峇峇与娘惹

2017年9月10日 | 浏览量: 1,047

(詹杜固仁波切)
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背景

峇峇娘惹,也称为“土生华人”、“侨生”或“海峡华人”,是指15世纪到17世纪期间前来马六甲、新加坡和印尼一带定居的中国移民与当地人通婚所生下的混血后裔。随着柔佛州吉双锡矿业的开发与投入运作之后,前来马来西亚的中国移民人数也相应增加。这些土生土长的混血后裔把当地的生活习俗融入中国传统文化之中,发展出一套以马六甲为中心、独特且丰富的峇峇娘惹文化。他们的文化与当地华人社会有所差异,唯仍自称为华人。

“峇峇”是对海峡华人男性的尊称,“娘惹”则用以称呼女性。他们多数接受英文教育,在马六甲海峡一带已生活了好几代人。因为生活背景的关系,他们大部分能操两种以上语言,因此也时常充当华人与英国人或马来人与华人之间的沟通桥梁。

 

关于峇峇娘惹起源的美丽传说

关于峇峇娘惹的起源,一个名为“Humanity”的博客里有一段相关的文字记录。简单来说,传说郑和在公元15世纪前来马六甲,加深了中国和马六甲两国的了解,亦促成了后来中国皇帝将汉丽宝公主许配给苏丹滿速沙。当时汉丽宝公主带来的随身侍从就安顿在三宝山,而他们的后代形成了后来的峇峇娘惹文化。

土生华人秉承了大部分华族传统及宗教仪式(如祭拜祖先),但却将马来人的语言和文化习俗运用在生活当中。他们有着自己的独特文化和美食。坊间许多资料均称早期的土生华人与当地马来人通婚。然而,由于缺乏物理相似性,许多专家更倾向于相信土生华人依然保持纯正的华裔血统。据说,大部分土生华人偏好让自己的子女回中国找寻理想伴侣。再则,当地马来人都信奉回教,不鼓励异教通婚,所以若与他们通婚,就必须先转为回教徒。

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在20世纪中期,大部分土生华人都已接受英文教育,这是因为当时的马来亚被英国殖民,加上土生华人本性上就比较容易适应新的文化。具有英文背景的杰出土生华人,自然也受到英国政府的重用,在政府部门出任行政人员或公务员。由于长期和英国人交往,很多土生华人已信奉基督教。渐渐地,土生华人在马六甲和新加坡建立起他们的强大影响力,并也被称为“King’s Chinese ”(国王的华人)同时效忠英女王。由于社交上经常需要与不同文化与背景的人交流,土生华人早于19世纪中期就已掌握三语能力,能与华人、马来人及英国人沟通。他们当中大部分经商,或经营中国、马来亚与西方国家之间的中介事务。传统上峇峇人与马来社会的关系就相当良好,又曾出任皇家马来法院顾问,这样的独特背景使得他们特别获得英国人的重视。事实上,“峇峇”在马来语中就是一种尊称,这种称呼可能是从印地文/梵语衍生而来。(峇峇:字面意思是祖父或父亲,也用以形容对一位年长绅士的崇敬和爱戴)。

http://geographyhumanity.blogspot.my/2010/04/story-of-baba-baba-nyonya.html

 

文化

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峇峇娘惹是华裔男子与马来裔女子通婚产下的后代。早期来自中国的商人娶马来亚的马来女子为妻或妾是常见的事。峇峇娘惹文化中的最大特色,即它是“带有浓厚马来民俗色彩的华人文化”。早期的土生华人注重家族血统传承与门当户对的观念,他们大部分受父母之命,与其他土生华人结婚;结婚对象的家族也必须享有同等社会地位。

峇峇娘惹对婚礼习俗十分讲究,其中许多仪式都照足传统来进行。一般上,男方会托媒人把装满礼品的“Bakul Siah”(传统双层涂漆礼篮)送到女方家长手上。若是富裕人家,则会以做工精细的塔形绣花金漆礼盒(印尼语为“Botekan Candi”)代替礼篮。

Bakul Siah and Gilded Pagoda Trays (or Botekan Candi in Indonesian)

