龙舟节(端午节):古老与现代文化的结合

2017年2月20日 | 浏览量: 83
Dragon figureheads on the bows of boats used during the festival

用来赛龙舟的船只上龙头装饰

我在马来西亚住了二十多年了。在这二十多年里,我对马来西亚的文化习俗产生了极大的兴趣并为之着迷。因此每每有机会,我都很愿意跟别人分享马来西亚文化的点点滴滴。

今天我想跟大家介绍一下马来西亚的龙舟节。龙舟节起源于中国,但在漫长的文化交融中,已经完全融入了马来西亚的本土文化。它的的本土化反映出马来西亚人口的多民族特点,而这种对不同民族文化的巨大包容,恰恰成就了马来西亚如此丰富多彩的文化。

在接下来的文章里,我将为您介绍龙舟节及其起源,它如何融入马来西亚文化中,以及当地人庆祝该节日的方式。除此之外,文章还会谈到龙舟节特有的食物,比如粽子和糯米饭团。

詹杜固仁波切

 


 

龙舟节的起源

The Dragon Boat Race

赛龙舟

龙舟节也称端阳节、端午节或者忠孝节,据说是为了庆祝忠于国家和孝顺长辈的美好品德。由于龙舟节落在中国传统农历的五月初五,所以每年节日的公历日期会略有变化。

龙舟节也被马来西亚华裔、新加坡人和台湾人叫做“五月节”或“粽子节”。在印尼语中,这个节日还有一个特别的名称——“Peh Cun”(“扒船”),据说是由中国福建一带的方言翻译而来。

关于龙舟节的由来有三个不同版本的民间传说,但是他们不约而同都以悲剧收尾,都给人以道德上的深刻反思。

 

版本一: 屈原(西元前340-278年)的传说——仁慈的贵族

An artists portrayal of Qu Yuan

屈原画像

纪念屈原说是流传最广、最为人熟知的版本。根据司马迁史记记载,屈原是中国古代楚国的一名贵族,早年间深受楚怀王(西元前328-299年在位)器重在朝廷中任大臣。因为遭到奸臣诽谤,屈原被楚怀王流放到汉北流域。后来慢慢官复原职,并受命代表楚国去和邻国齐国建立外交关系。

楚怀王逝世后顷襄王继位。屈原远见卓识,早已料到秦国有朝一日会攻打楚国,便极力主张联齐抗秦。但是这个主张受到了令尹(相当于宰相)子兰的反对。子兰联合其他人向顷襄王进言,使得顷襄王日渐疏远屈原。最终屈原再次遭受流放,被驱逐到了长江以南的沅湘流域。

在流放期间,屈原大部分时间都在搜集整理民间故事传说,同时也进行了大量的诗歌创作。他的作品字里行间流露出他对国家深沉的爱。时至今日,屈原的诗歌被公认为中国文学史上最美诗篇,屈原本人也成为了一位名垂青史的伟大爱国诗人。

屈原在当地村民的心中是一个有智慧且仁慈的人,然而屈原时刻忧心祖国最终积郁成疾。

General Bai Qi from the state of Qin

秦国大将——白起

西元前278年,屈原一直以来的担忧终究成为了现实。秦国大将白起率领秦军一举攻下当时楚国的首都郢城。闻此噩耗屈原当即写下“哀郢”一诗,随即抱石投汨罗江(现中国湖南省境内)自尽。当地村民闻讯,纷纷赶来汨罗江想要救起屈原。他们奋力划船打着鼓极力搜救,一直行至洞庭湖也不见屈原身影。这场声势浩大的搜救便慢慢演变成了今天的龙舟竞赛。

在搜寻屈原的时候,百姓们从家里取来米团投入江中,以免河里的鱼或恶灵吃掉屈原的尸体。某天晚上,屈原的友人梦见屈原,屈子在梦里向他述说了自己投江的前因后果,并请这位友人用丝绸把米团包裹成三角形投入汨罗江中用以安抚水中的一条巨龙。屈原的朋友们四处散播这个消息,人们听闻后纷纷效仿,在农历五月初五这一天将米团裹成三角形投入江中祭祀巨龙。到了今天,这种用叶子裹起来的三角形米团就是人们俗称的“粽子”了。

 

