大宝森节——战神穆卢干之节

2016年11月16日 | 浏览量: 410

马来西亚是一个真正践行多样化的国家,她绘制出了一幅文化、种族和宗教和谐共存的神奇画卷。印度教(兴都教)节日大宝森节就是这样一个例子,信徒们投入巨大的心力,以虔诚至极的宗教仪式来庆祝这一节日。尽管世界各地都会庆祝大宝森节,但这个节日只有在马来西亚才算真正生根发芽,达到前所未有的繁荣。这证明了马来西亚的文化多样与和谐,也是马来西亚这个多样化社会的特有标识。

说到这里,我想跟大家分享一些关于大宝森节的资讯:它的起源、庆祝方式,甚至为有意前来参观者提供一些该如何前往该地及在何处留宿等的相关信息。希望在读过这篇文章之后,您能对这个神圣、虔诚且极富表现力的节日和马来西亚这个国家有更深的了解。

詹杜固仁波切

 


 

Batu Caves in Malaysia is one of the most popular Hindu shrines outside of India and a focal point for the Thaipusam festival (Photo by Olivia Harris/Reuters)

马来西亚的黑风洞(Batu Caves)印度以外,最受欢迎的印度教朝拜圣地之一,同时也是大宝森节的核心庆祝地(摄影:Olivia Harris,路透社)。

注:本文中的一些图片和视频包含诸如铁钩穿刺等自残内容,胆小者慎入。

大宝森节是一个印度教节日,主要由印度人尤其是泰米尔社群庆祝。在印度语中,“大宝森”(Thaipusam)由“Thai”和“Pusam”两个部分组成。“Thai”是泰米尔历中的阴历十月,俗称“泰月”;而“Pusam”则是一个由三颗星组成的星座名称。大宝森节在每年的泰月满月时举行,也就是在西方公历(阳历)的一、二月之间。在印度占星术中,Pusam星座在此时运行到一年中的最高点。

大宝森节广义上是庆祝诸神战胜邪恶力量,但主要是庆祝战神穆卢干的诞生。穆卢干出生之前,天神和半神阿修罗苦战。战斗中天神一方遭受重创,无力抵挡半神多逻加(Surapadma / Soorapadam)领导的阿修罗军队之猛烈攻击。眼看就要战败,危机时刻天神们找到了湿婆神(印度教的三大神之一,另两神为梵天和毗湿奴),请求湿婆任命一个合适的指挥官带领天神们打败阿修罗。面对诸神的臣服和虔诚的恳求,湿婆应允了他们的请求,用自己的神力创造出了一个强大的战士——穆卢干。这极大地鼓舞了天神们的士气,在穆卢干的领导下,天神军队最终战胜了阿修罗军队。

因此,在大宝森节这一天,战神穆卢干的神像被装饰得华丽无比,放置在马车之上,由信众簇拥着前行,队伍熙熙攘攘绵延数里煞是壮观。穆卢干神被印度教奉为勇敢、力量、品德和美好的化身,并认为他是一个万能的神,为人们守护赐福。为了向穆卢干还愿感恩,信众不惜禁欲自残。最为常见的自残还愿方式就是背负卡瓦第(Kavadi)。至于卡瓦第是什么,我们接下来会再谈到。

 

战神穆卢干到底是谁?

穆卢干是印度教信奉的神。他还有很多的别称譬如迦吉耶(Kartikeya)、苏布茹阿曼亚(Subhramanya)、室建陀 (Skanda)、六面军神(Shanmuka)、苏巴马廉(Subhramanian)、沙达纳纳(Shadanana)、古哈(Guha)、圣迪(Sentil)、萨惹瓦纳(Saravana)和库马拉斯瓦米(Kumaraswamy)。他是印度大神湿婆与雪山女神帕尔瓦蒂之子,信众相信他是英勇与智慧的完美化身。穆卢干也因此被尊奉为印度教的战斗和胜利之神。他亦被认为是为摧毁邪恶魔鬼(象征人类的邪恶倾向)而生的诸神将领。

A depiction of Lord Murugan riding his peacock mount together with his consorts. Click to enlarge.