传统双层涂漆礼篮和精细的塔形绣花金漆礼盒

婚礼喜帖的颜色以大红为主,象征着喜庆与和谐繁荣。这些喜帖由男方的助理“Pak Chindek”负责派送到宾客手上,一般要6天才能派完所有喜帖。

峇峇娘惹的婚礼以中国传统仪式为主,程序十分讲究。若说它是马来西亚各族婚礼中最迷人也最具色彩的其中一个,一点也不为过。整个过程中最惹人注目的就是它那长达12天的婚礼,以及其中的摆请“tok panjang”(长桌宴),邀请亲朋好友共享丰盛菜肴。

Dondang Sayang

马来传统歌谣“Dondang Sayang”

根据中国传统,办喜事必须选在良辰吉日。峇峇娘惹也秉承了这个传统。婚礼前,双方家长先将一对新人的生辰八字进行配对,从中慎选出一个最吉祥的日子和时辰。早期峇峇娘惹的婚姻多由父母或长者决定、媒人撮合,过程中也会咨询新郎和新娘的意见。婚礼在祖先、长者和神明的见证下举行,仪式中所穿戴和使用的,也都以象征繁荣兴盛的红、粉红、橘、金和黄色为主,并绣上吉祥图腾,祈愿这段婚姻美满幸福。就跟华人一样,他们也相信喜事成对、好事成双,因此许多婚礼用品都是一对对的。

 

美食

Some popular Nyonya dishes

著名娘惹菜肴

峇峇娘惹文化是涵化(acculturation)的结果,即两种文化长期持续接触之后,一种文化吸收或接纳了另一种文化。峇峇娘惹与马来人文化最相似之处体现在美食和服装上。许多娘惹菜如摩摩喳喳(bubur cha cha)、蓝花饭(nasi kerabu)、叁峇辣椒酱(sambal)等都与马来美食风味相近。

受到马来佳肴影响,娘惹菜使用了许多马来食物中常见的香料。著名的娘惹菜包括了醇香浓郁的甲必丹咖喱鸡(Chicken Kapitan)、闻名全马但在马六甲和新加坡最为流行的娘惹叻沙(Nyonya Laksa),以及风味独特的豆酱焖鸡(Pongteh)等。豆酱焖鸡的主要配料是小红葱、豆瓣酱、鸡肉和香菇。

甜品方面,传统娘惹糕可说是马来西亚人的全民点心,其中最常见也最受欢迎的就有椰丝糕(kuih kochi)、眉豆糯米椰丝粽(Lepat Kacang)、娘惹曼煎粿(Apom Balik)、娘惹元宝/荷包糕(Kueh Bongkong)、椰丝糯米饭(Pulut Inti)、椰丝糯米球(Onde Onde)、娘惹九层糕(Kueh Genggang)等。一般家庭也都会在节日或庆典上准备娘惹糕来招待亲友。

 

马六甲著名娘惹餐馆:

1. 南希的厨房(Nancy’s Kitchen)

Nancy’s Kitchen

南希的厨房(Nancy’s Kitchen)

营业时间: 星期一至星期日,11:00 – 17:30

地址: Jalan Hang Lekir off Jalan Tun Tan Cheng Lock, Malacca

电话: +606 283 6099

 
2. 小姑娘惹餐馆(Kocik Kitchen)

Kocik Kitchen

Kocik Kitchen

营业时间: 星期一至星期日,11:00 – 17:30

地址: 100, Jalan Tun Tan Cheng Lock, Malacca

电话: +6016 929 6605

 
3. 斯里娘惹土生华人餐馆(Seri Nyonya Peranakan Restaurant)

Seri Nyonya Peranakan Restaurant

斯里娘惹土生华人餐馆(Seri Nyonya Peranakan Restaurant)

营业时间: 星期一至星期日,12:00 – 14:30, 18:30 – 22:30

地址: Hotel Equatorial Malacca, Banda Hilir, Malacca

电话: +606 282 8333

 
4. 侨生餐馆(Restoran Peranakan)

Restoran Peranakan

侨生餐馆(Restoran Peranakan)

营业时间: 星期一至星期日,12:00 – 14:30, 18:30 – 22:00

地址: 107, Jalan Tun Tan Cheng Lock, Malacca

电话: +606 284 5001

 
5. 艾米祖传娘惹菜(Amy Heritage Nyonya Cuisine)