An artist's portrayal of Wu Zixu, Duke of Shen

伍子胥画像

版本二:伍子胥(不详-西元前484年)——被主上嫌弃的贵族

伍子胥,据司马迁《史记》记载曾受封于申地,故此也称申胥,是吴王阖庐的信臣。伍子胥无视一个叫伯嚭的人道德败坏,大力举荐他给吴王,伯嚭得以在吴国任太宰。阖庐死后夫差继位成为新一任吴王,但是伍子胥不为其所喜。夫差即位后大败越国,越王投降。伍子胥预见到越王勾践的野心,坚信勾践有朝一日必会死灰复燃攻打吴国,便向夫差进言主张一举消灭越国以绝后患。然而夫差为伯嚭所谗,不但不信伍子胥,还听信伯嚭之言决定与越国和平共处,但他们却不知道伯嚭早已被勾践收买成为了叛徒。

King Fuchai of Wu

吴王夫差

伍子胥恳求吴王夫差听从自己的建议,但这反而激怒了吴王,还赐他一剑命他自尽。伍子胥临死前留下遗言,要人在自己死后把眼睛挖出来悬挂于吴京东门之上,他要亲眼看到越国灭吴的那一天。夫差闻言怒极,命人将伍子胥的尸体于五月初五丢入大江之中。伍子胥死后约十年,他的预言应验了:越王勾践趁着吴齐两国交战之际带兵偷袭吴国,吴国大败。吴王夫差在绝望中自刎而死,死前命人将其双眼蒙住,因为自觉九泉下无颜面对伍子胥。极具讽刺意味的是,深受夫差生前宠信的伯嚭不仅收受了勾践的贿赂,还和其他诸国勾结导致吴国亡国。时至今日,人们将龙舟节这一天作为祭奠忠臣伍子胥的节日,这个故事在吴越故地(今中国东部沿海省份)广为流传。

 

版本三:曹娥(西元130-143年)——丧父孝女

An artist's portrayal of Cao E

曹娥画像

曹娥为巫祝曹盱之女。曹盱在五月初五祭祀伍子胥的活动中溺于舜江。曹娥悲痛欲绝,沿江寻找数日不见父亲尸体便投江自尽。五日后,曹娥和父亲曹盱的尸身一起被人们从江里捞了上来。

八年之后,当地居民感念曹娥的孝顺,在上虞修建了曹娥庙纪念这名孝女。舜江也更名为曹娥江。因此龙舟节也说是为了纪念曹娥,这种说法在中国浙江东北一带颇为盛行。

另外,也有观点认为这些传说不过是古代儒家学者为了提升自己在当时中国的影响力而塑造的,并不可信。根据上世纪中国著名学者闻一多教授考究,龙舟节实际上起源于对龙的图腾崇拜。赛龙舟是由祭祀仪式中参拜神龙的行为演变而来,同时也象征着强壮的男性力量,而粽子就是供奉龙王的祭品。由于中国古代劳动人民高度依赖农业生产,天气在农业中有着至关重要的作用。龙在中国传说中具有操控天气的能力,因此直接影响了农业生产力的高低。人们通过祭祀活动使龙王满意愉悦,龙王反过来让人间风调雨顺,百姓获得丰收。龙图腾在长江中下游的吴越之地尤为盛行。闻一多教授认为,端午节最有可能是吴越两地独特的风俗,后来才慢慢在全中国流行开来。

无论传说的缘起是什么,龙舟节最终还是在中国发展壮大延续至今。

 

龙舟节是如何融入马来西亚的

Malaysia is a multi-ethnic country that embraces its diverse cultural identity

马来西亚是一个包容多元文化的多元民族国家

中国人无论走到哪里(无论是经商还是其他原因)都会把他们的文化传统带到各个地方。据马来西亚统计局数据,2014至2016年期间华裔人口达到了马来西亚总人口数的23.4%,占据了马来西亚总人口的近四分之一。由此可见,龙舟节在马来西亚各华人社区流行也就不足为奇了。

马来西亚政府将龙舟节视为促进民族和谐的一项重要活动。马来西亚旅游文化局旗下的马来西亚旅游促进局也已经将赛龙舟列入了“马来西亚节日活动名录”。马来西亚旅游促进局将赛龙舟描述为:

