马来西亚的印度人

2017年2月10日 | 浏览量: 324

Indian001

我已在马来西亚居住20多年了。这么多年来,马来西亚文化与风俗习惯中所蕴含的多样性令我十分欣赏,于是我想针对这个国家的丰富文化多写一些文章。

早在英国殖民马来亚以前,印度人就已开始迁移到本区域来,希望借此开拓贸易网、扩张影响力及推广他们的信仰。英国殖民期间,当局鼓励更多的印度人前来英属马来亚——即现今的马来西亚与新加坡——各领域工作,其中包括当警员、政府行政人员或园丘工人。然而到了第二次世界大战(1936-1945)期间和之后,随着许多印度人选择回国参加印度国民军,再加上许多英属机构也陆续从马来亚撤离,马来西亚的印裔人口亦开始减少。

到了今天,印度文化已经在马来西亚文化中留下深刻的痕迹,不管是马来文学、马来美食或马来民俗习惯,我们都可以从中看到印度文化的踪影。这篇文章主要为大家介绍印度人在马来西亚的历史发展、印度人的独特庆典、马来西亚印裔名人,以及印度文化之于马来西亚文化的影响。

詹杜固仁波切

 


 

印度人移居马来西亚

The ruins of a Hindu temple in Kedah

吉打州一座印度寺庙废墟

 

前英国殖民时期

早在英国殖民马来亚之前,印度人就已到马来亚半岛(即现今的西马半岛)来经商、传扬宗教及扩大领土和势力。印度文化在马来西亚的影响最早可见于古吉打王国。早期的古吉打王国统治者主要信奉兴都教(印度教),后来才逐渐转为回教(穆斯林)苏丹统治。古吉打王国在古代印度文献中也被称为Kadaram(或Kataha,羯荼诃),并与当时的帕拉瓦王朝(Pallava Dynasty,公元4~9世纪)和朱罗王朝(Chola Dynasty,公元9~13世纪)等强盛的印度王国维持着长期友好关系。

A map of the Chola Empire. Kedah, also known as Kadaram in India, was one of the Chola Empire’s subordinates

朱罗王朝版图。吉打在古代印度文献中也被称为Kadaram,曾经是朱罗王朝的附属国。

Emperor Rajendra Chola I

罗贞陀罗·朱罗一世(Rajendra Chola I)

A ship from the Chola Empire that can carry up to 200 people

可承载200人的朱罗王朝帆船

1025年,罗贞陀罗朱罗一世(公元1014 – 1044年)率领军队袭击室利佛逝王国(Srivijaya Kingdom)和今日的马来西亚和印尼等区域,印度商人亦随之取得了更多前来东南亚,包括马来西亚在内的经商机会。朱罗王朝的大船经常川行于恒河、马来西亚和苏门答腊之间, 这为印度商人和传教士前来经商和传教提供了很大的方便。到了今天,我们仍可看到古吉打王国与印度人民之间确实曾经频繁往来的种种迹象。在印度南部的坦贾武尔(Tanjore,曾为朱罗王朝领地)甚至出现了一个名为Kadaram Kondan(意即“吉打的征服者”)的村庄。这村庄里种有据说是从马来西亚引进的橘子品种,名为Kadarangkay或kadaram-pulp(意即“吉打果”)。

Jalan Kadaram in Kedah State

吉打州Kadaram路。路名显示印度和古吉打王国之间确实存在互动关系

 

英殖民时期

Indian plantation workers in British Malaya, by Charles Kleingrothe, a German photographer

德国摄影师Charles Kleingrothe镜头下英属马来亚时期的印裔园丘工人

英国势力于18世纪开始入侵马来亚半岛,随后成立了包含新加坡在内的英属马来亚。英政府因看上印度人的英语能力而鼓励他们迁往马来亚,从事劳工、警员、商人、政府行政人员和士兵等工作。这段时期前来马来亚的多是只身离乡背井前来谋生的印度男性,这样的情况也造成当时印度人在马来亚的流动率很高。他们来马来亚工作,尔后又返回家乡;有的只是回乡探亲,有的就此回归家乡去了。

The SS Rajula, a British vessel that transported many Indians to British Malaya

英国轮船SS Rajula号曾经载着许多印度人前来英属马来亚讨生活

20世纪初,居留于英属马来亚的印度人大约有12万人口。往后30年间,这数字翻了超过4.3倍;到了1931年,马来亚印裔人口已达64万人之多。然而到了第二次世界大战期间,由于许多印度人回国从军,马来亚印裔的人口增长率也相应降低;1931至1957年间,马来亚的印裔人口只增长了28%,达约82万人。

Artist’s illustration of an Indian coffee shop in Negeri Sembilan in British Malaya

画家笔下英属马来亚时期森美兰州的一家印度咖啡店

英殖民政府于1946至1948年间曾试图组成马来亚联邦(Malayan Union)却告失败,并于1948由马来亚联合邦(Federation of Malaya)所取代,同时恢复了马来统治者的象征地位。1957年8月31日,马来亚联合邦宣布独立,终结了英国在马来亚的殖民统治。独立后,随着英国政府和机构相继撤离马来亚,本区域的印度人口也急剧减少。

1963年9月16日,马来亚联合邦与新加坡、北婆罗洲和砂拉越联合,共同组成马来西亚联邦,简称马来西亚。新加坡于两年后的1965年脱离了马来西亚。

 

后英殖民时代

Indian010

如今仍有大量印度人涌入马来西亚。他们当中有白领专业人士,也有在印度餐厅打工的蓝领工人,还有一些人则是与本地印裔结婚,以配偶身份留下。

 

人口统计

Indian011

截至2016年7月,马来西亚共有30,949,962人口。其中印裔占6.7%,相等于约200万人;这200万人当中又以淡米尔族(Tamil)为最大族群,占90%。其余10%则由泰卢固族(Telugu)、马拉雅拉姆族(Malayalam)、旁遮普族(Punjabi)、古吉拉特族(Gujarati)和信德族(Sindhi)所组成。马来西亚印裔社群——因各自所属族群而异——多能操几种不同方言,如淡米尔语、泰卢固语、马来语、印地语或旁遮普语等。

 

宗教

Indian012

在殖民时期或更早之前迁移到马来西亚的印度人多为佛教徒或兴都教徒。然而现今印度人因种族同化的情况下,也有信奉回教或基督教者。

 

印度文化对马来西亚本土文化的影响

A performance of Hikayat Seri Rama

《罗摩圣传》(Hikayat Seri Rama)戏剧演出

 

