开斋节

2017年9月13日 | 浏览量: 339

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(詹杜固仁波切)

 

简介

马来西亚其中一个最大的节庆日就是“Hari Raya Aidilfitri”,也称为“Hari Raya Puasa”(开斋节)。“Hari Raya”的字面意思为“节日”,而“Aidilfitri”则是阿拉伯语“Eid ul-Fitr”(尔迪菲图尔)的马来名称,意即“结束封斋的节日”。这个节日落在回历(伊斯兰教历)10月(Syawal)的第一天,标榜着斋戒月(Ramadan)的结束。由于回历属于阴历,每年的开斋节都不会落在阳历的同一天。许多人都误以为开斋节就是回历新年的第一天,事实并非如此。

在开斋节期间,其中一个最重要的习俗就是大家互道“maaf zahir dan batin”,意思是“原谅我一切身、心的过错”;可见,这并不只是一个节庆,也是一个让大家可以修复关系和寻求宽恕的时候,使得这个节日更为重要和美好。在神圣的斋戒月实践一个月禁食的目的是净化一个人所犯下的过错。回教教义鼓励信徒们互相原谅和忘记一切的分别,为破裂关系的修复而欣喜,这就是庆祝开斋节的主要意义。这是一个感恩的时刻,为了庆祝这个节日,人们到墓地追悼祖先,到回教堂祈祷,亲友们相互拜访问好,享用各类开斋节美食等。

每一年开斋节来临的前几天,回教徒们出现了返乡热潮,大家都迫切想要返回各自家乡与亲友们团聚。机票和巴士票一早就售罄,连高速大道上也都出现长长的车龙,这就是马来西亚人都感到亲切而熟悉的“Balik Kampung”现象。

 

开斋节的起源

据说,先知默罕默德迁居麦地那之后,他发现当地习俗每年都有两天的狂欢节,专用来寻欢作乐。先知默罕默德认为与其把这些日子用来狂欢,不如让它变得更有意义,所以他就告诉当地人说全知的真主已经制定了两个更好的节日,也就是我们今天所谓的开斋节(Aidilfitri)和哈芝节(Aidil Adha)。

然而,这并不单纯是关于节庆和作乐,而是具有更深层的精神意义。 该庆典的历史可追溯至公元前610年,当先知穆罕默德在沉思冥想时,哲伯拉依莱杰天使(Jibril)降临,传送了神圣的启示。先知默罕默德就在哲伯拉依莱杰天使的引导下,将启示记录下来,后来成为神圣的可兰经,也就是穆斯林(回教徒)所遵守的行为准则。据说,神圣的启示是在“盖德尔夜”(力量之夜)或Laylat al-Qadr降临,这是斋戒月下旬其中一个奇数日的夜晚。

 

开斋节的意义

开斋节的到来意味着斋戒月的结束,到了这一天,一切斋戒月期间所必须遵守的严格规定也已经解除。在回历9月的斋戒月禁绝饮食,是每一位想要生命有所提升的回教徒所必须履行的五大支柱(功课)之一;因此,庆祝开斋节的目的是透过斋戒、祈祷和施贫来对真主表达感恩之意。

有关斋戒的记载,记录在可兰经第二章第185节:

“赖买丹月(斋戒月)中,开始降示《古兰经》,指导世人,昭示明証,以便遵循正道,分別真伪,故在此月中,你们应当斋戒;害病或旅行的人,当依所缺的日数补斋。”

 

禁食

在斋月期间,所有的穆斯林从黎明到黄昏之间必须禁食。 这种禁食不仅意味着不吃固体食物,也不能喝饮料,禁止亲密行为,或任何自我满足或自我陶醉的行为。

一般相信透过这种约束性行为,人们将能培养出自我控制和获得控制欲望的力量。 此外,这么做也能让一个人在这圣洁的时间里让身心得以净化。在禁食期间,穆斯林提醒自己去感受那些受环境逼迫而必须经历饥渴折磨之穷人的痛苦。这同时也是一个机会,让穆斯林能感受到因对全能真主及其他穆斯林的忠诚奉献所带来的内心平静。