“……(赛龙舟)是一项团队运动,它有效地促进了团队的纪律、队员之间的协同以及队员个人体能和心理的坚韧……(也是)一项促进民族和谐的运动。”

 

节日活动

Traditional Chinese families gather together every year to make zongzi

传统的华人家庭每年会齐聚一堂,一起包粽子

煮、吃糯米饭团

每年的端午节,传统的华人家庭会聚在一起包粽子。除了举行、参加和观看划龙舟比赛之外,马来西亚华裔还会通过包粽子和吃粽子来庆祝节日。这个传统是纪念中国古代人民把饭团投入江里安抚巨龙和其他动物以免他们伤害屈原尸体的善举。

随着粽子的普及,它已经从一个简单的竹叶包饭团发展成了有多种馅料的美食。在过去,人们只有在端午节才能吃到粽子;如今,只要有华人聚居的地方整年都可以见到粽子的踪影。粽子在不同的地区也有不同的形状,但是最常见的还是三角形。在典型的传统华人家庭中,包粽子是全家齐动员的活动,每个家庭成员都要参与其中。竹叶是最常用的粽子皮,但其他的叶子比如玉米叶,芭蕉叶和香兰叶都可以用来包粽子。每一种叶子都能赋予粽子不同的风味。

Zongzi wrapped in banana leaves

香蕉叶包的粽子

One of the secrets to a good zongzi is wrapping it well enough so that the contents stay intact after the boiling process

好粽子的秘诀之一就是把粽子包扎实,让它在蒸煮过程中不至于散开,保证馅料的完整。

粽子馅因个人偏好不同而各有差异,但大多数粽子都是用糯米包成的。包粽子本身就是一门艺术:只有在蒸煮过程中保持完好的粽子才是厨师们引以为傲的成功作品。粽子的配料和包粽子的手艺大多是各家各户一代代传承下来的,是每个家庭名副其实的传家宝。

端午节前夕,传统华人家庭在享用粽子前,会先以粽子拜祭祖先,以示尊重。

Bak Chang

肉粽

在马来西亚粽子常被叫作“Chang”。以下为马拉西亚常见的几种粽子:

  • 肉粽(Bak Chang):肉粽通常用猪肉、咸蛋黄、栗子、干虾和香菇依个人喜好制成。米通常呈棕褐色。
  • 咸甜粽(娘惹粽):这种粽子被视为马来西亚华人的特色粽子,通常用碎猪肉、冬瓜和五香粉拌着胡椒制成。
  • 碱水粽:由纯糯米和碱水制成。一般当作甜点蘸着白糖或糖浆吃。
Kiam Tee Chang

咸甜粽(娘惹粽)

Kee Chang

碱水粽

如果你家里没有每年包粽子的习惯,你一样可在市场上买到美味的粽子。下面是口碑最好的几家粽子店:

何玉记

这个家族经营的摊位位于吉隆坡的茨厂街,从上世纪60年代开始就经营至今。

地址:
No. 327 Jalan Hang Lekir
50000 Kuala Lumpur

营业时间:7:00 – 22:00

玉桃苑

这家家庭式餐厅位于白沙罗上城(Damansara Uptown),以粤菜见长。大小规格的广东粽子均有出售。最大的粽子单个甚至重达1公斤。

地址:
13 Jalan SS 21/37
Damansara Utama
Petaling Jaya
47400 Selangor

营业时间:10:30 – 15:00 & 18:00 – 23:00

燕美巴刹

燕美市场里有一个摊位,靠三姐妹经营多年。她们这里售卖广东粽子、碱水粽和娘惹粽。

地址:
12, 6, Jalan Kampung
Pudu
55100 Kuala Lumpur

营业时间:6:30 – 12:00

大阳城酒家

这里销售优质材料制成的高档粽子,原料包含香菇、灵芝等珍贵食材。

地址:
1st Floor The Plaza at Jaya 33
1 Jalan Semangat, Seksyen 14
Petaling Jaya
46100 Selangor

营业时间:11:00-15:00 & 18:00 – 23:00

Yook Tho Yin and Ho Yoke Kee

玉桃苑和何玉记

Noble Mansion Restaurant in Petaling Jaya

位于八打灵的大阳城酒家

 

