中国豆腐的饮食文化差异与融合

2017年12月24日 | 浏览量: 149

Photo credit: Wikimedia Commons

摘要

近代科学使人们对黄豆的营养价值充分认识,中国发明的豆腐与其副产品在饮食界的地位迅速提升。品种、数量和烹调方式相应增加,如今豆腐在中国更是无分南北东西,贫富身份,早已冲出海外,传播到其他国家, 发扬光大其滋味。本文以五个部分浅谈中国饮食文化的对比,并以中国发明的豆腐为主轴,一是豆腐饮食文化、二是豆腐的名称和种类、三是豆腐 的发源与传播、四是豆腐的文化差异与融合,最后是结语,并尝试在本文中介绍豆腐在世界各地的饮食差异与文化融合。

 

一、 豆腐饮食文化

每个民族都有属于自己独特的饮食文化,世界上有数百中民族,理应有百花齐放的饮食文化,然而,被近代世界各国所接受的饮食文化,大致上只分为两大种类,即欧洲饮食文化和中国饮食文化。欧洲的饮食文化是在政治与经济的背景下走向世界, 反观之,中华饮食文化与政治权利毫无关系,纯碎是中华民族赞誉中国饮食的美味, 将其滋味带到他国去,中国餐馆才遍布于世界各地。

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孙中山先生在《建国方略》支持了这个观点,“我中国近代文明先进,事事皆落人之后,惟饮食一道之进步,至今尚为文明各国所不及。中国所发明之食物,固大胜于欧美;而中国烹调法之精良,又非欧美所可并驾……。中国烹调之术不独偏传于美洲, 而欧洲各国之大都会渐有中国菜馆矣。日本自维新以后,习尚多采西风,而独于烹调 一道嗜中国之味,东京中国菜馆亦林立焉。是知口之于味,人所同也。”

除了中国烹调之术和中餐馆遍布全世界,中国制作的食品也传遍世界各国,例如: 茶叶、饺子、油条、面条等等,尤其是中国发明的豆腐。中国发明的豆腐先是传到日本,接着是东南亚国家,如今更是受欧美国家欢迎,继茶叶之后又一个畅销到世界各地的中国食品。1981 年,美国的《经济展望》杂志曾预言,未来十年,最成功的而最有潜力的商品不是汽车,也不是电子产品,而是中国的豆腐。果然这预言成真了,中国发明的豆腐成为中西餐厅必备的食品,中国发明的豆腐副产品是家家户户必吃的食 品,中国发明的豆浆更是取代了欧美牛奶的地位。

 

二、 豆腐的名称与种类

“豆腐”这个词在广义上是各种黄豆食品的统称,在狭义上是指一般的豆腐,也 就是最普通,最为人知,最廉价的豆腐。中国的每个省份都有各自的豆腐名称与种类, 且相同种类的豆腐在不同省份也会冠上不同的名字与读音。如今这个食品广传到世界 各地,几乎每个民族都会用自己的语言给这食品取个音译名。

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中国普通话的豆腐,念作“dòu fǔ”;粤语的豆腐,念作“dowfu”;闽南话的 豆腐,发音成“tahu”;印尼语借用闽南话,豆腐也念着“tahu”;菲律宾人称之为 “tojo”或“tokua”;西方英语音译成“tofu”,或取名“Bean Curd”。由于西方厨房里并没有和豆腐对等的食品,因此他们用“Bean Curd”一词命名豆腐,形容这食品是“黄豆凝乳”或“黄豆乳酪”,甚至是“黄豆起司”。

豆腐问世后其家族成员不断壮大,相续衍生出豆浆、豆腐脑、豆腐皮、豆腐丝、水豆腐、豆腐干、南豆腐、臭豆腐、油豆腐、冻豆腐、豆腐乳等。清朝李调元还写了一首戏詠《豆腐》记载各种豆腐副食品:

家用为宜客非用,合家高会命相依。(豆浆)
石膏化后浓加酪,水沫挑成皱成衣。(豆腐皮)
剁作银条垂缕滑,划为玉段载脂肥。(豆腐丝)
近来腐价高于肉,只恐贫人不救饥。(水、干豆腐)
不须玉豆与金笾,味比佳肴尽可捐。(南豆腐)
逐臭有时入鲍肆,闻香无处辨龙涎。(臭豆腐)
市中白水常成醉,寺里清油不碑禅。(油豆腐)
最是广大寒彻骨,连筐称罢御卧寒。(冻豆腐)
才闻香气已先贪,白楮油封四小甔。(豆腐乳)
滑似油膏挑不起,可怜风味似淮南。(豆腐脑)

此清朝戏詠描述了十种较为人知的豆腐副产品,字字描述得十分显明,由此推断豆腐与其副产品在古时候属于庶民之食,而豆腐的饮食文化踪迹可追溯至更早时期的汉朝。

 