穆卢干神及其明妃身骑孔雀一起飞升。点击放大

传说中湿婆和帕尔瓦蒂偏爱穆卢干的弟弟迦尼萨(象头神),于是穆卢干决定离开冈仁波齐山的家,搬去印度南部的山林中。尽管被父亲湿婆促请搬回家,穆卢干也不改变心意。正因如此,穆卢干在印度南部比在北部更广受尊崇。

穆卢干的一只手里持有一柄长矛。这只长矛是其母雪山女神帕尔瓦蒂送给他的,是帕尔瓦蒂强大精神力量(shakti)的象征。故也有传说大宝森节就是纪念帕尔瓦蒂赐予穆卢干长矛这一天。 穆卢干的另一只手结成一个无畏印,意为驱散畏惧,使人心安,赐予喜悦和精神上的护佑。穆卢干身骑一只五彩斑斓的孔雀,象征虔敬和对情欲的平息。孔雀的利爪上擒着一条蛇,象征摧毁坏习性和一切邪恶的影响。正因为穆卢干代表着力量和权力,信众坚信他能消灭人世间一切苦难并赐予人们无穷力量。

A depiction of Lord Murugan riding his peacock mount together with his consorts

穆卢干神幼年时,一只手持一支长矛,另一只手赐福信众。

战神穆卢干在出生后第七天便打败了阿修罗军队的强大首领多逻加,也因此被视为印度教最为凶猛的男性神祗之一,以其不可撼动的英勇成为印度教法的守护神。

穆卢干拥有六个头,分别代表五种感官和心识。这六个头让穆卢干能看见四方八面,以便随时应对来自任何方位的问题。这位六头战神也教导信众要一生战斗,不可懈怠:努力战胜逆境,避免堕入贪、淫、怒、执着、自我和嫉妒这六种歧途。

穆卢干有两名配偶,分别叫做瓦丽(Valli)和蒂娃希娜(Devasena)。 瓦丽是一个普通的部族女孩而蒂娃希娜则是诸神之王因陀罗的女儿。传说中,毗湿奴有安姆丽达瓦丽(Amritavalli)和桑达拉瓦丽(Saundaravalli)两个女儿,她们从毗湿奴的眼睛里诞生,而瓦丽和蒂娃希娜就是她俩的转世。 毗湿奴这两个女儿都对穆卢干产生了不渝之爱,并且经历了艰辛异常的苦修才如愿嫁给穆卢干:在穆卢干的指导下,安姆丽达瓦丽转世为蒂娃希娜,在因陀罗的照顾下长大;桑达拉瓦丽则转世成为瓦丽,在甘吉布勒姆(Kanchipuram)附近一位名叫南毗拉惹(Nambiraja)的猎人的保护下成长为亭亭玉立的少女。瓦丽这个名字在泰米尔语中指一种攀缘植物。她转世时被猎人在一片攀缘植物中发现,故猎人为女婴取名为瓦丽。

在与多逻加的战斗结束之后,天神们大喜过望。穆卢干就是在这个时刻接受了因陀罗的恳求迎娶蒂娃希娜作为他的配偶。盛大的婚礼在马杜赖(Maurai)附近的蒂鲁帕兰昆德拉姆(Tirupparankundram)神山上举行,湿婆和雪山女神帕尔瓦蒂见证了这场气氛热烈的婚礼。紧接着举行的是因陀罗的加冕仪式(Amaravati)。其他众神也都相继恢复了他们在天界的地位。

穆卢干在斯甘达吉里(Skandagiri)安居下来之后继续向金奈(Chennai)附近的蒂鲁德尼(Tiruttani)进发。他在那里遇到了正在青稞田里劳作的瓦丽。穆卢干略施小计,唤醒了瓦丽前世心底对穆卢干的爱意,瓦丽立即同意嫁给他。

 

卡瓦第

背负卡瓦第(Kavadi)在泰米尔语中是“负罪之舞”的意思,是一种祭拜战神穆卢干的牺牲和供奉仪式。在大宝森节这一天,背负卡瓦第是最主要的祭祀仪式,它用自残的方式向穆卢干还愿,感恩他的守护和施与。

卡瓦第是一种祭拜工具,被信徒背负在身上用来祈愿或感恩。祈愿通常是为病痛中的亲朋好友祈求康复。与此同时,背负卡瓦第也是一种偿还之前所接受之种种恩惠的方式。

参与卡瓦第游行的信徒们背着不同种类的卡瓦第沿着朝圣之路边走边舞蹈,很是热闹。

Examples of different kavadi

各种不同的卡瓦第

 

卡瓦第的起源

阿竭多仙人(Rishi Agastya)是印度传说中著名的吠陀七圣之一,他想把西瓦吉里(Shivagiri)和瑟格帝吉里(Shaktigiri)两座山搬到自己位于印度南边的住所。于是他委任门下一个叫做伊敦班(Idumban)的半神徒弟去移山。这个门徒是穆卢干和多逻加分别领导的诸神与阿修罗之战的幸存者,因为感恩穆卢干的恩德成为了穆卢干的信徒。

Idumban carrying the two hills, Shivagiri and Shaktigiri

伊敦班挑着西瓦吉里和瑟格帝吉里这两座山

与此同时,穆卢干在和弟弟象头神的比赛中正处于下风。他们比赛谁能更快绕行宇宙三圈。当穆卢干老老实实骑着他的孔雀在宇宙中绕行的时候,他的弟弟象头神只是虔诚地围绕父母湿婆神和帕尔瓦蒂女神转了三圈就赢得了比赛,并得到了智慧圣果作为奖励。象头神借此向父母表达了自己无与伦比的孝顺,因为他的行动说明神圣的父母在他心中就包含了整个宇宙。当穆卢干回来的时候才发现奖励已经被弟弟拿走了。