民间传说

马来西亚好一些耳熟能详的马来文学作品,其实都受到了印度神话如《摩诃婆罗多》(Mahabharata)和《罗摩衍那》的重大影响。其中一些最古老的作品皆源自印度文,包括梵语和帕拉瓦文:

  • 《罗摩圣传》(Hikayat Seri Rama)—— 改编自印度神话《罗摩衍那》,故事情节和人物个性作细微修改。
  • 《梅隆马哈旺萨传》(Hikayat Merong Mahawangsa),又称《吉打纪年》—— 这是一部淡米尔文学作品,描述淡米尔王子与古吉打王国的渊源故事。本书也记载了朱罗王朝时期印度商人前来吉打经商的事迹。
  • 《Hikayat Panca Tanderan》 —— 改编自古印度著名动物寓言故事集《五卷书》(Panchatantra)。
  • 《仁慈鹦鹉传》(Hikayat Bayan Budiman)—— 改编自印度文学作品《鹦鹉故事七十则》(Sukasaptati)。故事中的鹦鹉为了防止女主人犯错而给她说了70则故事。
An illustration of Hikayat Merong Mahawangsa on a Malaysian stamp

马来西亚一款以《梅隆马哈旺萨传》为设计的邮票

 

语文

在语文方面,马来文也明显受到了印度文的影响。一些马来词汇源自印地文、梵文或淡米尔文原文:
部分源自印度文、梵文或淡米尔文的马来词汇:

马来文 中文意思 原文 语源
Agama 宗教 Agama 梵文
Aksara 字母 Aksara 梵文
Anugerah 恩典、祝福 Anugraha 梵文
Asmara 爱情 Smara 梵文
Buat Wuat 梵文
Bumi 地球 Bhūmi 梵文
Cendana 檀香 Candana 梵文
Dobi 洗衣店 Dhobī Hindi
Duka 悲伤 Dhuka 梵文
Kapal Kappal 淡米尔文
Kedai 商店 Kadai 淡米尔文
Kuil 寺庙 Koyil 淡米尔文
Kuda Kudda 梵文
Maha 崇高,伟大 Maha 梵文
Mangga 芒果 Mangkai 淡米尔文
Wanita 女性 Vanithai 淡米尔文/ 泰卢固文
Mutiara 珍珠 Muthu 淡米尔文
Kakak 姐姐 Akka 淡米尔文

 

马来西亚印度人的节庆

Thaipusam Festival celebration at Batu Caves

大宝森节每年都在黑风洞盛大举行

 

大宝森节——庆祝战神的诞生

大宝森节旨在纪念湿婆和雪山女神的幼子战神穆卢干(Murugan),于每年淡米尔历“泰月”满月时(一、二月间)举行。在大宝森节前一天,战神穆卢干的信徒们背上卡瓦地(Kavadi),以忏悔和赎罪的形式向战神表示谢恩。一些信徒把铜制牛奶壶顶在头上,一些则以铁钩刺穿身体各部位,这些都是供养战神的仪式。在大宝森节庆典上,时而会看到战神穆卢干的信徒们陷入一种深层的恍惚状态中,这是常有的。

Women carrying Paal Kavadi that contain milk and other holy substances during a Thaipusam procession

女信徒们在大宝森节游行队伍中头上顶着装有牛奶或其他圣品的“帕尔”(牛奶)卡瓦第(Paal Kavadi)

马来西亚许多兴都教庙宇每年都有举行大宝森节庆典,当中最盛大的庆典活动则在黑风洞脚下的苏巴马廉兴都庙(Sri Subramaniar Swamy Temple)举行。

 

屠妖节——万灯节

STAR

屠妖节(Deepavali / Diwali)又称万灯节,落在印度历Kartika月(十、十一月间)。关于屠妖节的起源众说纷纭,其中一种说法是为了敬拜掌管财富、运气与昌盛的吉祥天女(Lakshmi)。为了迎接吉祥天女的到来,信徒们会进行大扫除,把家里清理得干干净净。一般家庭也会到十五碑小印度的商店和摊贩购买一些独特饰品来布置家里。附加一说,游客们也可以在这里的商店选购精美传统印度服饰和珠宝。屠妖节前夕,信徒们多会留在家里或到庙里去进行膜拜仪式,过后便与家人和亲戚欢聚一堂,享受盛宴。他们也在家里点油灯,象征着 “以光明驱走黑暗,以善良战胜邪恶”。

Deepavali celebration in Malaysia

马来西亚屠妖节庆典

 

馬拉亞利人的新年

The female members of a Malayalee family prepare vishu kanni or offering to Lord Vishnu. The offerings include gold coins, vegetables, flowers and fruits.

马拉亚利家庭的女性成员们正准备vishu kanni以供养保护之神毗湿奴。这些供品包括金币、蔬菜、鲜花和水果

Vishu是马拉亚利人的新年,落在马拉亚利历Medam月的第一天(四月第二个星期)。对马拉亚利人来说,Vishu是一年之中最吉祥的日子,也是向兴都教诸神礼敬的最佳时刻。在这充满欢乐气氛的佳节里,长辈会派钱(Kaineetam)给晚辈们。

Malayalee elders often give kaineetam or money offering to the younger generation

传统上,马拉亚利裔的长辈将派发红包Kaineetam给晚辈们

 

欧南节

The Festival of Onam, a celebration of gratitude

欧南节是一个感恩的节日

欧南节是马拉亚利人的丰收节,每年于马拉雅拉姆历Chingam月(八、九月間)举行。人们在欧南节庆祝水稻種植季節的結束,同时迎接玛哈巴立魔王(King Mahabali)从地狱归来。玛哈巴立是被毗湿奴第五化身打入地狱的慈善魔王。

The celebration of Onam at the Klang Malayalee Association

吧生马拉亚利协会欢庆欧南节

 

乌贾迪节——泰卢固人的新年

Ugadi celebration organised by Telugu Association of Malaysia

马来西亚泰卢固协会举办乌贾迪节庆典

乌贾迪节是泰卢固人欢庆新年的大日子,落在Panchanga印度历Chaitra月(三、四月間)。在乌贾迪节除夕来临之前,泰卢固人家家户户都要来个大扫除、买新衣,并以芒果叶和蓝果丽(Rangoli)装饰家里。蓝果丽是印度一种传统地画艺术,一般以彩色米、面粉、沙子、花瓣等材料来绘制。在乌贾迪节前夕,家中最年长者带领全家人向兴都神明祈祷,祈求加持,希望来年能享有健康、财富和幸福。