长达一个月的禁食,也表达了一个人想要透过克服诱惑,向全能的阿拉祈求健全生活的愿望。在一些特定情况下,某些人可以破例不参与禁食:病人、旅者、老人、孕妇和哺乳期的母亲。属于这些类别的人可以推迟斋戒禁食,若他们无法补齐错过的禁食日,则必须为每个错过的日子给有需要的人提供食物,或称交付赎金(Fidyah)。 年轻人在青春期就必须开始禁食,除了能带来健康上的好处,这也被认为是一种取得精神成长的方法。

在马来西亚这样的穆斯林国家,大多数由穆斯林经营的餐馆,在斋戒月期间白天都不营业。 穆斯林在日出之前享用了“封斋餐”(sahur)之后,在接下来的白天内都不食用任何食物和饮料,也不进行任何享乐活动,然后在日落时食用“开斋餐”(Iftar)。 一般上,开斋餐常以枣和甜饮作为开始,以快速补充精力,餐后再进行夜间的祷告(Sembahyang Terawih)。

斋戒月除了作为一个感恩的节庆及感念真主之善的日子,穆斯林们也会在这段期间省思自己的善恶特质,并在这个考验自我的月份好好检讨自己个性中强、弱的部分。此外,这也是一个让他们思考宗教和物质这两个极端的时刻,物质追求教会人们从他人身上索取,而宗教则反过来教导人们学会对上苍和人付出,继而得到祂的加持。
人们以谦卑及祈求救赎的心,利用这个机会来进行各种慈善和公益活动。在这段时间内,富人必须把自己所拥有的一部分拿出来跟穷人共享。斋戒月期间,穆斯林也必须为自己和家人缴付特定数量的麦米或金钱,作为回教献金/扎卡特/麦米钱/开斋捐/天课(Zakat fitrah)。回教徒一年只需在斋戒月至开斋节之前缴付一次回教献金。

开斋节第一天,人们必须进行开斋节会礼(Solat Aidilfitri),而且最好是以群聚的方式进行。这是一个特别的祷告,包含两个礼拜(rakaat)和七个及五个额外的“大赞词”(大赞词)。讲道(Khutbah)之后则是祷告。通常在讲道期间,伊玛目/祈祷司(Imam)会提醒群众有关他们对真主、穆斯林和非穆斯林同胞们的义务。伊玛目也会提醒群众多行善和摒弃邪恶行为。结束之前,群众会互相问候,并给年轻人献上适宜的礼物,随后就是一系列的庆祝活动。

Hari Raya prayers at the National Mosque is a serious affair and attended by the country's king and luminaries

在国家回教堂举办的开斋节祷告十分严肃,一国之君和重要人士都会出席。

 

人们在开斋节都做些什么?

在宗教方面,穆斯林根据开斋节圣行(Sunnah of Eid)来庆祝开斋节,信徒们必须:

  1. 大清早起床
  2. 晨礼(Salatul Fajr)
  3. 准备梳洗和干净衣物
  4. 晨礼后洗澡
  5. 刷牙
  6. 穿上最好的衣服,传统上指新衣服。男性可使用香水。女性通常穿上传统马来女性套装(Baju Kurong)、可巴雅(Baju Kebaya)和朱峇长袍(Jubah)。男性通常穿上传统马来男性套装(Baju Melayu)和腰巾(Kain Samping,围在腰间套装裤之外的布)。开斋节期间,许多穆斯林男性也会戴上宋谷帽(Songkok)。
  7. 出发前往参加礼拜前吃早餐。出门前吃早餐是强调斋戒已经结束,在开斋节当天是不允许禁食的。(人们在出席开斋节特别礼拜前一般会吃小量的甜食,尤其是枣,来作为早餐。)
  8. 参加开斋节特别礼拜(Salaat-al-Eid)前缴付回教献金(回教法规定穆斯林每年必须缴付一次回教献金作为宗教和福利用途)。
  9. 提早抵达礼拜现场。
  10. 群众在开放空间进行开斋节特别礼拜,除非气候不佳如下雨或下雪等。
  11. 分别使用不同的路程往返礼拜会场。据说,这么做的目的是在两个路程上都能展现伊斯兰教象征,或表示纪念全能真主。
A beautiful aspect of Hari Raya is that it is also a time for children and family to show gratitude and seek forgiveness for any wrongdoings