穆卢干盛怒之下发誓要离开家庭,于是他来到了位于阿迪瓦拉(意为“西瓦吉里山脚之地”)一个叫做帝鲁阿维南库迪(Tiru Avinankudi)的地方。湿婆神安慰他说“穆卢干你自身就是智慧圣果(pazham/pala)呀”。因此这个地方就叫做帕拉尼(Pazham-nee/Palani),意为“你就是智慧之果”。后来穆卢干回到了山上开始了平静的隐居。

伊敦班肩上一边背着西瓦吉里山,另一边背着瑟格帝吉里山,就像现在的信众背着卡瓦第一样。当他走到帕拉尼的时候觉得十分疲惫,于是放下了肩上的卡瓦第(两座山)稍事休息。

Lord Shiva and the Goddess Parvati giving the prized fruit to Lord Ganesha. Click to enlarge.

湿婆神和帕尔瓦蒂女神正在给象头神奖励。点击放大

当伊敦班想要继续赶路的时候,他发现背不起这两座山了。那是因为穆卢干使用神力让伊敦班无法背起这两座山。在一座山的山巅上,伊敦班看见一个穿着传统缠腰布的小男孩,便要求这个小孩离开自己好继续赶路。但是小孩拒绝了。伊敦班就又开口让小孩走开,小孩还是不听。如此反复,伊敦班彻底丧失了耐心,使用自己的半神之力去攻击小孩。然而,令他震惊的是小孩依然纹丝不动,自己反而在出手的过程中受了伤。

待到伊敦班恢复镇静,他才意识到这个小孩原来是战神穆卢干,便双手合十虔诚行礼。 穆卢干变回了自己本来的面貌并赞扬了伊敦班对师父的忠诚和决心,随即任命伊敦班从此以后担任自己的护卫一职。

穆卢干还宣布,所有像伊敦班背山一样背负着卡瓦第向他祈祷的人都会得到自己的欢心。伊敦班做了如下请愿而穆卢干全部同意了:

  1. 任何背负着卡瓦第在寺庙立誓许愿的人都会得到穆卢干的庇佑;
  2. 伊敦班自己则拥有站立在山门守护的特权。

这便形成了背负卡瓦第立誓祈祷、感恩神明保佑的传统。时至今日伊敦班依然是所有供奉穆卢干的庙宇的守卫,巍巍矗立在内殿的门口。

Kavadis lined up inside Batu Caves Temple

在黑风洞寺庙内整齐排列的卡瓦第

 

卡瓦第仪式的准备

仪式只有两天,但准备活动在仪式开始前的48天就开始了。信徒们开始净化自己的身体与心灵,每天只吃一顿素斋。在大宝森节之前的24小时,所有信众便开始彻底斋戒。

信徒严格遵守以下净化指示:

  • 克制欲望
  • 严格素斋
  • 剃头
  • 禁欲
  • 冷水浴
  • 睡地上
  • 持续祈祷
  • 戒一切令人昏醉的物品(药物和酒精)
  • 不口出恶言
  • 不打扮
  • 戒娱乐
  • 日出前开始诵经和禅修

在大宝森节当天,一位上师或老师会进行法会或给信徒们传授法门。信徒们身着大红、藏红或是黄色的衣服,而准备背负卡瓦第的信徒则必须全天禁语。一场专为卡瓦第背负者举办的法会,伴随着对穆卢干神的颂赞念诵中进行。法会结束后,信众为背负卡瓦第做好准备,并向上师祈求加持。紧接着上师会把卡瓦第为信徒背上,信众随之开始舞蹈。

A woman dances in trance as she heads towards Batu Caves

一位妇女在降神状态中跳着舞向黑风洞前进

信众随着印度双面鼓(thavil vadhyam)和纳加斯瓦兰(nagaswaram,印度长形双簧唢呐)的节拍起舞,有者因沉浸在宗教的狂热兴奋中起舞,有者则是处于降神状态。这种舞蹈透出令人敬畏的气息,信徒们的脸上也闪耀着神圣的光芒。通过这种狂热的舞蹈,信徒们往往体验自己与战神穆卢干融合,感受到神的意志。据说穆卢干神有时会降神在信徒身上。

 

卡瓦第舞曲

卡瓦第的历史渊远深厚,甚至影响了诸如南印度婆罗多舞(Bharatanatyam)等传统舞蹈形式。这种舞蹈的配乐别具风格、热情洋溢、节奏欢快。下面这个链接就是一支统称为“卡瓦第舞曲”(kavadi chindu)的婆罗多舞配乐。您可以点击“播放”在线听歌,也可以点击“下载”将舞曲下载到您的mp3、ipod或者电脑上便于播放。