 

马来西亚印度人的代表性景点

以下为马来西亚两大具有浓厚印度文化色彩的景点:

Little India, Brickfields entrance

吉隆坡十五碑小印度入口牌坊

 

十五碑小印度

小印度位于吉隆坡十五碑,与中环车站(KL Sentral)只有几分钟步行距离。马来西亚政府多年前把十五碑一个住宅区转型为印度社区和商业枢纽,继而令这个地方发展成为大家熟悉的小印度。2010年10月,印度首相曼莫汉辛格与马来西亚首相纳吉阿都拉萨共同为小印度主持开幕礼。

Little India, Brickfields

十五碑小印度

顺应发展趋势,小印度的范围也从特拉维斯路(Jalan Travers)扩大至敦辛班丹路(Jalan Tun Sambathan)。这里林立着形形色色的商店,从印度美食、首饰、配饰、珠宝、时装到各种配料,可说是无所不有。小印度也是个充满活力的热闹地区,这里许多商店营运到深夜才打烊。小印度位于交通便利的市中心,游客可乘搭火车到吉隆坡中环车站,下车后再步行几分钟就能抵达。若您想要开车来,那就得要做好心理准备,这里的停车位不好找。

 

十五碑小印度旅游资讯

交通

前往十五碑小印度的交通选项:

  • 单轨火车(Monorail)—— 游客可乘搭单轨火车(KL Monorail)到敦辛班丹(Tun Sambanthan)站下车
  • 轻快铁(LRT)—— 游客可乘搭Kelana Jaya线轻快铁(LRT)到吉隆坡中环车站(KL Sentral)下车
  • 火车—— 游客可乘搭电动火车(KTM Komuter)或机场快铁(ERL)到吉隆坡中环车站下车
  • 巴士—— 游客也可选择乘搭Rapid KL巴士前往十五碑。更多巴士路线详情请浏览Rapid KL网站http://www.myrapid.com.my/

住宿
若想在十五碑小印度附近留宿,这里提供一些酒店资讯让您参考(请做进一步的资料搜集,以找到最适合您的住宿):

  1. 小印度布瑞克菲尔德OYO客房酒店(OYO Rooms Brickfields Little India)
    地址:
    My Signature Hotel Little India
    130 Jalan Thamby Abdullah
    Kuala-Lumpur, KL Sentral, 50470
    Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur
    Malaysia
    Phone: +60104011393
  2. 吉隆坡中环广场雅乐轩酒店(Aloft Kuala Lumpur Sentral Hotel)
    地址:
    No. 5 Jalan Stesen Sentral 5,
    Kuala Lumpur Sentral
    50470 Kuala Lumpur
    Malaysia
    电话: +60 3-2723 1188

 

黑风洞

Batu Caves

黑风洞

黑风洞原文“Batu Caves”,意指石灰岩溶洞群。黑风洞是印度教的朝拜圣地,位于雪兰莪州,距离吉隆坡市中心约13公里。黑风洞的建立是为了纪念战神穆卢干,这里每年吸引了上百万名兴都教徒和游客前来参观,因为这里也是大宝森节最盛大的庆典场地。游客可到寺庙拜拜以获得印度教祭司的祝福。

Batu Caves的取名灵感源自一条河流——Sungai Batu,这条河贯穿黑风洞周围的一座石灰岩山和三个主要岩洞。黑风洞的三大主洞包括了庙洞(Temple Cave or Cathedral Cave)、洞穴艺术村(Cave Villa)和罗摩衍那洞(Ramayana Cave)。
黑风洞苏巴马廉庙 (Sri Subramaniar Swamy Temple)
地址:
Batu Caves
68000 Selangor
Malaysia
电话: +603 6189 6284
传真: +603 6187 2404
电邮: batu_caves@yahoo.com

 

庙洞( Temple Cave or Cathedral Cave)

Temple Cave or Cathedral Cave

庙洞

庙洞是黑风洞岩洞群中最大的一个,入口山脚有一尊全球最高(42米)的穆卢干镀金雕像,十分雄伟。游客必须从山脚爬上272级台阶才能进入庙洞。进入庙洞参观无需买票,但游客可随喜乐捐。

 

洞穴艺术村(Cave Villa)

Cave Villa

洞穴艺术村

洞穴艺术村位于山脚,洞里是一个艺术画廊兼博物馆,展有许多印度教的神像和彩绘。洞穴艺术村门票每人RM15,马来西亚公民则每人RM7。

Art Gallery at Cave Villa.

洞穴艺术村画廊

The pool outside Cave Villa in Batu Caves.

洞穴艺术村洞外景色

 

罗摩衍那洞(Ramayana Cave)

Ramayana Cave

罗摩衍那洞

罗摩衍那洞位于石灰岩山的最左侧。在通往罗摩衍那洞的路上,矗立着一尊15米高的绿色哈奴曼(Hanuman)神像。哈奴曼是罗摩衍那史诗中的猴神,而黑风洞出名猴子多,这或许就是猴神像被设立在这里的原因吧。

除了哈奴曼神像之外,游客也可前往参观毗湿奴第七化身罗摩之庙。庙内壁画描述着罗摩衍那生平事迹。进入罗摩衍那洞的门票为每人RM5。

Hanuman statue in front of Ramayana Cave

罗摩衍那洞前的猴神哈奴曼神像

 

黑风洞交通资讯

黑风洞位于吉隆坡市中心以北13公里。每年大宝森节举行期间,游客和信徒们可从吉隆坡中环车站乘搭特别增设的直通巴士前往黑风洞。游客也可以叫的士服务;或从中环车站乘搭KTM电动火车(黑风洞 – 芙蓉线)前往目的地,火车票单程每人RM2。

 

马来西亚印度美食

Banana Leaf Rice

香蕉叶饭

论及马来西亚美食肯定少不了印度风味美食。由于马来西亚印度人有百分之90来自淡米尔族,因此这里的印度食物也偏重于南印度风味,并形成了一种独特的“嘛嘛”(Mamak)美食。

印度美食一般上都少不了咖喱叶、丁香等香料、豆蔻、肉桂和新鲜椰浆等配料。比较广为人知的印度美食就包括了阿杂(accar)、阿榜糕(appam)、椰浆蔬菜(Avial)、香蕉叶饭(banana leaf)、印度香饭(nasi briyani)、印度煎饼(roti canai)、印度麦面饼(chapatti)及其它等。

