Rinpoche's father Mr. Lobsang Gyatso and Rinpoche. He came to Gaden Monastery to visit Rinpoche. While he was alive he lived in Taiwan.
Tsem Rinpoche's father with His Holiness the Dalai Lama. The little girl is Rinpoche's brother's daughter. Her name is Tara.
1 week ago
Tsem Rinpoche's father with His Holiness the Dalai Lama. The little girl is Rinpoche's brother's daughter. Her name is Tara.
1 week ago
The Promise
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  Rinpoche's Medical Fund
  Dana Offerings
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Dorje Shugden
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