开斋节的另一个美好之处,在于这是一个孩子们和家人互相表达感恩和寻求宽恕的日子。

在马来西亚,开斋节的特别之处在于它展现出多元民族社会群体间的和谐和谅解。马来西亚各大民族、宗教人民拜访穆斯林朋友家里,共同分享节庆喜悦。主人家则亲切欢迎客人到访,还特别准备了种类繁多的开斋佳肴。就像马来西亚的其他节庆一样,开斋节也是一个全国上下,不分种族、宗教和教派都共同欢庆的节日。

In Malaysia, Hari Raya is an important to renew bonds of friendship and harmony

在马来西亚,开斋节是一个修复友情与和谐互动的重要日子

 

以下是马来西亚最流行的两首开斋节歌曲:

或在我们的伺服器观赏视频:
https://video.tsemtulku.com/videos/SalomaSelamatHariRaya.mp4

“Selamat Hari Raya” 是一首不朽的开斋节歌曲,由已故女歌手莎乐玛演绎。她是马来西亚娱乐泰斗比·南利的妻子。这首歌旋律简单、容易上口,却极富感染力,深受马来西亚各大族群的喜爱。

 

或在我们的伺服器观赏视频:
https://video.tsemtulku.com/videos/SuasanaHariRaya.mp4

这首充满欢乐节庆气氛的开斋节歌曲由已故拿督莎丽花艾妮演绎。歌曲主要表达主人家在开斋节期间欢迎客人的情景。注:这首歌是卡拉Ok版本,视频里的女主角并非歌手本身。

 
Balik Kampung(回乡)

每年开斋节,游子们都必须提早安排行程,甚至早在一个月前就必须订购飞机/巴士/火车票,以免错过准时回家跟家人亲友共庆佳节的机会。

或在我们的伺服器观赏视频:
https://video.tsemtulku.com/videos/SudirmanBalikKampung.mp4

这首脍炙人口的“Balik Kampung”是由已故著名马来歌手苏迪曼所演唱的开斋节歌曲。

 

Oil lamps known as ‘pelita’ in Malaya, are lit from the 20th day of Ramadan to attract spirits and angels alike. It is believed that these lamps bring blessings into homes during the night of Lailatul Qadar (Night of Destiny) when the first verses of the Quran were revealed.

在马来西亚,油灯被称为“Pelita”。人们通常在斋戒月的第二十天开始点燃油灯,以吸引圣灵和天使。人们普遍相信点燃油灯能在“盖德尔夜”(Lailatul Qadar)当真主降示《可兰经》第一句经文时,给家庭带来加持。

开斋盛宴

开斋节期间,最受欢迎的其中一个庆祝方式是“门户开放”活动。“门户开放”指主人家招待客人时不分身份背景,只要是善意的访客都一律欢迎。作为一个慈善和展现友好开放的活动,主人家用来招待客人的食物,必然也都是深受马来人欢迎的美食佳肴。开斋节“门户开放”文化已经成为社会成员间进行社交和建立友好关系的重要平台,对加强和促进马来西亚人之间的团结友爱很有帮助。

以下为一些传统开斋节美食的介绍,各具特色的美食往往为节日添加更浓厚的节庆风味:

马来干肉丝

马来干肉丝“Serunding”是马来西亚版本的肉丝,也是斋戒月和开斋节期间深受欢迎的小食。它是一种经腌制后烹煮至干的肉类,这种制作方式旨在让肉类可以存放更久。一般用来制作这类马来干肉丝的肉类包括牛肉、鸡肉、江鱼仔、虾和鱼,肉丝制成之后常常被用来当作餐包、糕饼,甚至汉堡包的馅料。

沙爹

沙爹是斋戒月的完美小食,深受东南亚各地群众欢迎。人们通常把这一串串烤肉蘸着特制香脆花生酱,再佐以米糕(Nasi Impit)和生菜一起食用。

马来粽

马来粽(Ketupat)是开斋节的象征性食物。这是一种类似华人粽子的食物,制作时将米粒包裹入长条状的棕榈叶,包扎成钻石状,再入锅烹煮。完成后,将粽子剥开,切成小块,再装碟上桌。它可用来取代一般的蒸饭,佐以配菜一起食用。