Briyani Rice

印度香饭

Roti Canai

印度煎饼

如果您想要品尝正宗的印度美食,可以试试以下这几家餐馆:
Spice of India
地址:
Level 4 Suria KLCC, Suria KLCC
Jalan Ampang
50088 Kuala Lumpur
Malaysia
电话: +60 3-2164 9221
营业时间: 11:30AM–10PM
Chappati.com
地址:
9B-2, Jalan Kemajuan
Seksyen 13,
Petaling Jaya
46200 Selangor
Malaysia
电话:+60 3-7931 3106
营业时间:11:30AM–2:30PM, 5:30–10:30PM
Namaste Indian Restaurant
地址:
4, Jalan Datuk Sulaiman
Taman Tun Dr Ismail
60000 Kuala Lumpur
Malaysia
电话:+60 3-7724 1195
营业时间: 10AM–10PM
Sagar Restaurant Sdn. Bhd.
地址:
4, Lorong Maarof, Bangsar
59000 Kuala Lumpur
Malaysia
电话:+60 3-2284 2532
营业时间: 12–3PM, 6–10:30PM

 

知名大马印裔历史人物

在马来西亚漫长历史中,印度人对于这国家的贡献可说是功不可没。以下为大家介绍几位著名的印裔历史人物:

 

历史人物

An artist’s illustration of Tun Fatimah on a Malaysian stamp

印有敦法蒂玛肖像的马来西亚邮票

 

敦法蒂玛(Tun Fatimah)

敦法蒂玛是敦墨泰修家族被灭门后唯一存活的女儿。敦法蒂玛的第一任丈夫是敦阿里,在苏丹马末沙处决了敦墨太修全家(包括敦阿里)之后,她便嫁给了苏丹成为三太太。嫁给了苏丹的前几年,敦法蒂玛由于悲伤过度而几度流产。后来苏丹向她承诺,若生下儿子,便让她的儿子成为王位的推定继承人。尔后,敦法蒂玛相继诞下了二男二女。

Malay actress Maria Menado playing the role of Tun Fatimah.

马来女演员Maria Menado扮演敦法蒂玛

敦法蒂玛是一位魅力型的王后。在位期间,她让所有涉及杀害她全家——除了她的丈夫——的罪人得到应有的惩罚。在葡萄牙入侵马六甲后,她的两名儿子向外发展势力并建立了各自的苏丹国。她的大儿子拉惹罗登阿里(Raja Raden Ali)建立了霹雳苏丹国;二儿子苏丹阿拉乌丁(Alauddin Riayat Shah II)则建立了柔佛苏丹王朝。

 

敦阿里(Sri Nara Diraja Tun Ali),1445至1456年间在位

敦阿里是马六甲王朝第四任宰相,淡米尔族,也是马六甲王朝历史中的一个强悍角色。敦阿里在他的君主拉惹斯里拜里米苏(Raja Sri Parameswara Dewa Shah),又称苏丹阿布沙希德沙(Sultan Abu Syahid Shah)逝世后,推立自己的外甥拉惹卡西姆(Raja Kassim)为王,并封他为苏丹慕扎法沙(Sultan Muzaffar Shah),1445至1459年间在位。

 

敦墨太修(Tun Mutahir),1500至1510年间在位

敦墨太修是马六甲王朝第七任宰相。他有淡米尔血统,也是一位极具影响力的穆斯林领袖。敦墨太修当宰相期间,安插了好一些自己的亲戚在马六甲皇宫中担任重要职位,这样的裙带关系引起了时任港务大臣拉惹门德利亚(Raja Mudaliar)的不满,于是诬蔑敦墨太修想要谋朝篡位。当时的苏丹马末沙(Sultan Mahmud Shah)随后下令处决敦墨太修全家,除了敦墨太修的女儿敦法蒂玛。敦法蒂玛后来嫁给了苏丹。

 

Businessmen 企业家

 

东尼费南德斯(Tony Fernandes)

Tony Fernandez

东尼费南德斯

丹斯理安东尼弗朗西斯费南德斯(Tan Sri Anthony Francis Fernandez)也就是东尼费南德斯, 1964年4月30日出生于吉隆坡一个印裔家庭。东尼费南德斯最广为人知的事迹,就是他拯救了国有企业亚洲航空(AirAsia),把它从濒临破产的边缘转变成全球最赚钱的廉价航空公司之一。除了亚航之外,他也是Tune Hotels连锁经济型酒店的创办人兼股东,以及卡特汉姆(Caterham)一级方程式车队总长。

 

阿南达克里斯南(Ananda Krishnan)

Ananda Krishnan

阿南达克里斯南

阿南达生于1938年4月1 日,其祖先是来自斯里兰卡的淡米尔人。在获得墨尔本大学文学学士和哈佛大学工商管理学院硕士学位之后,阿南达开始创立一番自己的事业。他所涉足的领域非常广,在媒体方面,他拥有寰宇电视(Astro)和英国报章《翰斯顿报》(Johnston Press);在通讯卫星方面,他拥有东亚卫星(MEASAT)和SES;在石油和天然气方面,他拥有布米阿马达(Bumi Armada)和Pexco公司;在电信业方面,他所控制的公司就包括了明讯(Maxis)、印度电讯公司Aircel、印尼Axis电讯和斯里兰卡电讯(Sri Lanka Telecom)。2016福布斯杂志全球富豪排行榜中,阿南达排名第158,也是马来西亚第2大富豪。

 

艺术与娱乐

 

V. Nagaraj

V. Nagaraj于1962年11月20日出生于一个淡米尔家庭,是马来西亚著名电影制作人兼导演。V. Nagaraj涉足马来西亚娱乐界超过30年,曾经执导多部马来电影,其中包括 “Gila-Gila Remaja”、“Mati Hidup Semula”、“Sepi Itu Indah”、“Keluarga 99” 等。他曾经以 “Ghazal Untuk Rabiah” 获得最有前途导演奖,也在印度金奈举行的马来西亚印度电影展中赢得了最佳导演奖。

 

社运参与者与社会工作者

 

安美嘉斯仁瓦山(Ambiga Sreenevasan)