Amy Heritage Nyonya Cuisine

艾米祖传娘惹菜(Amy Heritage Nyonya Cuisine)

营业时间: 星期二至星期日,11:30 – 14:30, 18:00 – 22:00

地址: 75, Jalan Melaka Raya, Taman Melaka Raya, Malacca

电话: +606 286 8819

 

语言

峇峇娘惹讲的语言称为峇峇话,是一种综合福建话与马来语的混杂式语言。由于峇峇人容易适应新环境,他们当中许多人能操多种语言,如峇峇话、英语和华语等。

然而到了今天,这种混杂式的峇峇话已经逐渐被遗忘,只有老一辈的峇峇人仍在使用。大部分年轻人已经不再懂得讲峇峇话,改以英语或华语作为主要语言。

 

服饰

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最原始的娘惹装是长衣(Baju Panjang),她们以三个胸针(Kerosong)作为上衣的纽扣,与纱笼(Sarong)搭配着穿。她们脚穿的珠绣鞋(Kasot Manek-Manek)是用极小的彩色珠子,以手工在鞋面绣成图案制作而成,工艺复杂且费时。一些珠绣鞋更采用产自波西米亚的切割珠(Manek Potong)缝制而成,闪闪发亮,极显贵气。

传统珠绣鞋的鞋面设计受到蜡染纱笼和海峡侨生瓷(Peranakan porcelain)影响,多以花卉和东方民俗图案为主题。早期的珠绣鞋大部分是平底的日常穿着鞋,到了1930年代后才有高跟珠绣鞋。

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长衣

娘惹可巴雅(Kebaya Nyonya)跟马来可巴雅一样,传统上都是由一种叫做“Kasa Rubia”的布料缝制而成。用“Kasa rubia”制作的可巴雅上绣有复杂的动植物图案,配上花卉扇形边(kerawang)的手工刺绣。 传统的可巴雅在“tebok lobang”线上,每一边都有一个小孔,从肩膀到下摆,凸显穿着者的女性形象。 由于可巴雅由薄纱制成且几乎透明,为了显得得体,娘惹们总会在里面穿上一层“内衣”,再以镶上珠宝的胸针,将开口扣上。

长衣跟传统马来女性套装很相似,分别在于可巴雅前面有开口,穿上后再以胸针将开口扣上。由于穿长衣的通常都是年长娘惹,因此所使用布料的颜色和花样也相对较为保守。长衣外衣长达膝盖,不像可巴雅长度只到臀中部。内衣则是长袖高领的上衫。

 
纱笼

纱笼(Sarong)是一种类似筒裙的服装,由一块长方形的棉布系于腰间。是东南亚国家,如马来西亚、新加坡和汶莱的男、女性的常见服饰。格纹纱笼一般为男性所欢迎,女性则偏爱花卉设计的纱笼。娘惹更喜欢用牡丹、玫瑰、牵牛花和菊花等精美的花卉图案装饰的纱笼。 以凤凰和孔雀为图的纱笼并不罕见。

 
胸针

娘惹服饰所佩戴的胸针(kerosang)一般以金或银等金属制作而成,镶以宝石作缀饰。这些精美的胸针一来可用以点缀服装,二来可固定住长衣位置,使其不走形。

 

宗教

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峇峇娘惹承续华人信仰传统,多信奉佛教、儒教、道教或基督教。他们也跟华人一样庆祝农历新年、中秋节和其他传统华人节日。然而我们也可以从峇峇娘惹文化中窥见英国人、荷兰人、葡萄牙人、马来人和印尼人的影响。

与其他所有文化一样,峇峇娘惹文化中也有一些迷信和禁忌,年长一辈对这些禁忌尤其在意。然而随着时代的发展,其中一些禁忌被认为过于僵硬和繁复,逐渐消失于现今的峇峇娘惹生活当中。