仁当

仁当(Rendang)是每个人都爱的开斋节美食。浓郁香稠的酱汁往往跟牛肉或其他肉类,甚至肉类替代品一起烹煮至干或半干。由于烹饪过程中所使用的香料具有天然的抗菌作用,仁当也是一道可较长时间储存而不腐坏的食物。

Ketupat and satay are favourites during Hari Raya celebrations

马来粽和沙爹都是开斋节庆典中最广受欢迎的食物。

椰香黄咖喱

椰香黄咖喱(Masak Lemak)是一种以添加了黄姜的椰奶作为基本材料的食物。常用的肉类包括贝类和鸡肉,蔬菜也是另一种常见的材料。椰香黄咖喱常用来配竹筒饭吃,或淋在白饭上食用。

阿参鱼

阿参鱼(Asam Pedas)是一道广受马来西亚好几个地方人士欢迎的食物,其鱼肉中的酸辣味道来自长时间熬煮,至汤汁完全渗入鱼肉为止。烹煮这道美食的常用配料还包括番茄、羊角豆、罗望子和越南香菜。

咖喱杂菜

源自印尼的咖喱杂菜(Sayur Lodeh)是一道将茄子、长豆、青辣椒、豆腐、天贝和各种蔬菜等,加入椰奶一起烹煮而成的料理。少量的黄姜粉使得菜色变黄,而辣椒和香料则增添香辣口味。

竹筒饭

在开斋节期间,竹筒饭(Lemang)常被用来取代白米饭,并配以仁当和其他咖喱一起食用。 竹筒饭的主要材料有糯米、椰奶和少量盐。调好味道的糯米接着被装入铺上一层香蕉叶的空心竹筒内,再在火上慢烤四五个小时。

隆冬

“隆冬”(Lontong)一般配着米糕一起吃。这道以椰奶汤烹煮的蔬菜和肉类也可被当成完整的一餐来食用。有时候,“隆冬” 这个词也可用来指以香蕉叶包裹的米糕,类似竹筒饭。

杂锦粥

杂锦粥(Bubur Lambuk)是回教堂和食物银行在斋戒月期间经常给公众分派的食物,源自回教徒在此佳节期间分派食物给穷人家的习俗。杂锦粥的做法多样,任何人皆可根据个人喜爱来添加肉类、蔬菜等各种材料,而用来调味的香料和酱料也都没有局限。话虽如此,古鲁玛粉还是这道食物最常用的调味。

哆哆糕

哆哆糕(Dodol)是一种由糯米粉、椰奶和蔗糖制成,富有弹性却不粘牙的甜点。制作过程可长达九个小时,全程要不断搅拌,以免烧焦。成品经过整型,再以塑料包装纸个别包装后,就成了热爱甜食者的可口零食了。哆哆糕口味多样,常见口味包括榴莲、刺果番荔枝(红毛榴莲)、苹果、菠萝蜜和牛奶等。

马来糕点

从九层糕的粉红层到甜番薯圈的香脆糖粉外皮,马来西亚的糕点式样可说是包罗万有,包括各种一口大小、做法各异、彩虹色系的蛋糕、饼干和果冻等,仿佛是这个国家丰富多元的见证。

 

开斋节礼仪

若您是在马来西亚访问的游客或外籍人士,刚好在开斋节期间被邀请到朋友或同事家里做客,或打算出席“门户开放”活动,以下是一些有用的小建议:

 

访客的一般行为标准

大部分回教徒并不期待客人赠送礼物或现金。如果客人坚持要送礼,可选择送糖果、曲奇饼或糕点等,主人家一般上都会对此表示欢迎。

客人也应该尝试了解哪一些是不符合马来人和回教礼节的礼物。客人应避免衣着暴露,也应该避免赠送或使用酒精类饮品如红酒和香槟等。

此外,非回教徒访客并无需穿戴传统马来服饰。然而如果你尝试那么做,主人家可能会很高兴。

 

开斋节期间常用的问候语

“Selamat Hari Raya”是马来回教徒之间常用的传统问候语,意思是“开斋节快乐”;而另一句常用语“Maaf Zahir dan Batin”的大意则是“我祈求您的原谅”。

许多回教徒在祝贺对方时也常说“Eid Mubarak”,这句话源自阿拉伯,意思是“开斋节快乐”。

 

佳节氛围中还能做些什么?