Ambiga Sreenevasan

安美嘉斯仁瓦山

拿督安美嘉斯仁瓦山是一名律师,也是一名人权社运分子,1956年出生于一个印度家庭。拿督安美嘉是妇女援助组织(Women’s Aid Organisation, WAO)执行委员会成员,也是证券业纠纷调解中心(Securities Industry Dispute Resolution Centre)的董事部成员。在2007至2009年间,拿督安美嘉曾任马来西亚律师公会主席。

 

政治人物

 

敦马哈迪莫哈末

Mahathir Mohamad

敦马哈迪莫哈末

敦马哈迪莫哈末医生是马来西亚第四任首相(1981-2003),目前则是土著团结党(Malaysian United Indigenous Party)主席。敦马哈迪1925年7月10日出生在吉打州一个印度血统家庭,其父亲是一名校长,这也让他立志要把书读好。
敦马哈迪是马来西亚政坛上其中一个最重要的人物,曾经担任多项政府要职,包括国会下议院议员(1964-1969)、上议院议员(1972-1974)、第21任不结盟运动(Non-Aligned Movement)秘书长、教育部长(1974-1977)、贸易及工业部长(1978-1981)、国防部长(1981-1986)、内政部长(1986-1999)、财政部长(2001-2003)、马来西亚第四任副首相(1976-1981),以及马来西亚第四任首相(1981-2003)。

 

蒂凡那(Devan Nair Chengara Veetil, 1923 – 2005)

C.V. Devan Nair (1923 – 2005)]

蒂凡那

蒂凡那是新加坡第三任总统,于1923年8月5日出生于马六甲一个来自印度喀拉拉邦的家庭。他和家人在他10岁时移居新加坡。1954年,蒂凡那加入由李光耀(1959-1990年新加坡总理)所创立的人民行动党(People’s Action Party)。此后,他成了马新两地的著名政治人物。蒂凡那有生之年曾担任多项要职,包括马来西亚民主行动党(Democratic Action Party)秘书长(1965-1967)、马来西亚人民行动党秘书长(1965)、马来西亚雪兰莪州孟沙区国会议员(1964-1969)、新加坡安顺区国会议员(1979-1981),以及最后于1981年至1985年担任新加坡第三任总统。

 

敦善班丹(Tun V.T. Sambanthan Thevar, 1919-1979)

V. T. Sambanthan giving a garland of flowers to Tunku Abdul Rahman

敦善班丹为东姑阿都拉曼献上花环

敦善班丹全名Tun Thirunyanasambanthan s/o Veerasamy,也被称为T. Sampatang,1919年生于霹雳合丰。敦善班丹是马来西亚印度国大党(Malaysian Indian Congress, MIC)第五任(1955-1973)主席,也是争取马来亚独立的重要功臣。敦善班丹、东姑阿都拉曼和敦陈祯禄合作,领导人民争取马来亚独立建国,是公认的开国元勋。

资料来源:

  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malaysian_Indian
  • http://www.sabrizain.org/malaya/hindu2.htm
  • http://www.forbes.com/profile/ananda-krishnan/
  • http://www.worldometers.info/world-population/malaysia-population/
  • https://www.quora.com/What-are-some-of-the-achievements-of-Chola-dynasty-of-South-India
  • http://www.indexmundi.com/malaysia/demographics_profile.html
  • http://www.littleindia.com/nri/1781-indians-in-malaysia-an-alienated-community.html
  • http://www.indianhighcommission.com.my/index.html
  • http://www.malaysia.travel/en/places/states-of-malaysia/kuala-lumpur/little-india-brickfields
  • http://minorityrights.org/minorities/indians-2/
  • http://www.malaysiasite.nl/indians.htm
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tamil_place_names_in_Malaysia
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rajendra_Chola_I
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panchatantra
  • http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/thaipusam-festival-hindus-facial-body-piercings-make-pilgrimage-malaysias-batu-caves-1486368
  • http://www.wonderfulmalaysia.com/malaysia-thaipusam-hindu-festival.htm
  • http://www.timeanddate.com/holidays/malaysia/deepavali
  • http://www.wonderfulmalaysia.com/faq/deepavali.htm
  • http://www.rappler.com/life-and-style/travel/45536-kuala-lumpur-ten-places
  • http://www.malaysia-traveller.com/batu-caves.html
  • http://www.kuala-lumpur.ws/attractions/brickfields.htm
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Batu_Caves
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Onam
  • http://www.dgreetings.com/ugadi/ugadi.html
  • http://www.telugu-malaysia.com/2013/05/kuchipudi-dance-for-ugadi-celebration.html
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tun_Ali_of_Malacca
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tun_Fatimah#First_Marriage_To_Tun_Ali
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tony_Fernandes
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ananda_Krishnan
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/V._Nagaraj
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Devan_Nair
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ambiga_Sreenevasan
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/V._T._Sambanthan
  • https://asianinspirations.com.au/asian-culture/all-about-malaysian-indian-culture/
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malaysian_Indian_cuisine

 