参与赛龙舟

Preparations for Penang Dragon Boat Festival

为槟城龙舟节做准备

根据2016马来西亚节日活动名录,2016年龙舟比赛在以下地方举行:

  • 马六甲——马六甲河国际嘉年华(2016年5月25日-6月4日);马六甲国际龙舟赛(2016年6月11日)
  • 槟城——槟城国际龙舟节(2016年5月28-29日)
  • 沙巴——沙巴FCAS国际龙舟赛(2016年6月21-22日)
  • 布城——马来西亚国际龙舟赛节目之一(2016年9月25-26日)
  • 砂拉越——砂拉越国际龙舟赛(2016年11月11-13日)

赛龙舟从发展至今已逐渐演变成一项专业的体育运动,不再局限于每年的农历五月初五举行。有些马来西亚的龙舟比赛组织机构,比如2016砂拉越国际龙舟赛,也声明他们举办的比赛都严格遵守国际龙舟联合会(IDBF)以及亚洲龙舟联合会(ADBF)的相关规则条例。马来西亚龙舟协会也早在1991年通过了国际龙舟联合会的审核成为其中一员。

 

布城龙舟赛——2016年22人组300米决赛

或在在伺服器观看影片: https://video.tsemtulku.com/videos/DragonBoatRace.mp4

 

为龙舟赛做准备

个人准备

Endurance training is important to prepare the athletes' body for the race

耐力训练对运动员尤为重要

龙舟比赛对肌肉力量和肺活量有很高的要求。参加比赛的运动员都被建议进行大量的力量和耐力训练以便他们的身体能更好地适应比赛,防止受伤。

团队准备

世界龙舟赛程网建议:在比赛之前,队员们应该着重团队训练而非个人训练,因为尽管每个队伍均有各自的比赛策略,但是基本的技能如团队划桨的协调才是取胜的先决条件。

“认真的龙舟赛运动员一年四季都要接受严格的训练,哪怕是在寒冷的冬季。”

http://www.dragonboatcalendar.com/training.htm

参赛费用、注册以及奖项设置

以下参赛费用是2016年的数据,随时都可能进行调整:报名费为每人150-300令吉。奖品可为奖杯、奖牌或现金奖励。

参赛者的住宿

龙舟赛赛程通常持续四至五天,期间包括登记注册、团队会议和培训,比赛本身通常只有两天,另一天则用于组织参赛人员在当地旅行观光。大多数情况下,活动组织者会为参赛者安排住宿。

比赛服装

在训练和参赛期间,运动员最好是穿防水的衣服,比如速干和Coolmax面料。衣服最好是紧身的,因为宽松的衣服很容易在比赛中吸水拖拽。

 

到马来西亚旅行

 

马来西亚入境所需证件

Dragon016

计划到马来西亚旅行的访客需在入境前确认护照至少还有六个月有效期。东盟国家(即汶莱、柬埔寨、印尼、老挝、缅甸、菲律宾、新加坡、泰国和越南)的公民可以免签在马来西亚境内逗留30天。

其他国家的访客可以在入境时支付330令吉申请落地签证(VOA),也可以在本国提前向马来西亚领事馆申请签证。旅游签证有效期为90天。出行前建议您和就近的马来西亚大使馆或上网确认签证要求。中国、印度、孟加拉和尼泊尔的公民现在可以申请电子签证。

 

在马拉西亚的着装

马来西亚是一个热带国家,所以当地人普遍穿着轻薄透气的衣服。建议您带几件轻便的上衣长裤,太阳镜,遮阳帽,汗衫和至少一条围巾或披肩,以及及膝短裤和短裙。您也可以带上平底鞋和其他休闲鞋。

 

马来西亚的交通

Rail transport in Malaysia

马来西亚的铁路交通

您可以包租一辆按小时计费的长途出租车;在大城市的话,您还可以选择更实惠的公共交通。若您身在吉隆坡,还可以选择轻快铁(LRT)或者单轨火车。

想前往马六甲或槟城乔治市的游客,还可以体验一下传统的三轮车出行。

 

在马来西亚的住宿

在马来西亚找到一个住处是相对容易的。这里有很多酒店、民宿、旅馆可供选择。您可以上网先看评论再预订。

 