      卡瓦第舞曲(婆罗多舞配乐)

 

卡瓦第的种类

卡瓦第在形状、大小和制作材料方面各有不同。虽然他们看起来或许会有一些差异,使用的方法也有一些不同,但是每个卡瓦第背后的意义是一模一样的——都是为了向战神穆卢干和其他诸神表示奉献和忠诚。

 

1. “托尔”(肩膀)卡瓦第(Thol Kavadi)

A devotee walking towards Batu Caves during Thaipusam in Kuala Lumpur

在大宝森节期间,一位信徒正朝着吉隆坡的黑风洞前行。

托尔卡瓦第通常由两个木制或钢制半圆形支架构成,衔接定位在一个交叉结构上,以便在背负者的双肩上保持平衡。这种卡瓦第多由鲜花、孔雀羽毛装饰,象征着战神穆卢干的坐骑。

 

2. “帕尔”(牛奶)卡瓦第(Paal Kavadi)

Thaipusam008

信徒头上顶着由黄铜或其他金属制成的锅,锅里面盛放着供奉神明的供品:牛奶、圣灰(vibhuthi)或者其他圣物。

 

3. “马伊尔”(孔雀)卡瓦第/“沙达尔”卡瓦第(Mayil Kavadi/ Shadal Kavadi)

Thaipusam009-1

这种卡瓦第是所有卡瓦第中最壮观的一种了。它是一个便携的祭坛,高达两米甚至更高。上面的装饰品大多是孔雀羽毛,有时也有五颜六色的各式泡沫雕塑。信众的背部和胸部被108个铮亮的铁钩刺入,铁钩另一端连着卡瓦第。有的卡瓦第甚至重达40公斤。

 

4. “阿拉武”卡瓦第(Alavu Kavadi)

A woman with a Alavu Kavadi in trance

一个背着“阿拉武”的女信徒正处于降神状态中

这是一种自残的方式:信徒用长矛(vel)穿过自己的脸颊和舌头以铭记战神穆卢干。这也是一种防止信众讲话的措施,让信众在这个过程中获得极大的忍耐力。

 

5. “维德穆勒”卡瓦第(Vette Mulle)

Devotee that has vette mulle pulling a chariot behind him

信众正用维德穆勒拉动身后的战车

这是一种带着许多钩的卡瓦第,铁钩的一头刺入信众的后背,另一头结着粗绳子,有者被身后的另一位信众牵拉着,有者则是用来拉动战车。

 

6. “库当穆勒”(Koodam Mulle)

A type of koodam mulle using fruits

悬挂水果的库当穆勒

Another type of koodam mulle using small pots of milk

另一种悬挂着牛奶小锅的库当穆勒

这种卡瓦第用密密麻麻的小铁钩穿过信众的皮肤,钩子的另一端连着许多小锅,盛着各种供品如牛奶、圣灰、檀香粉或者朱砂粉等。这些全都是供奉神灵的祭品。有时候钩子上还会连着水果供品。

 

卡瓦第降神

Devotees entering a trance on their way to Batu Caves

信徒在降神中走向黑风洞

在大宝森节期间,信众进入降神状态十分常见。有些卡瓦第信徒由自己的兄弟、配偶或其他亲戚在旁跟随照顾。这些男女信徒中,有许多人在节日之前就把头发剃光,以作为一种还愿或供养的方式。

铁钩或长矛刺入皮肤的痛苦可谓痛不欲生。然而在神灵降神的保佑下,信众往往并没感受太多的疼痛。事实上,许多信徒都说自己只在穿刺瞬间感到疼痛,进入各种程度的降神状态之后,他们甚至感知不到周围的一切,更感觉不到皮肉穿刺带来的痛。降神结束后,他们已经抵达目的地,许多信众甚至完全不记得途中发生的一切。

拔除钩刺之后,穿刺过的地方一般不会出血,或仅有少量出血,伤口也会恢复得很快,他们相信这一切皆是因为有神灵的庇佑。

 

马来西亚的印度教

印度教是马来西亚的第四大宗教。大约有178万马来西亚人信奉印度教。根据2010年马来西亚统计局发布的人口普查分析报告,这个数字占据了马来西亚总人口的6.3%。

绝大多数的马来西亚印度教徒生活在马来亚半岛西部地区。其中印度教徒人数占人口比例最大的州属是森美兰州(13.4%),其次是雪兰莪州(11.6%)、霹雳州(10.9%)和吉隆坡联邦直辖区(8.5%)。 印度教人口比例最低的州属则是沙巴州(0.1%)。

 