三、 豆腐的发源与传播

中国豆腐在饮食文化历史上存有不同的说法,广为人知的是“淮南王刘安版”。中国豆腐面世于西元前 164 年,由中国汉高祖刘邦之孙——淮南王刘邦所发明。据说淮南王对炼金术极为兴趣,有次他到八公山上烧药炼丹,无意将卤水或海水点入黄豆汁,进而发明了一块凝固块状的食品,亦是今日所食的中国豆腐。

中国豆腐面世一千年后才被宋朝的《清異录》记载,文中提及了淮南王发明豆腐之事。而详细的传统豆腐制作过程记载于明代李时珍的《本草纲目》谷部卷 25“豆 腐”:“凡黑豆、黄豆及白豆、泥豆、豌豆、绿豆之类,皆可为之。水浸,硙碎。滤 去渣,煎成。以卤汁或山矾叶或酸浆醋淀,就釜收之。”

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虽然中国豆腐的制作过程记载于明朝的《本草纲目》,可是这食品早在唐朝传入到日本去。据《和名抄》所载,唐朝中国长安及扬州的著名菜肴和糕点,随着中日饮食文化交流的开展,陆续传到日本,日本当地流行了唐式美食,其中包括豆腐。

中国豆腐也伴着中国扬州大明寺的鉴真和尚传入日本。早在公元 743 年,他受到日本佛教界朋友的邀请,远赴日本传授佛教,他不仅把佛教传入日本,也将中国豆腐 带到了日本的寺庙。有学者认为,早期中国和日本的豆腐制作场所设置于寺庙里,由寺庙的唐僧经营,信徒们在寺庙尝到豆腐后,向寺庙的唐僧请教豆腐做法,最后带到民间去开设自己的豆腐店,从此中国豆腐立足于日本民间。

欧洲人最早认识中国豆腐是在 1665 年,多明我会士闵明我(Domingo Fernández de Navarrete)写的《旅行记》中介绍了中国上子帝王下至平民所食用的食物,其中包括豆腐(teu fu),他也在文中提及了豆腐制作法,然而,中国豆腐正式面世于欧 洲于本世纪初,可说是才刚开始正式踏入欧洲。

根据新闻报导,数位中国人在法国开设了一间“豆腐公司”,生产豆腐、豆腐干、 油豆腐、豆腐乳、豆乳酱等豆腐副产品,并有幸让法国总统品尝中国豆腐后,并成为法国宫廷餐桌上的佳肴。从此,中国豆腐在法国的身价提高数倍,甚至广传到英国、意大利、葡萄牙、美国等。目前,美国已经有五十多间豆腐店店,豆腐与豆腐副产品 的需求不断提升,相信未来会开设更多间豆腐店。

中国饮食文化对东南亚的影响甚大,以马来西亚和印尼为例,早在十八世纪末生 活于中国南方的人迁移到南洋居住,亦是今日的“华裔”。他们从中国带来了水稻、 蔬果、茶叶、面条、豆腐等,这些食品与烹调技术在当地流传,同时开设了多家中国 餐饮店,逐渐深受当地人喜欢,中国菜肴成功融合到当地的饮食文化。

 

四、 豆腐的差异与融合

豆腐的文化不断开拓,日益创新,如今更被标记为世界性食品,犹如座桥梁搭建到世界各地传播饮食文化,共享文化资源。这块中国豆腐去到世界各地后是否保留其 风味和滋味,以下内容举例了一些豆腐传播到海外后的新面貌,并略谈其不同之处。

 

水豆腐

块状水豆腐

块状水豆腐--“水豆腐”也称作“嫩豆腐”,这种豆腐在中国并不普遍,因为这种豆腐非常柔 软,由稀释的豆浆制作而成,再被保存于水中。

中国有两种水豆腐,第一种的做法像日本的日式绢豆腐,成块出售;第二种是在大壶里凝结成形,质地非常柔软得用汤匙舀入客人的碗中,若淋上一些酱油或糖可直接食用。反观之第二种水豆腐是马来西亚常见的豆腐料理,几乎每个超市或菜市场都可见到水豆腐的踪影。

一般的中餐馆会在水豆腐上撒肉碎,淋上特调酱料,再蒸上几分钟, 皆以咸食为主,不曾出现甜味的水豆腐,且马来西亚食客不爱老豆腐,尤其是中国北方的老豆腐,放到舌尖立即皱眉头。

 

豆腐脑、豆腐花

桶装水豆腐

桶装水豆腐

中国的豆腐脑如同布丁,一般装置在木制的桶子里,顾客点了豆腐脑便一勺勺舀 入到碗中,淋上花生和红糖,或榨菜、虾米和酱油,再附上汤匙,甜咸二味供顾客选择,可围绕在推车旁吃。

豆腐脑的口感与水豆腐相似,但是质地再软一些,水豆腐属于餐桌上的菜肴,豆腐脑则属于路边摊子卖的甜品小吃。

东南亚卖的豆腐脑一般以甜味为主,白糖浆或红糖浆,绝不会出现肉沫榨菜酱油 的咸味版。而东南亚称豆腐脑为“豆腐花”,中国却认为“豆腐脑”和“豆腐花”不属于同类,前者是布丁形,后者如同汤里的蛋花。