开斋节庆祝活动开展得很早,从斋戒月到开斋节期间都有许多活动。斋戒月市集是一项全国性的活动,到处都布满了一排排的摊位,售卖各种开斋节货品、衣服和饰物等。

 

拜访亲友

佳节期间拜访亲友的常见礼仪:

  • 衣着整齐得体,避免穿暴露服饰如短裤和短袖上衣。
  • 进入主人住家之前先除下鞋子。
  • 有些女性不习惯跟男性握手,因此男性不妨以微笑打招呼来取代。

传统上建议穆斯林们在开斋节期间多行慈善,其中一个做法就是给装有金钱的封包。这些钱封包的对象主要是那些尚未工作的儿童和年轻人,金额则由施予者自行决定。

2017年的开斋节落在6月25日,并于6月27日结束。

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  1. yin ping 于 2018年5月21日 下午9:57

    马来西亚是个多元种族的美丽国家,其中包过四大主要文化,马来民族、华裔、印裔 和原住民。马来西亚的马来同胞都是回教徒,过了斋戒月就是同庆开斋节。

    开斋节除了是一个庆典,也是家人聚在一起互相宽恕以便修复关系的时刻。除此之外,穆斯林朋友也会开放门户,准备种类繁多的开斋佳肴,来招待不同种族和宗教的客人到访,展现出多元民族社会群体间的和谐和谅解。

    詹杜固仁波切提倡的是慈悲与和平,仁波切在开斋节时会通过报章为穆斯林献上真诚的祝福。仁波切时常赞扬这里是个和平和稳定的国家,人民友善亲切,并且尊重彼此的信仰和文化。为了感谢马来西亚政府和人民对他的友善,仁波切成立了像克切拉香积厨这样的社区活动,来回馈给这个社会,以表示感谢。

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我设立这个栏目的目的是希望大家能在这里分享你对任何有兴趣事物的意见、想法和感受。

每个人都有各自看待事物的观点,所以这是一个专为你而设的栏目。

詹杜固仁波切


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请记得那些跟你聊天的都是真正的人。他们的文化背景跟你不同,也许持有不一样的意见。尊重他们的意见,仿佛你们正面对面聊天,他们自然也会给予你同等的尊重。

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让大家有机会回复你。耐心是一项美德。如果你等了一会,人们没有回应,也许是因为他们不知道问题的答案,或他们没有看到你的问题。你不妨再提问一次,或直接指名要某个人回答。不要因为别人没有回复你或无法回复你而感觉被冒犯。

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请让这里成为一个令大家可以轻松、有效交流的空间。

克切拉禅修林的最新消息

以下是克切拉禅修林计划最新的进程报告和图片消息。

克切拉禅修林是一个注重身心灵整体健康的禅修中心。这是一个让家庭和个人在大自然森林环境中找到宁静、灵感和充电的地方。在这里,我们矢志为下一代灌输如善良和慈悲等正面的普世价值,并以此回馈社会。

欲知详情,请点击此(英文)(中文),或浏览官方网站: retreat.kechara.com










仁波切的讯息

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制作团队

构思: 詹杜固仁波切
技术: 廖君凌、贾斯汀李力、杨瑞强
设计: 贾斯汀李力、李诗莹
内容: 詹杜固仁波切、贾斯汀李力、陈稚鑫讲法师
作者: 罗胜彪讲法师
管理员: 罗胜彪讲法师、黄明贵

我必须感谢我的佛法博客小组,无论对我、克切拉或本区域的弘法工作上,他们都是一项伟大的资产。我很荣幸能与他们合作。这是我发自内心的话。也许我对他们表达得不够多,但我现在就想说:我非常感谢这组人!