马来西亚的大宝森节

Thousands attend the Thaipusam festival at Batu Caves every year

每年有成千上万的人涌入黑风洞庆祝大宝森节

马来西亚每年都要庆祝大宝森节。大宝森节也是吉隆坡、布城联邦直辖区,以及柔佛、森美兰、霹雳、槟城和雪兰莪州的法定公众假期。每年有超过百万名印度教信徒在全国各地的印度教寺庙集会并庆祝这个神圣的节日。

由于每年泰米尔历泰月的满月日期略有变化,大宝森节通常落在公历的1、2月之间。到目前为止,马来西亚每年最盛大的庆祝活动都是在吉隆披市郊的黑风洞举行,其盛况世界闻名。其他举行大型庆祝活动的寺庙包括槟城的山顶姆鲁甘兴都庙(Arulmigu Balathandayuthapani Temple),以及霹雳州怡保市的斯里苏巴马尼亚兴都庙(Kullumalai Arulmigu Subramaniyar Temple)。

 

国家地理的纪录片资料

Or view the video on the server at:
https://video.tsemtulku.com/videos/Thaipusam.mp4

 

吉隆坡的大宝森节

信徒们清晨4点就开始为节日做准备。游行队伍从吉隆坡唐人街的马里安曼兴都庙(Sri Mahamariamman Temple)出发,将穆卢干神及其两位配偶的塑像放置在银制的战车上,簇拥着车和神像一路向黑风洞前行,大约会在中午时分到达黑风洞。

这辆银制战车于1893年初次使用,制作时耗费了350公斤的白银,花费了大约35万令吉。战车约有6.5米(21英尺)高,车身缠绕240条皮带。车身由12个部分组成,所有的组件都是印度制造并于1893年在马来西亚本土组装的。

Devotees carrying the image of Lord Murugan out of Sri Mahamariamma Temple onto the silver chariot, an act that officially marks the beginning of the Thaipusam festival

信众将穆卢干的神像请出马里安曼兴都庙,放置在银车上,这标志着大宝森节正式开始。

The silver chariot procession along the streets of Kuala Lumpur early in the morning

清晨,银战车沿着吉隆坡的街道前行

主要的庆祝活动在黑风洞脚下的苏巴马廉兴都庙(Sri Subramaniar Swamy Temple)举行。穆卢干神像抵达后,信众开始为感恩和忏悔仪式做准备。卡瓦第背负者将率先进行净浴,很多信徒在净浴的时候便能通过念经祈祷和过去48天的净化仪式而进入降神状态。紧接着他们的身体接受铁钩或铁棍的刺入,在降神状态中的信徒几乎感受不到过程中的痛苦。

A devotee prays while he bathes himself before his pilgrimage to Batu Caves

一个信徒在前往黑风洞朝圣之前一边祷告,一边沐浴。

Hindu devotee seen in trance before his pilgrimage to Batu Caves during Thaipusam

在前往黑风洞朝拜前便进入降神状态的印度教信徒

信众的亲朋好友会带领他们走上272级陡峭的台阶到达黑风洞入口。这些信众一路背着各式各样的卡瓦第,有的卡瓦第甚至重达100公斤(约220磅)。他们在石阶上或走或舞,同时持续念诵着经文。由于卡瓦第大多色彩艳丽、尺寸巨大,从山脚也能看见这些不断攀登的信徒和他们背上的卡瓦第。

Family and friends guiding a kavadi devotee up the steep flight of stairs to the entrance of Batu Caves

一个背负卡瓦第的信徒正在家人朋友的引领下攀登陡峭石梯,直达黑风洞口。

一旦背负卡瓦第的信徒到达了洞内的圣殿,他的祈祷便结束了,卡瓦第也卸了下来。攀登活动会一直持续到夜晚,成百上千的信众背着卡瓦第排队爬上石阶,等着把背上的卡瓦第放置在中央洞穴内的圣殿里。

在黑风洞的两日庆典之后,队伍又簇拥着穆卢干及其配偶的神像和战车返回马里安曼兴都庙。成千上万的人加入游行队伍,表演者们则敲锣打鼓振奋人群的士气。

如果你打算在大宝森节期间游览黑风洞,建议您在清晨或者傍晚前往,因为白天里非常炎热。

Thousands of devotees climb the stairs to the temple inside Batu Caves every year during Thaipusam (Photo by Olivia Harris/Reuters)

成千上万的信众在大宝森节这天攀登黑风洞陡峭的石梯,由此进入洞内圣地。(摄影:Olivia Harris,路透社)

黑风洞最早由德穆安(Temuan)人使用,后来中国移民开始挖掘洞中的鸟粪(蝙蝠粪便)当做肥料种植蔬菜,但黑风洞却是英国殖民者的记录档案而闻名。一个叫做皮莱(K. Thamboosamy Pillay)的著名马来西亚泰米尔商人受到黑风洞那形似长矛(Vel)的洞口的启发,提出将此处作为朝拜的圣地。后来山洞被改造成寺庙来供奉穆卢干神。皮莱也在洞内安置了一尊穆卢干神像。1920年,人们造了272级木质阶梯连接山下与洞口,如今已经被我们看到的水泥石阶所代替。