一些峇峇娘惹也笃信乩童的神力。例如,当家里的小孩哭个不停,他们会把孩子带到庙里去给乩童做法驱邪,因为他们相信那是邪灵作怪。此外,娘惹孕妇也不被允许在傍晚时分离开家门,因为他们相信傍晚是恶魔和邪灵最为活跃的时分。一些峇峇娘惹也相信女吸血鬼“Pontianak”(传说由难产而死的女性所化成)的存在,并且认为孕妇的血会吸引女吸血鬼。因此,孕妇出门时会随身带着金属制品,如刀子,因为他们相信金属能吓唬邪灵。

 

博物馆

马六甲是峇峇娘惹文化的发源地,这里有两家博物馆——峇峇娘惹家族博物馆(Baba Nyonya Heritage Museum)和海峡华人珠宝博物馆(Straits Chinese Jewellery Museum)展示着许多峇峇娘惹所遗留下来的文化和历史文物;此外,走在鸡场街(Jonker Street)和麒麟街(Heeren Street)上,也可看到许多早期留下来的峇峇娘惹历史遗迹。马六甲以外则有槟城侨生博物馆(Pinang Peranakan Mansion),以及新加坡的土生华人博物馆(Peranakan Museum)、峇峇屋(Baba House)和The Intan娘惹博物馆。以上博物馆所展示的峇峇娘惹文物包括了美食、家具和传统服饰等。

在马六甲鸡场街上,每周也有一些关于峇峇娘惹和传统华人文化的免费演出。东南亚以外的檀香山艺术博物馆(Honolulu Museum)和澳洲博物馆据说也收藏了一些土生华人的峇迪和珠饰艺术品等。

 
1. 槟城侨生博物馆(Pinang Peranakan Mansion)

Pinang Peranakan Mansion

槟城侨生博物馆(Pinang Peranakan Mansion)

地址: 29, Church St, Georgetown, 10200 George Town, Penang, Malaysia

电话: +60 4-264 2929

开放时间: 每天(包括公共假日)9:30 am – 5 pm

门票: 成人RM20、孩童(6岁以下)免费

电邮: rmhbaba@streamyx.com

 
2. 峇峇娘惹家族博物馆(Baba Nyonya Heritage Museum)

Baba Nyonya Heritage Museum

峇峇娘惹家族博物馆(Baba Nyonya Heritage Museum)

地址: 48-50, Jalan Tun Tan Cheng Lock, 75200 Melaka, Malaysia

电话: +60 6-283 1273

导览时间: 10am – 1:00pm(上午时段最后一团于12pm开始);2 pm – 5 pm(下午时段最后一团于4pm开始)

周日延长时间: 星期五、六、日(最后一团于5pm开始)

门票: 成人RM16、孩童(5-12岁)RM11

电邮: admin@babanyonyamuseum.com

 
3. 海峡华人珠宝博物馆(Straits Chinese Jewellery Museum)

Straits Chinese Jewellery Museum

海峡华人珠宝博物馆(Straits Chinese Jewellery Museum)

地址: Jalan Tun Tan Cheng Lock, Taman Kota Laksamana, 75200 Melaka, Malaysia

电话: +60 4-2642929

开放时间: 每天 9.30am – 5.30pm

门票: 成人RM15、孩童(6-12岁)RM10、孩童(6岁以下)免费

 

影片

Films that featured the Baba Nyonya culture

峇峇娘惹相关影片

上世纪50年代香港影坛曾经出现好几部以峇峇娘惹文化为背景的电影,其中包括《娘惹》(1952)、《风雨牛车水》(1956)、《娘惹与峇峇》(1956)和《娘惹之恋》(1969)等。

在马来西亚,电视喜剧《峇峇娘惹》是马来西亚最长寿的电视剧,由20世纪90年代末一直播出至2000年,共509集。这部连续剧也被列入马来西亚记录大全。

"Baba Nyonya" TV series

《峇峇娘惹》电视喜剧

 

建筑

峇峇娘惹的建筑是东方风格与西方艺术(如瓷砖和石膏雕刻艺术)相融合的结晶。其中以那些建于殖民时期的洋房最为独特出众,而大部分峇峇娘惹家里都有不少结合马来人和华人文化风格的艺术品,这些艺术品绝对是别无仅有的。