槟城的酒店推荐:

乔治市湾景酒店

地址:
Lebuh Farquhar
George Town
10200 George Town
Pulau Pinang
Malaysia

电话: +60 4-263 3161

东方大酒店

地址:
Lebuh Farquhar
George Town
10200 George Town
Pulau Pinang
Malaysia

电话: +60 4-222 2000

槟城G酒店

地址:
168A, Persiaran Gurney
Pulau Tikus
10250 George Town
Pulau Pinang
Malaysia

电话: +60 4-238 0000

 

吉隆坡酒店推荐:

RHR酒店

地址:
Kampus Putrajaya University Tenaga Nasional, KM7
Jalan Ikram-Uniten
43009 Kajang
Selangor
Malaysia

电话: +60 3-8922 2088

布城万宜酒店

地址:
Off, Persiaran Bandar
43650 Bandar Baru Bangi
Selangor
Malaysia

电话: +60 3-8210 2222

雪邦皇后酒店

地址:
Jalan ST 1c/7
43900 Sepang
Malaysia

电话: +60 3-8706 7777

 

马六甲河沿岸酒店推荐:

码头酒店

地址:
Jalan Merdeka, Bandar Hilir
75000 Melaka
Malaysia
电话: +60 6-284 1001

马六甲岸滨公寓

地址:
Kampung Bunga Paya Pantai
75100 Malacca
Malaysia

电话: +60 6-282 2666

马六甲河畔906号酒店

地址:
52, Jalan Kampung Hulu
75200 Melaka
Malaysia

电话: +60 6-282 8906

资料来源:

  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qu_Yuan
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sima_Qian
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wu_Zixu
  • http://malaysia.com/duanwu-festival-culture.html
  • http://www.freemalaysiatoday.com/category/nation/2016/07/26/chinese-population-continues-to-decline/
  • http://www.penangdragonboat.gov.my/portal/
  • Malaysia Tourism Promotion Board (Ministry of Tourism and Culture, Malaysia); Malaysia Events & Festivals 2016; December 2015
  • http://www.idbf.org/members
  • https://sarawaktourism.com/event/sarawak-international-dragon-boat-regatta/
  • http://www.ocasia.org/Sports/SportsFed.aspx?PeMZ0l6yoEEW02q3HVv9iEEDm3tIwYs4
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zongzi
  • http://malaysia.com/blog/chinese-dumplings-chang/index.html
  • http://www.mykeuken.com/2011/06/puah-kiam-ti-chang-nyonya-glutinous.html
  • http://www.dragonboatcalendar.com/fitness_conditioning.htm
  • http://www.dragonboatcalendar.com/training.htm
  • http://www.kln.gov.my/web/are_dubai/other_information/-/asset_publisher/2TQe/content/visa-requirements-for-foreigners-application-requirements-forms
  • https://www.windowmalaysia.my/evisa/evisa.jsp?lang=en
  • http://www.lsa.umich.edu/chinanow/pdfs/FAQs.pdf
  • http://travelfashiongirl.com/what-to-wear-in-malaysia/
  • http://www.lonelyplanet.com/malaysia/transport/getting-around/local-transport
  • http://www.hungrygowhere.my/dining-guide/best-picks/5-best-places-to-get-dumplings-in-kl-*aid-70533101/
  • http://www.kuala-lumpur.ws/magazine/jalan-imbi-market.htm
  • http://www.hoteltravel.com/malaysia/penang/penang-hotels-and-the-dragon-boat-festival.htm

 

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未知

已知与未知同样令人畏惧
已知是安于现状和停滞不前
未知却可能带来成长和机会
人们并不知道自己是否更畏惧未知还是已知
谁说未知会比已知更糟
虽说未知有时的确比已知来得糟
然而说到底一切却依然还是未知
除非我们竭尽所能去努力
因此,全力以赴去追寻未知
因为在熟悉之后,未知就会转为已知。
〜詹杜固仁波切

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    2 年前
    This video went viral and it's a must watch!!
  • SEE HOW THIS ANIMAL SERIAL KILLER HAS NO ISSUE BLUDGEONING THIS DEFENSELESS BEING.
    2 年前
    SEE HOW THIS ANIMAL SERIAL KILLER HAS NO ISSUE BLUDGEONING THIS DEFENSELESS BEING.
    This happens daily in slaughterhouse so you can get your pork and Bak ku teh. Stop eating meat.