黑风洞寺庙群还拥有世界上最大的露天穆卢干神像。这尊神像于2006年揭幕,历时3年打造,高达42.7米(约140英尺)。它已成为了作为吉隆披和马来西亚代名词的一座纪念标志。只要一提及吉隆坡,世界各地的人民都会想起这个令人难忘的城市地标。除了作为一个活跃的宗教场所,黑风洞也是吉隆坡最受欢迎的旅游景点之一。

 

吉隆坡马里安曼兴都庙大宝森节的银车游行

Or view the video on the server at:
https://video.tsemtulku.com/videos/ThaipusamSilverChariot.mp4

 

前往黑风洞

Map of Batu Caves. Click to enlarge.

黑风洞地图。点击放大

黑风洞位于吉隆坡市中心以北约13公里的地方。鉴于节日期间交通拥堵停车不便,建议大家选择公共交通工具。大宝森节期间也设有从吉隆坡中环站到黑风洞的巴士(公交)专线供游客和信众使用。在市区内出租车(德士)也是不错的选择。

当然最便捷的出行方式是乘坐KTM 电动火车(Komuter)黑风洞 – 芙蓉线(Batu Caves – Seremban route)到达黑风洞站。您可以在吉隆坡市的主要火车站,吉隆坡中环站(KL sentral)搭乘KTM Komuter线的列车,单向车票只需少于5令吉;您也可以从这里搭乘出租车,或在蒂蒂旺沙(Titiwangsa)巴士站(公交站)搭乘U6路巴士前往。

 

苏巴马廉兴都庙(Sri Subramaniar Swamy Temple)

如您需要了解更多有关黑风洞及其活动的信息,可透过以下方式联系。

地址:
68000 Batu Caves, Selangor,
Malaysia.
电话: +603 6189 6284
传真: +603 6187 2404
电邮:batu_caves@yahoo.com

 

在吉隆坡中环站附近的住宿

以下为吉隆坡中环站附近旅店的列表。您也可以上网搜索中环站附近的其他酒店。

 

Le Meridien Kuala Lumpur(4星级酒店)

地址:
2 Jalan Stesen Sentral,
Kuala Lumpur Sentral,
50470 Kuala Lumpur,
Malaysia.
电话: +603 2263 7888
电邮: http://www.lemeridienkualalumpur.com

 

Royce Hotel KL Sentral(3.5 星级酒店)

地址:
20 & 22 Jalan Tun Sambanthan 3,
50470 Kuala Lumpur,
Malaysia.
电话: +603 2276 2420
电邮: http://roycehotel-kl.com

 

Hotel Sentral Kuala Lumpur(3 星级酒店)

地址:
30 Jalan Thambypillai, Brickfields
50470 Kuala Lumpur,
Malaysia.
电话: +603 2272 6000
电邮: http://www.hotelsentral.com.my

 

槟城州的大宝森节

Silver chariot escorting Lord Murugan in Penang

槟城州的穆卢干神银车游行

在槟城,大宝森节庆典为期3天:从大宝森节前夕开始直到大宝森节结束的后一天。

穆卢干神的崇拜仪式在大宝森节前夕的清晨6点举行。信徒们排着长队簇拥着载着穆卢干神像的银车游行,前方由饰以孔雀羽毛的华丽卡瓦第率先开路。游行于早晨6点在小印度开始,于午夜在柴提亚寺庙(Nattukottai Chettiar Temple)结束。沿途人们纷纷把椰子掷向地面以示履行自己对神许下的神圣誓言。观看掷椰仪式的最佳地点就在槟城时代广场前的柑仔园路(Jalan Dato Keramat),因为游行队伍通常从中午起就开始经过这个地区了。

Coconut smashing ritual in Georgetown

乔治市的掷椰仪式

在大宝森节当天,和吉隆坡的信众一样,槟城的卡瓦第信徒们也会穿刺自己的身体。凌晨3点开始,信众聚集在罗弄古力(Lorong Kuilt),即槟城“快捷通”(Rapid)办事处旁边的斯里姆都马里安曼(Sri Muthu Mariamman)兴都庙,并开始攀爬513级陡峭的阶梯向山顶姆鲁甘兴都庙(Arulmigu Balathandayuthapani Temple)进发。这一过程的最佳的观看时间是下午3点以后。背着大型卡瓦第的信徒通常在晚上9点半左右启程。信众可在沿途的130个素食摊位享用素食餐饮;这些摊位都装饰得极有节日气氛,艳丽非常。

Devotees making their way up to the Arulmigu Balathandayuthapani Temple

正在前往山顶姆鲁甘兴都庙的信徒

庆典于大宝森节后的第二天结束。当天下午6点左右,穆卢干神像被放在银车上从柴提亚寺庙送回位于槟榔律(Lebuh Penang)的唐人街兴都庙(Kovil Veedu Temple)。回程的路线和来时路线有所不同,但同样伴有掷椰仪式,也有信众用大银盘献上鲜花瓜果和香。

Thambulam, or offerings arranged on a big silver plate.