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马来西亚峇峇娘惹的建筑物属于海峡折衷式(Straits Eclectic)风格,是一种中西合璧的建筑。海峡折衷式店屋出现于20世纪中至晚期(1940-1990)。早在20世纪初期,建于海峡殖民地的店屋就开始注入新的建筑元素。以窗门为例,那是一种法式落地窗框和木质百叶窗的结合,窗的上方是拱形橫梁,窗的两旁则是仿石膏雕刻的壁柱;屋顶部分则采用鋼筋水泥来加宽屋顶的前悬横梁,横梁两旁则以精巧的悬臂衔接于壁柱顶端。

 

店屋

海峡店屋或排屋建筑多为两层楼或更高,地下楼层一般作为商业用途,如仓库或杂货店,二楼则作为居所。这些店屋并非独栋建筑,而是像连栋式排屋那样,与隔壁单位共用一道分隔墙。一座连栋式建筑的店屋数量可多可少,并无定数。

babanyonya016

这些店屋可见于马来西亚许多城市地区。一些人并没有用它作店铺,而是把整栋楼作为居所。屋子正门一般较为宽大,并采用传统的木门栓设计;窗户则是百叶窗。屋前留有大约5尺宽的空间,可作为走廊或小阳台,称为“五脚基”(kaki lima)。五脚基是屋子与街面衔接的缓冲地带,一些人家或会在五脚基和街面之间设立一道拱门。这种设计风格也是峇峇娘惹房屋最为特殊的地方,令人一眼就能辨认出来。

 
参考资料:

  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peranakan
  • http://redfame.com/journal/index.php/ijsss/article/viewFile/651/592
  • https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/峇峇娘惹
  • http://geographyhumanity.blogspot.my/2010/04/story-of-baba-baba-nyonya.html
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未知