询问讲法师


Ask the Pastors

一个让克切拉讲法师来为你解答佛法问题的栏目。

只需在下方写上你的名字和问题,我们的其中一位讲法师就会为你解答问题。

向下滚动并点击“查看所有问题”以查看既往的问题档案。

图文吧

Kechara Earth Project October 2019
2 天前
Kechara Earth Project October 2019
Animal Liberation- Pastor Han Nee blessed the birds before releasing them. Lin Mun KSDS
3 天前
Animal Liberation- Pastor Han Nee blessed the birds before releasing them. Lin Mun KSDS
I’m ready to do the rehearsal :) Lin Mun KSDS
4 天前
I’m ready to do the rehearsal :) Lin Mun KSDS
Asyley and team busy adjusting the sound system in the technical room. Lin Mun KSDS
4 天前
Asyley and team busy adjusting the sound system in the technical room. Lin Mun KSDS
Throwback on Graduation - Hubert strong stance. Practicing his wushu performance. Lin Mun KSDS
4 天前
Throwback on Graduation - Hubert strong stance. Practicing his wushu performance. Lin Mun KSDS
Throwback for graduation - Robey practicing her ballet in rehearsal. Lin Mun KSDS
4 天前
Throwback for graduation - Robey practicing her ballet in rehearsal. Lin Mun KSDS
Teaching children to be kind to animals through the virtuous deed of animal liberation held in Kechara House. Alice, KSDS
1 周前
Teaching children to be kind to animals through the virtuous deed of animal liberation held in Kechara House. Alice, KSDS
The youngest group of KSDS learned and experienced the self-defence session. Alice, KSDS.
1 周前
The youngest group of KSDS learned and experienced the self-defence session. Alice, KSDS.
Vegetarian meals with sufficient nutrients are provided to the children ~ KSDS Woah Camp. Alice, KSDS
1 周前
Vegetarian meals with sufficient nutrients are provided to the children ~ KSDS Woah Camp. Alice, KSDS
Children had fun with the teachers and parents during the game time. Alice, KSDS
1 周前
Children had fun with the teachers and parents during the game time. Alice, KSDS
First Pilgrimage cum Camp held in Kechara Forest Retreat. Alice, KSDS.
1 周前
First Pilgrimage cum Camp held in Kechara Forest Retreat. Alice, KSDS.
So happy for them to have opportunity to engage in dharma at a very young age. Lin Mun KSDS
2 周前
So happy for them to have opportunity to engage in dharma at a very young age. Lin Mun KSDS
Teacher Grace and teacher Callista guided the teenage class on a blog article. They enjoyed it. Lin Mun KSDS
2 周前
Teacher Grace and teacher Callista guided the teenage class on a blog article. They enjoyed it. Lin Mun KSDS
Children took a picture with Guru. Lin Mun KSDS
2 周前
Children took a picture with Guru. Lin Mun KSDS
Teacher Asyley and teacher Melinda showed pictures and biography of Rinpoche to students. Lin Mun KSDS
2 周前
Teacher Asyley and teacher Melinda showed pictures and biography of Rinpoche to students. Lin Mun KSDS
Children have so much fun during dharma class. Lin Mun KSDS
2 周前
Children have so much fun during dharma class. Lin Mun KSDS
Sunday dharma class has resumed today after a long break. Lin Mun KSDS
2 周前
Sunday dharma class has resumed today after a long break. Lin Mun KSDS
Teacher Kien is a good story teller. Children enjoy listening to his dharma sharing. Lin Mun KSDS
3 周前
Teacher Kien is a good story teller. Children enjoy listening to his dharma sharing. Lin Mun KSDS
Teacher Melinda guided children to recite mantra during dharma class. Lin Mun KSDS
3 周前
Teacher Melinda guided children to recite mantra during dharma class. Lin Mun KSDS
Children and teachers practise some moves for the Graduation performance. Lin Mun KSDS
3 周前
Children and teachers practise some moves for the Graduation performance. Lin Mun KSDS
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Dorje Shugden
点击观看我对多杰雄登的说法。。。