大银盘上的供品

 

前往山顶姆鲁甘兴都庙(Arulmigu Balathandayuthapani Temple)

Map of Arulmigu Balathandayuthapani Temple. Click to enlarge.

山顶姆鲁甘兴都庙地图。点击放大

节日期间停车困难,建议您搭乘出租车前往山顶姆鲁甘兴都庙。

 

山顶姆鲁甘兴都庙

如您需要了解更多有关该兴都庙及其活动的信息,可透过以下方式联系。

地址:
Jalan Air Terjun,
10350 George Town,
Penang, Malaysia.
电话: +604 6505 215

 

槟州旅游行动理事会(Penang Tourism Action Council)

如您需要了解更多关于到槟城旅游的信息,可联系槟州旅游行动理事会。

地址:
56th Floor, Komtar
10100 Penang,
Malaysia
电话: +604 262 0202
传真: +604 263 1020
电邮: enquiry@tourismpenang.gov.my

Arulmigu Balathandayuthapani Temple

山顶姆鲁甘兴都庙

 

山顶姆鲁甘兴都庙附近的住宿

以下是寺庙附近的旅店列表。您也可以上网搜索许多其他酒店。

 

G Hotel Kelawai Penang(5星级酒店)

地址:
2 Persiaran Maktab,
10250 Penang,
Malaysia.
电话: +604 219 0000
电邮: http://ghotelkelawai.com.my

 

Georgetown City Hotel(4 星级酒店)

地址:
1-Stop Midlands Park,
Burmah Road
10350 Georgetown,
Penang, Malaysia.
电话: +604 227 7111
电邮: http://www.georgetowncityhotel.com

 

Hotel Waterfall(3星级酒店)

地址:
160 Jalan Utama,
10450 Penang,
Malaysia
电话: +604 229 5588
电邮: http://www.hotelwaterfall.com.my

 

怡保的大宝森节

Thaipusam Festival

怡保的大宝森节庆典规模要比吉隆坡和槟城的小得多,但是依然十分热闹且激动人心。对卡瓦第信徒和家人们而言,这项庆典是一项24小时的密集修行。游行路线从马里安曼兴都庙(Mariamman Kovil)开始,于怡保斯里苏巴马尼亚兴都庙(Kallumalai Arulmigu Subramaniya)结束。

在游行路线沿途,信众设置临时神殿和摊位,为路人提供一些小点心。此外,到处也可见到热情起舞的信众,使节庆气氛持续高涨。

Thaipusam032

 

前往怡保斯里苏巴马尼亚兴都庙

Map of Kallumalai Arulmigu Subramaniyar Temple. Click to enlarge.

怡保斯里苏巴马尼亚兴都庙地图。点击放大

节日期间停车困难,建议您搭乘出租车前往怡保斯里苏巴马尼亚兴都庙。

 

怡保斯里苏巴马尼亚兴都庙

地址:
Ipoh Hindu Devasathana Paripalana Sabah
No. 140, Jalan Raja Musa Aziz,
30300 Ipoh,
Perak, Malaysia.
电话: +604 229 5588
网址: http://www.hotelwaterfall.com.my

 

怡保斯里苏巴马尼亚兴都庙附近的住宿

以下是寺庙附近的旅店的列表。您也可以上网搜索到其他酒店。

 

Cititel Express Ipoh

地址:
2 Jalan S. P. Seenivasagam
30000 Ipoh,
Perak, Malaysia.
电话: +605 208 2888
网址: http://www.cititelexpress.com/ipoh/

 

Seemsoon Hotel

地址:
No. 2 Regat Dato Mahmud,
Jalan Pasir Puteh
31650 Ipoh,
Perak, Malaysia.
电话: +605 255 6888
网址: http://www.seemsoonhotel.com

 

M Boutique Hotel Ipoh

地址:
2 Hala Datuk 5,
Off Jalan Leong Boon Swee
31650 Ipoh,
Perak, Malaysia
电话: +605 255 5566
网址: http://www.mboutiquehotels.com

 

马来西亚各地的大宝森节盛况图片

The largest statue of Lord Murugan in the world at Batu Caves

黑风洞世界最大的穆卢干神像

Chinese Hindus joining a kavadi procession

华裔印度教徒加入卡瓦第游行

Devotee praying at the start of the kavadi procession

一名信众在卡瓦第游行前先进行祷告

Devotee beginning his journey towards Batu Caves with the burden of the kavadi on his shoulders