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Third picture-Standing Manjushri Statue at Chowar, Kirtipur, Nepal.
Height: 33ft (10m)
2 月前
Third picture-Standing Manjushri Statue at Chowar, Kirtipur, Nepal. Height: 33ft (10m)
Second picture-Standing Manjushri Statue at Chowar, Kirtipur, Nepal.
Height: 33ft (10m)
2 月前
Second picture-Standing Manjushri Statue at Chowar, Kirtipur, Nepal. Height: 33ft (10m)
First picture-Standing Manjushri Statue at Chowar, Kirtipur, Nepal.
Height: 33ft (10m)
2 月前
First picture-Standing Manjushri Statue at Chowar, Kirtipur, Nepal. Height: 33ft (10m)
The first title published by Kechara Comics is Karuna Finds A Way. It tells the tale of high-school sweethearts Karuna and Adam who had what some would call the dream life. Everything was going great for them until one day when reality came knocking on their door. Caught in a surprise swindle, this loving family who never harmed anyone found themselves out of luck and down on their fortune. Determined to save her family, Karuna goes all out to find a solution. See what she does- https://bit.ly/2LSKuWo
2 月前
The first title published by Kechara Comics is Karuna Finds A Way. It tells the tale of high-school sweethearts Karuna and Adam who had what some would call the dream life. Everything was going great for them until one day when reality came knocking on their door. Caught in a surprise swindle, this loving family who never harmed anyone found themselves out of luck and down on their fortune. Determined to save her family, Karuna goes all out to find a solution. See what she does- https://bit.ly/2LSKuWo
Very powerful story! Tibetan Resistance group Chushi Gangdruk reveals how Dalai Lama escaped in 1959- https://bit.ly/2S9VMGX
2 月前
Very powerful story! Tibetan Resistance group Chushi Gangdruk reveals how Dalai Lama escaped in 1959- https://bit.ly/2S9VMGX
At Kechara Forest Retreat land we have nice fresh spinach growing free of chemicals and pesticides. Yes!
3 月前
At Kechara Forest Retreat land we have nice fresh spinach growing free of chemicals and pesticides. Yes!
See beautiful pictures of Manjushri Guest House here- https://bit.ly/2WGo0ti
3 月前
See beautiful pictures of Manjushri Guest House here- https://bit.ly/2WGo0ti
Beginner’s Introduction to Dorje Shugden~Very good overview https://bit.ly/2QQNfYv
3 月前
Beginner’s Introduction to Dorje Shugden~Very good overview https://bit.ly/2QQNfYv
Fresh eggplants grown on Kechara Forest Retreat\'s land here in Malaysia
3 月前
Fresh eggplants grown on Kechara Forest Retreat's land here in Malaysia
Most Venerable Uppalavanna – The Chief Female Disciple of Buddha Shakyamuni - She exhibited many supernatural abilities gained from meditation and proved to the world females and males are equal in spirituality- https://bit.ly/31d9Rat
3 月前
Most Venerable Uppalavanna – The Chief Female Disciple of Buddha Shakyamuni - She exhibited many supernatural abilities gained from meditation and proved to the world females and males are equal in spirituality- https://bit.ly/31d9Rat
Thailand’s ‘Renegade’ Yet Powerful Buddhist Nuns~ https://bit.ly/2Z1C02m
3 月前
Thailand’s ‘Renegade’ Yet Powerful Buddhist Nuns~ https://bit.ly/2Z1C02m
Mahapajapati Gotami – the first Buddhist nun ordained by Lord Buddha- https://bit.ly/2IjD8ru
3 月前
Mahapajapati Gotami – the first Buddhist nun ordained by Lord Buddha- https://bit.ly/2IjD8ru
The Largest Buddha Shakyamuni in Russia | 俄罗斯最大的释迦牟尼佛画像- https://bit.ly/2Wpclni
3 月前
The Largest Buddha Shakyamuni in Russia | 俄罗斯最大的释迦牟尼佛画像- https://bit.ly/2Wpclni
Sacred Vajra Yogini
4 月前
Sacred Vajra Yogini
Dorje Shugden works & archives - a labour of commitment - https://bit.ly/30Tp2p8
4 月前
Dorje Shugden works & archives - a labour of commitment - https://bit.ly/30Tp2p8
Mahapajapati Gotami, who was the first nun ordained by Lord Buddha.
4 月前
Mahapajapati Gotami, who was the first nun ordained by Lord Buddha.
Mahapajapati Gotami, who was the first nun ordained by Lord Buddha. She was his step-mother and aunt. Buddha\'s mother had passed away at his birth so he was raised by Gotami.
4 月前
Mahapajapati Gotami, who was the first nun ordained by Lord Buddha. She was his step-mother and aunt. Buddha's mother had passed away at his birth so he was raised by Gotami.
Another nun disciple of Lord Buddha\'s. She had achieved great spiritual abilities and high attainments. She would be a proper object of refuge. This image of the eminent bhikkhuni (nun) disciple of the Buddha, Uppalavanna Theri.
4 月前
Another nun disciple of Lord Buddha's. She had achieved great spiritual abilities and high attainments. She would be a proper object of refuge. This image of the eminent bhikkhuni (nun) disciple of the Buddha, Uppalavanna Theri.
Wandering Ascetic Painting by Nirdesha Munasinghe
4 月前
Wandering Ascetic Painting by Nirdesha Munasinghe
High Sri Lankan monks visit Kechara to bless our land, temple, Buddha and Dorje Shugden images. They were very kind-see pictures- https://bit.ly/2HQie2M
4 月前
High Sri Lankan monks visit Kechara to bless our land, temple, Buddha and Dorje Shugden images. They were very kind-see pictures- https://bit.ly/2HQie2M
点击上面的“查看所有照片”以查看更多图像