已知与未知同样令人畏惧
已知是安于现状和停滞不前
未知却可能带来成长和机会
人们并不知道自己是否更畏惧未知还是已知
谁说未知会比已知更糟
虽说未知有时的确比已知来得糟
然而说到底一切却依然还是未知
除非我们竭尽所能去努力
因此,全力以赴去追寻未知
因为在熟悉之后,未知就会转为已知。
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For those who did not manage to join in for our Loma Gyonma mantra recitation, here's the prayer that you can do daily at home as a preventive measure to ward off unwanted infections and illnesses, especially contagious diseases such as Coronavirus & H1N1. - shared by Pastor Antoinette
4 天前
For those who did not manage to join in for our Loma Gyonma mantra recitation, here's the prayer that you can do daily at home as a preventive measure to ward off unwanted infections and illnesses, especially contagious diseases such as Coronavirus & H1N1. - shared by Pastor Antoinette
Special prayer session in Kechara Forest Retreat where we will be collectively accumulating a minimum of 25,000 Loma Gyonma mantras, combined with circumambulations and 108 candle offerings each to Loma Gyonma and Dorje Shugden. To receive the blessings of Loma Gyonma, the Goddess of Healing and Epidemic Diseases, and to pray for all who are at risk from the novel coronavirus to be healed and protected. -photo credit Cynthia Ng - shared by Pastor Antoinette
4 天前
Special prayer session in Kechara Forest Retreat where we will be collectively accumulating a minimum of 25,000 Loma Gyonma mantras, combined with circumambulations and 108 candle offerings each to Loma Gyonma and Dorje Shugden. To receive the blessings of Loma Gyonma, the Goddess of Healing and Epidemic Diseases, and to pray for all who are at risk from the novel coronavirus to be healed and protected. -photo credit Cynthia Ng - shared by Pastor Antoinette
Back during the H1N1 outbreak in 2009, Rinpoche advised everyone to quickly accumulate 25,000 recitations of Loma Gyonma’s essence mantra ASAP, combined with daily recitation of both Loma Gyonma and Shize’s mantra. In view of the current situation with the global spread of the novel coronavirus, you are invited to a special prayer session in Kechara Forest Retreat where we will be collectively accumulating a minimum of 25,000 Loma Gyonma mantras, combined with circumambulations and 108 candle offerings each to Loma Gyonma and Dorje Shugden. DATE: Saturday, 15 February 2020 TIME: 3.00pm - 6.30pm VENUE: Wisdom Hall, Kechara Forest Retreat
6 天前
Back during the H1N1 outbreak in 2009, Rinpoche advised everyone to quickly accumulate 25,000 recitations of Loma Gyonma’s essence mantra ASAP, combined with daily recitation of both Loma Gyonma and Shize’s mantra. In view of the current situation with the global spread of the novel coronavirus, you are invited to a special prayer session in Kechara Forest Retreat where we will be collectively accumulating a minimum of 25,000 Loma Gyonma mantras, combined with circumambulations and 108 candle offerings each to Loma Gyonma and Dorje Shugden. DATE: Saturday, 15 February 2020 TIME: 3.00pm - 6.30pm VENUE: Wisdom Hall, Kechara Forest Retreat
Mr. Chan Weng Khong & Yee Mun released the birds after the mantra recitations. So Kin Hoe (KISG)
2 周前
Mr. Chan Weng Khong & Yee Mun released the birds after the mantra recitations. So Kin Hoe (KISG)
KISG has carried out monthly Animals Liberation activity at DR Park, Ipoh. So Kin Hoe (KISG)
2 周前
KISG has carried out monthly Animals Liberation activity at DR Park, Ipoh. So Kin Hoe (KISG)
Children are all excited to the Kids Camp. Lin Mun KSDS
2 周前
Children are all excited to the Kids Camp. Lin Mun KSDS
Kids Camp 2019 - Visiting Kechara Farm. Lin Mun KSDS
2 周前
Kids Camp 2019 - Visiting Kechara Farm. Lin Mun KSDS
Children learning to do water offering to Buddha. Lin Mun KSDS
2 周前
Children learning to do water offering to Buddha. Lin Mun KSDS
Painting Vajrayogini tsa tsa during Wesak Day 2019. Lin Mun KSDS
2 周前
Painting Vajrayogini tsa tsa during Wesak Day 2019. Lin Mun KSDS
3 周前
Beautiful red lanterns around Vajrayogini Stupa at Kechara Forest Retreat. shared by Pastor Antoinette
3 周前
Beautiful red lanterns around Vajrayogini Stupa at Kechara Forest Retreat. shared by Pastor Antoinette
Thank you very much for the beautiful calligraphy artwork. shared by Pastor Antoinette
3 周前
Thank you very much for the beautiful calligraphy artwork. shared by Pastor Antoinette
Thank you very much for the beautiful calligraphy artwork. shared by Pastor Antoinette
3 周前
Thank you very much for the beautiful calligraphy artwork. shared by Pastor Antoinette
The rain may have doused the fires but the embers of pain still linger in our hearts. Sending Australia our love & prayers. Let's continue to #PrayForAustralia. ❤️ shared by Pastor Antoinette
3 周前
The rain may have doused the fires but the embers of pain still linger in our hearts. Sending Australia our love & prayers. Let's continue to #PrayForAustralia. ❤️ shared by Pastor Antoinette
Auspicious red decorations at Tsongkhapa shrine. Kechara Forest Retreat, Bentong. shared by Pastor Antoinette
3 周前
Auspicious red decorations at Tsongkhapa shrine. Kechara Forest Retreat, Bentong. shared by Pastor Antoinette
Gong Xi Fa Cai! Here's to new beginnings and better endings with this Year of the Metal Rat! shared by Pastor Antoinette
3 周前
Gong Xi Fa Cai! Here's to new beginnings and better endings with this Year of the Metal Rat! shared by Pastor Antoinette
Throwback KSDS Graduation - All kids were so excited with to perform. Lin Mun KSDS
1 月前
Throwback KSDS Graduation - All kids were so excited with to perform. Lin Mun KSDS
Throwback WOAH camp 2016 - DIY soap. So interesting. Lin Mun KSDS
1 月前
Throwback WOAH camp 2016 - DIY soap. So interesting. Lin Mun KSDS
Children learning the method to make water offering to Buddha. Lin Mun KSDS
1 月前
Children learning the method to make water offering to Buddha. Lin Mun KSDS
Monthly animal liberation in Kechara House. KSDS have opportunity to participate in the meritorious activity every mth. Lin Mun KSDS
1 月前
Monthly animal liberation in Kechara House. KSDS have opportunity to participate in the meritorious activity every mth. Lin Mun KSDS
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Dorje Shugden
点击观看我对多杰雄登的说法。。。