信徒背着卡瓦第向黑风洞前进

A devotee in a trance state during the Thaipusam festival in Batu Caves. Devotees enter trance, after which they are lanced without feeling pain

黑风洞大宝森节庆典中进入降神状态的信徒。一旦进入降神状态,信众就感受不到铁钩穿刺皮肤的痛苦

A devotee is blessed with vibhuti (sacred ash) by a priest during the Thaipusam festival

大宝森节庆典中,一位信徒正接受圣灰的加持

A woman showers in turmeric before beginning her pilgrimage to Batu Caves during Thaipusam

在黑风洞的大宝森节庆典上,一位女性信徒在前往黑洞朝圣之前先用黄姜粉洗浴

A devotee bearing a elaborate and golden kavadi

背负着华丽金色卡瓦第的信徒

A devotee pierced with hooks and chains connected to the kavadi resting on his shoulders

一名信徒身上穿刺带着链条的铁钩,用来固定肩膀上的卡瓦第

A devotee showing his faith, by having the hooks in his back pulled with ropes

一个信徒让人拉紧勾在背上的绳子以表示自己的虔诚

Kavadi bearers also show their devotion by using ornate and and even golden 'vel' or spears to pierce themselves as part of the Thaipusam festival

一些背负卡瓦第的信徒还在脸上和身上穿刺长矛状的饰物以示虔诚

Devotees of all ages take part in the Thaipusam festival

各年龄层信徒都参与大宝森节庆典

A devotee taking trance of a wrathful deity during Thaipusam

一名信众在大宝森节庆典上接受愤怒神明降神

 

 

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1个回应大宝森节——战神穆卢干之节

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  1. 神奇的辣木树 | Tsem Rinpoche 于 2019年7月1日 下午11:30

    […] 辣木树的树叶很小,它的枝干四处往外生长。它长得并不美观但是它的每一个部分都具有不同的益处,是一棵具多功能的树。辣木树在世界各地尤其是气候干燥的地区例如印度、非洲、中美州和墨西哥都有种植。在一些由于贫穷而引起营养不良的社区,辣木树是他们的救星。许多国家都在教育他们的国民如何食用辣木树。 […]

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未知

已知与未知同样令人畏惧
已知是安于现状和停滞不前
未知却可能带来成长和机会
人们并不知道自己是否更畏惧未知还是已知
谁说未知会比已知更糟
虽说未知有时的确比已知来得糟
然而说到底一切却依然还是未知
除非我们竭尽所能去努力
因此,全力以赴去追寻未知
因为在熟悉之后,未知就会转为已知。
〜詹杜固仁波切

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First picture-Standing Manjushri Statue at Chowar, Kirtipur, Nepal.
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Thankful to James and Jien Howe for conducting the safety briefing to the new volunteers last night. ~ Vivian @ Kechara Soup Kitchen
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Thankful to James and Jien Howe for conducting the safety briefing to the new volunteers last night. ~ Vivian @ Kechara Soup Kitchen
Special thanks to Calvin who came as early as 12.30 p.m. He helped us to spring-clean the chapel before today's events; Bird Liberation and Dorje Shugden puja @ KPSG, Jacinta
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Photo from Jacinta Goh
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Photo from Jacinta Goh
Photo from Jacinta Goh
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Photo from Jacinta Goh
Photo from Jacinta Goh
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Photo from Jacinta Goh
Photo from Jacinta Goh
3 天前
Photo from Jacinta Goh
Photo from Jacinta Goh
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Photo from Jacinta Goh
It’s a good opportunity to know so many social heroes in different fields. Everyone is playing their important part in making this world a better place. From environment to animal extinction to hunger problems. We would like to applaud all the Kechara heroes for playing their part exceptionally well. ~ Vivian @ Kechara Soup Kitchen
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Kechara Earth Project October 2019
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Kechara Earth Project October 2019
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Animal Liberation- Pastor Han Nee blessed the birds before releasing them. Lin Mun KSDS
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I’m ready to do the rehearsal :) Lin Mun KSDS
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Asyley and team busy adjusting the sound system in the technical room. Lin Mun KSDS
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The youngest group of KSDS learned and experienced the self-defence session. Alice, KSDS.
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2 周前
Vegetarian meals with sufficient nutrients are provided to the children ~ KSDS Woah Camp. Alice, KSDS
Children had fun with the teachers and parents during the game time. Alice, KSDS
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Children had fun with the teachers and parents during the game time. Alice, KSDS
First Pilgrimage cum Camp held in Kechara Forest Retreat. Alice, KSDS.
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First Pilgrimage cum Camp held in Kechara Forest Retreat. Alice, KSDS.
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Dorje Shugden
点击观看我对多杰雄登的说法。。。