即时视频

  • Always be kind to animals-They deserve to live just like us.
    2 月前
    Always be kind to animals-They deserve to live just like us.
    Whales and dolphins playing with each other in the Pacific sea. Nature is truly incredible!
  • Bodha stupa July 2019-
    2 月前
    Bodha stupa July 2019-
    Rainy period
  • Cute Tara girl having a snack. She is one of Kechara Forest Retreat’s resident doggies.
    3 月前
    Cute Tara girl having a snack. She is one of Kechara Forest Retreat’s resident doggies.
  • Your Next Meal!
    3 月前
    Your Next Meal!
    Yummy? Tasty? Behind the scenes of the meat on your plates. Meat is a killing industry.
  • This is Daw
    3 月前
    This is Daw
    This is what they do to get meat on tables, and to produce belts and jackets. Think twice before your next purchase.
  • Don’t Take My Mummy Away!
    3 月前
    Don’t Take My Mummy Away!
    Look at the poor baby chasing after the mother. Why do we do that to them? It's time to seriously think about our choices in life and how they affect others. Be kind. Don't break up families.
  • They do this every day!
    3 月前
    They do this every day!
    This is how they are being treated every day of their lives. Please do something to stop the brutality. Listen to their cries for help!
  • What happened at Fair Oaks Farm?
    3 月前
    What happened at Fair Oaks Farm?
    The largest undercover dairy investigation of all time. See what they found out at Fair Oaks Farm.
  • She’s going to spend her whole life here without being able to move correctly. Like a machine. They are the slaves of the people and are viewed as a product. It’s immoral. Billions of terrestrial animals die annually. Billions. You can’t even imagine it. And all that because people don’t want to give up meat, even though there are so many alternatives. ~ Gabriel Azimov
    3 月前
    She’s going to spend her whole life here without being able to move correctly. Like a machine. They are the slaves of the people and are viewed as a product. It’s immoral. Billions of terrestrial animals die annually. Billions. You can’t even imagine it. And all that because people don’t want to give up meat, even though there are so many alternatives. ~ Gabriel Azimov
  • Our Malaysian Prime Minister Dr. Mahathir speaks so well, logically and regarding our country’s collaboration with China for growth. It is refreshing to listen to Dr. Mahathir’s thoughts. He said our country can look to China for many more things such as technology and so on. Tsem Rinpoche
    5 月前
    Our Malaysian Prime Minister Dr. Mahathir speaks so well, logically and regarding our country’s collaboration with China for growth. It is refreshing to listen to Dr. Mahathir’s thoughts. He said our country can look to China for many more things such as technology and so on. Tsem Rinpoche
  • This is the first time His Holiness Dalai Lama mentions he had some very serious illness. Very worrying. This video is captured April 2019.
    5 月前
    This is the first time His Holiness Dalai Lama mentions he had some very serious illness. Very worrying. This video is captured April 2019.
  • Beautiful Monastery in Hong Kong
    5 月前
    Beautiful Monastery in Hong Kong
  • This dog thanks his hero in such a touching way. Tsem Rinpoche
    5 月前
    This dog thanks his hero in such a touching way. Tsem Rinpoche
  • Join Tsem Rinpoche in prayer for H.H. Dalai Lama’s long life~ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gYy7JcveikU&feature=youtu.be
    5 月前
    Join Tsem Rinpoche in prayer for H.H. Dalai Lama’s long life~ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gYy7JcveikU&feature=youtu.be
  • These people going on pilgrimage to a holy mountain and prostrating out of devotion and for pilgrimage in Tibet. Such determination for spiritual practice. Tsem Rinpoche
    5 月前
    These people going on pilgrimage to a holy mountain and prostrating out of devotion and for pilgrimage in Tibet. Such determination for spiritual practice. Tsem Rinpoche
  • Beautiful new casing in Kechara for Vajra Yogini. Tsem Rinpoche
    6 月前
    Beautiful new casing in Kechara for Vajra Yogini. Tsem Rinpoche
  • Get ready to laugh real hard. This is Kechara’s version of “Whatever Happened to Baby Jane!” We have some real talents in this video clip.
    6 月前
    Get ready to laugh real hard. This is Kechara’s version of “Whatever Happened to Baby Jane!” We have some real talents in this video clip.
  • Recitation of Dorje Dermo‘s mantra or the Dharani of Glorious Vajra Claws. This powerful mantra is meant to destroy all obstacles that come in our way. Beneficial to play this mantra in our environments.
    6 月前
    Recitation of Dorje Dermo‘s mantra or the Dharani of Glorious Vajra Claws. This powerful mantra is meant to destroy all obstacles that come in our way. Beneficial to play this mantra in our environments.
  • Beautiful
    6 月前
    Beautiful
    Beautiful sacred Severed Head Vajra Yogini from Tsem Rinpoche's personal shrine.
  • My little monster cute babies Dharma and Oser. Take a look and get a cute attack for the day! Tsem Rinpoche
    6 月前
    My little monster cute babies Dharma and Oser. Take a look and get a cute attack for the day! Tsem Rinpoche
  • Plse watch this short video and see how all sentient beings are capable of tenderness and love. We should never hurt animals nor should we eat them. Tsem Rinpoche
    6 月前
    Plse watch this short video and see how all sentient beings are capable of tenderness and love. We should never hurt animals nor should we eat them. Tsem Rinpoche
  • Cruelty of some people have no limits and it’s heartbreaking. Being kind cost nothing. Tsem Rinpoche
    7 月前
    Cruelty of some people have no limits and it’s heartbreaking. Being kind cost nothing. Tsem Rinpoche
  • SUPER ADORABLE and must see
    8 月前
    SUPER ADORABLE and must see
    Tsem Rinpoche's dog Oser girl enjoying her snack in her play pen.
  • Cute!
    8 月前
    Cute!
    Oser girl loves the balcony so much. - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RTcoWpKJm2c
  • Uncle Wong
    8 月前
    Uncle Wong
    We were told by Uncle Wong he is very faithful toward Dorje Shugden. Dorje Shugden has extended help to him on several occasions and now Uncle Wong comes daily to make incense offerings to Dorje Shugden. He is grateful towards the help he was given.
  • Tsem Rinpoche’s Schnauzer Dharma boy fights Robot sphere from Arkonide!
    9 月前
    Tsem Rinpoche’s Schnauzer Dharma boy fights Robot sphere from Arkonide!
  • Cute baby owl found and rescued
    9 月前
    Cute baby owl found and rescued
    We rescued a lost baby owl in Kechara Forest Retreat.
  • Nice cups from Kechara!!
    9 月前
    Nice cups from Kechara!!
    Dorje Shugden people's lives matter!
  • Enjoy a peaceful morning at Kechara Forest Retreat
    9 月前
    Enjoy a peaceful morning at Kechara Forest Retreat
    Chirping birds and other forest animals create a joyful melody at the Vajrayogini stupa in Kechara Forest Retreat (Bentong, Malaysia).
  • His Holiness Kyabje Trijang Rinpoche makes offering of khata to Dorje Shugden.
    9 月前
    His Holiness Kyabje Trijang Rinpoche makes offering of khata to Dorje Shugden.
    Trijang Rinpoche never gave up his devotion to Dorje Shugden no matter how much Tibetan government in exile pressured him to give up. He stayed loyal inspiring so many of us.
  • This topic is so hot in many circles right now.
    2 年前
    This topic is so hot in many circles right now.
    This video is thought-provoking and very interesting. Watch! Thanks so much to our friends at LIVEKINDLY.
  • Chiropractic CHANGES LIFE for teenager with acute PAIN & DEAD LEG.
    2 年前
    Chiropractic CHANGES LIFE for teenager with acute PAIN & DEAD LEG.
  • BEAUTIFUL PLACE IN NEW YORK STATE-AMAZING.
    2 年前
    BEAUTIFUL PLACE IN NEW YORK STATE-AMAZING.
  • Leonardo DiCaprio takes on the meat Industry with real action.
    2 年前
    Leonardo DiCaprio takes on the meat Industry with real action.
  • Do psychic mediums have messages from beyond?
    2 年前
    Do psychic mediums have messages from beyond?
  • Lovely gift for my 52nd Birthday. Tsem Rinpoche
    2 年前
    Lovely gift for my 52nd Birthday. Tsem Rinpoche
  • This 59-year-old chimpanzee was refusing food and ready to die until...
    2 年前
    This 59-year-old chimpanzee was refusing food and ready to die until...
    she received “one last visit from an old friend” 💔💔
  • Bigfoot sighted again and made it to the news.
    2 年前
    Bigfoot sighted again and made it to the news.
  • Casper is such a cute and adorable. I like him.
    2 年前
    Casper is such a cute and adorable. I like him.
  • Dorje Shugden Monastery Amarbayasgalant  Mongolia's Ancient Hidden Gem
    2 年前
    Dorje Shugden Monastery Amarbayasgalant Mongolia's Ancient Hidden Gem
  • Don't you love Hamburgers? See how 'delicious' it is here!
    2 年前
    Don't you love Hamburgers? See how 'delicious' it is here!
  • Such a beautiful and powerful message from a person who knows the meaning of life. Tsem Rinpoche
    2 年前
    Such a beautiful and powerful message from a person who knows the meaning of life. Tsem Rinpoche
  • What the meat industry figured out is that you don't need healthy animals to make a profit.
    2 年前
    What the meat industry figured out is that you don't need healthy animals to make a profit.
    Sick animals are more profitable... farms calculate how close to death they can keep animals without killing them. That's the business model. How quickly they can be made to grow, how tightly they can be packed, how much or how little can they eat, how sick they can get without dying... We live in a world in which it's conventional to treat an animal like a block of wood. ~ Jonathan Safran Foer
  • This video went viral and it's a must watch!!
    2 年前
    This video went viral and it's a must watch!!
  • SEE HOW THIS ANIMAL SERIAL KILLER HAS NO ISSUE BLUDGEONING THIS DEFENSELESS BEING.
    2 年前
    SEE HOW THIS ANIMAL SERIAL KILLER HAS NO ISSUE BLUDGEONING THIS DEFENSELESS BEING.
    This happens daily in slaughterhouse so you can get your pork and Bak ku teh. Stop eating meat.