詹杜固仁波切

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未知

已知与未知同样令人畏惧
已知是安于现状和停滞不前
未知却可能带来成长和机会
人们并不知道自己是否更畏惧未知还是已知
谁说未知会比已知更糟
虽说未知有时的确比已知来得糟
然而说到底一切却依然还是未知
除非我们竭尽所能去努力
因此,全力以赴去追寻未知
因为在熟悉之后,未知就会转为已知。
〜詹杜固仁波切

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图文吧

Owen Liew offered incense to Lama Tsongkhapa, Dorje Shugden and all Buddhas on behalf of KISG. So Kin Hoe (KISG)
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Owen Liew offered incense to Lama Tsongkhapa, Dorje Shugden and all Buddhas on behalf of KISG. So Kin Hoe (KISG)
Steve from Ipoh offered lights to Lama Tsongkhapa, Dorje Shugden and all Buddhas prior to our weekly Dorje Shugden puja. So Kin Hoe (KISG)
3 天前
Steve from Ipoh offered lights to Lama Tsongkhapa, Dorje Shugden and all Buddhas prior to our weekly Dorje Shugden puja. So Kin Hoe (KISG)
KISG has completed our weekly Dorje Shugden puja in Ipoh today. So Kin Hoe (KISG)
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Throwback - KSDS parent and student visited Kechara Forest Retreat ~ Wesak Day for virtuous deeds and have fun together. Alice, KSDS
3 天前
Throwback - KSDS parent and student visited Kechara Forest Retreat ~ Wesak Day for virtuous deeds and have fun together. Alice, KSDS
Wonderful to see these 2 siblings learn dharma together and pray to Manjushri before the class start. Alice, KSDS
3 天前
Wonderful to see these 2 siblings learn dharma together and pray to Manjushri before the class start. Alice, KSDS
The youngest in the class of only 3 years ago learned how to do full lotus pose for breathing meditation session. Alice, KSDS
3 天前
The youngest in the class of only 3 years ago learned how to do full lotus pose for breathing meditation session. Alice, KSDS
The youngest group of KSDS are very helpful in arranging the seats before the class. Alice, KSDS
3 天前
The youngest group of KSDS are very helpful in arranging the seats before the class. Alice, KSDS
Kechara Ipoh Study Group carried out Mother Tara's prayer recitations on Sunday morning. So Kin Hoe (KISG)
1 周前
Kechara Ipoh Study Group carried out Mother Tara's prayer recitations on Sunday morning. So Kin Hoe (KISG)
Throwback- Group work activities during camp. Lin Mun KSDS
2 周前
Throwback- Group work activities during camp. Lin Mun KSDS
Throwback- Ice breaking session. Lin Mun KSDS
2 周前
Throwback- Ice breaking session. Lin Mun KSDS
Throwback - Decorating Kechara Oasis, artwork dedication from Sunday class kids. Lin Mun KSDS
2 周前
Throwback - Decorating Kechara Oasis, artwork dedication from Sunday class kids. Lin Mun KSDS
Throwback- Chinese New Year activity during dharma class. Lin Mun KSDS
2 周前
Throwback- Chinese New Year activity during dharma class. Lin Mun KSDS
Throwback- WOAH Camp 2017 , Lin Mun KSDS
2 周前
Throwback- WOAH Camp 2017 , Lin Mun KSDS
Throwback - KSDS camp in KFR, Lin Mun KSDS
2 周前
Throwback - KSDS camp in KFR, Lin Mun KSDS
Teacher Grace led the teenage class on a blog chat article. Lin Mun KSDS
3 周前
Teacher Grace led the teenage class on a blog chat article. Lin Mun KSDS
Students and teachers were so excited with the performance hat. Lin Mun KSDS
3 周前
Students and teachers were so excited with the performance hat. Lin Mun KSDS
Teacher Asyley and teacher Alice shared the biography of HE Tsem Tulku Rinpoche to student. Lin Mun KSDS
3 周前
Teacher Asyley and teacher Alice shared the biography of HE Tsem Tulku Rinpoche to student. Lin Mun KSDS
Class age 10-12 is lead by teacher Jayce. Lin Mun KSDS
3 周前
Class age 10-12 is lead by teacher Jayce. Lin Mun KSDS
Teacher Kien is teacher for class age 7-9 years old. Lin Mun KSDS
3 周前
Teacher Kien is teacher for class age 7-9 years old. Lin Mun KSDS
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Dorje Shugden
点击观看我对多杰雄登的说法。。。