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图文吧

Currently the youngest student in dharma class :) Lin Mun KSDS
3 周前
Currently the youngest student in dharma class :) Lin Mun KSDS
Nice lotus sit done by the youngest class students. Lin Mun KSDS
3 周前
Nice lotus sit done by the youngest class students. Lin Mun KSDS
Teacher Jayce is teaching dharma to student of age 11-12 years old . Lin Mun MSDS
3 周前
Teacher Jayce is teaching dharma to student of age 11-12 years old . Lin Mun MSDS
Students enjoyed the light exercise session. Lin Mun KSDS
3 周前
Students enjoyed the light exercise session. Lin Mun KSDS
Some simple exercise before we finish our dharma class. Lin Mun KSDS
3 周前
Some simple exercise before we finish our dharma class. Lin Mun KSDS
Teacher Grace giving some ideas on activities to Wen Yue. Lin Mun KSDS
3 周前
Teacher Grace giving some ideas on activities to Wen Yue. Lin Mun KSDS
The children were so excited to wait for the next quiz question. Lin Mun KSDS
4 周前
The children were so excited to wait for the next quiz question. Lin Mun KSDS
Children will do prostration and recite Manjushri mantra before start of dharma class. Lin Mun KSDS
4 周前
Children will do prostration and recite Manjushri mantra before start of dharma class. Lin Mun KSDS
Throwback - Participants were so attentive when colouring tsa tsa. Lin Mun KSDS
4 周前
Throwback - Participants were so attentive when colouring tsa tsa. Lin Mun KSDS
Maya painting Vajrayogini tsa tsa at the kid’s corner during Wesak day. Lin Mun KSDS
4 周前
Maya painting Vajrayogini tsa tsa at the kid’s corner during Wesak day. Lin Mun KSDS
Throwback- Family visiting KFR on the auspicious Wesak Day. Lin Mun KSDS
4 周前
Throwback- Family visiting KFR on the auspicious Wesak Day. Lin Mun KSDS
Join us on Saturday, 24th August 2019 in celebrating International Dorje Shugden Day with an evening of auspicious and powerful pujas for abundance, prosperity, longevity and wish-fulfilment! PROGRAMME 4:00pm – Prayer Flag Puja & Lhasang Smoke Offering Ritual 5:30pm – Free vegetarian dinner 6:30pm – Gyenze Increasing Fire Puja 9:00pm – End Collectively, these pujas are a celebration of Dorje Shugden’s blessings and are highly beneficial for all sponsors and attendees. There’s really no better place to celebrate Dorje Shugden Day than in Kechara Forest Retreat, which is home to the world’s largest Dorje Shugden statue. MORE INFO: kecharaforestretreat.com/dorjeshugdenday
4 周前
Join us on Saturday, 24th August 2019 in celebrating International Dorje Shugden Day with an evening of auspicious and powerful pujas for abundance, prosperity, longevity and wish-fulfilment! PROGRAMME 4:00pm – Prayer Flag Puja & Lhasang Smoke Offering Ritual 5:30pm – Free vegetarian dinner 6:30pm – Gyenze Increasing Fire Puja 9:00pm – End Collectively, these pujas are a celebration of Dorje Shugden’s blessings and are highly beneficial for all sponsors and attendees. There’s really no better place to celebrate Dorje Shugden Day than in Kechara Forest Retreat, which is home to the world’s largest Dorje Shugden statue. MORE INFO: kecharaforestretreat.com/dorjeshugdenday
Teacher Jayce explained the good value from Rinpoche’s teachings. Alice, KSDS
4 周前
Teacher Jayce explained the good value from Rinpoche’s teachings. Alice, KSDS
“Be kind to animals.” Let your kids join the monthly Animal Liberation at Kechara House, Sunwaymas.
4 周前
“Be kind to animals.” Let your kids join the monthly Animal Liberation at Kechara House, Sunwaymas.
Chern Chern learnt dharma and show the good attitudes to others. Alice, KSDS
4 周前
Chern Chern learnt dharma and show the good attitudes to others. Alice, KSDS
Encourage the kids to express their feelings and at the same instill the dharma to them. Alice, KSDS
4 周前
Encourage the kids to express their feelings and at the same instill the dharma to them. Alice, KSDS
Teacher Grace taught the participants for the DIY candles. Alice , KSDS
4 周前
Teacher Grace taught the participants for the DIY candles. Alice , KSDS
Children recite Migtsema and Manjushri mantra before the start of dharma class. Lin Mun KSDS
1 月前
Children recite Migtsema and Manjushri mantra before the start of dharma class. Lin Mun KSDS
Student do full prostration before the start of dharma class. Lin Mun KSDS
1 月前
Student do full prostration before the start of dharma class. Lin Mun KSDS
Wen Yue led students to do key chain as part of art and craft activity. Lin Mun KSDS
1 月前
Wen Yue led students to do key chain as part of art and craft activity. Lin Mun KSDS
The Promise
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点击观看我对多杰雄登的说法。。。