中国咸味豆腐脑

中国咸味豆腐脑

左为中国豆腐花。右为马来西亚甜味豆腐脑

左为中国豆腐花。右为马来西亚甜味豆腐脑

 

豆干

“豆干”或“豆腐干”,中国的豆腐干一般是方块形状,四边约 7.5 公分,厚 2 公分,深棕色或橙黄色,印有朱红色的中国字是家里拜祭的贡品,而切成条状、丝或小丁的豆腐干与中式酱汁一块儿炒或砂锅方式烹调。

美国旧金山纽约也卖豆干,不过是“五香豆干”(Spiced Dry Tofu),西方人喜欢将豆干切成薄片像冷盘的肉类一样食用,或

者当成开胃小菜。他们也把五香豆干和新鲜蔬菜、坚果和沙拉酱一起凉拌。

左为中国条状豆干。右为五香豆干。

左为中国条状豆干。右为五香豆干。

 

油豆腐块

中国三角状油豆腐块

中国三角状油豆腐块。

“油豆腐块”,也称作“厚扬”,中国油豆腐块的传统做法是把整块传统豆腐经过挤压,再制作成三角形用油炸至金黄色出售。中国三角形金黄色油豆腐块多用于砂 锅,再加入酱汁和蔬菜一起烹调。

早期日本的油豆腐块和中国的油豆腐块相似,然而东京的豆腐师傅将之改成长方形,并切成四块,四边约 2.5 公分,重量约 150 克,体积变小了,再放入油锅炸直到 酥脆,最后用于锅料理与高汤和蔬菜燉煮。

西方人喜欢将油豆腐块当作牛排烧烤,放在小炭的炉子上慢慢慢烘烤,并在油豆腐块表面划几刀,淋上烧烤酱汁让其味道渗入油豆腐块里,最后粘上辣椒酱或番茄酱食用。

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日本关东煮西方状油豆腐块。

西方烧烤油豆腐块

西方烧烤油豆腐块。

 

油豆腐泡

日本的豆皮寿司

日本的豆皮寿司

“油豆腐泡”,一个小袋或泡状的油炸豆腐,有袋装、片状、及薄条状,可在里面填入蔬菜、肉碎或其他馅料,深受日式料理欢迎。据说油豆腐泡是日本发明的,因为 在旧时代的中国没发现其踪迹。油豆腐泡在不同国家有不同做法。在日本,日本寿司师傅喜欢用袋装的油豆腐泡塞入醋饭,变成豆皮寿司,日本妈妈还喜欢在油豆皮泡里加入谷类、面条和蔬菜,当作小孩的便当。

日本占领韩国期间,也把油炸豆腐带到韩国去了,像是各种大小的福袋,此福袋 可作豆皮寿司或束袋,里面打开可放馅料。

韩国的福袋油豆皮泡

韩国的福袋油豆皮泡

美国人也爱吃油豆腐泡,当地有种独特的油豆腐泡,名叫油豆腐泡芙(Age Puff),形状像一个小正方棒棍,油炸时随时会膨胀成一根长 11 公分、直径 5 公分的 金黄色香肠。有别于日本的油豆腐泡,美国的油豆腐泡冷却后依然是鼓胀的,也不像日式的油豆腐泡可塞入馅料在中间,美国的油豆腐泡芙得在旁边切开一道细缝。

 

豆腐乳

白豆腐乳

白豆腐乳

“豆腐乳”得普通话也称作“腐乳”或“乳腐”,粤语是“fuyu”或“funan”, 上海话是“sufu”或“dou-sufu”,意思是长了霉的牛奶。豆腐乳是一种黏稠度很高, 风味非常强烈的食品,人们切碎红辣椒调味,味道强烈且辛辣,一小口可吃许久。豆 腐乳一般不在传统豆腐店售卖,多数在中式酱菜店制作贩卖,也有不少家庭会自制, 因为低成本,还可长时间储存。中国人喜欢将豆腐乳当做粥的调味料,白饭的开胃小 菜或前菜,也有人喜欢在炒菜时加入豆腐乳调味。

红豆腐乳

红豆腐乳。

众多豆腐副产品唯有豆腐乳最具特色,因为豆腐乳不像日本所制的任何东西,也不是西方人所熟悉的食品,因此豆腐乳在西方享有“中国起司”的美誉,西方人对发酵的食品更是大为所爱。

西方常见的豆腐乳是白豆腐乳(Fermented Bean Curd)和红豆腐乳(Red Bean Curd),玫瑰豆腐乳是西方的牌子,包装如同番茄酱,西方人喜欢 这牌子的红腐乳与辣椒酱一起搅拌,并与锅里的肉类和海鲜粘上食用。

美国卖的罐头红豆腐乳

美国卖的罐头红豆腐乳。

 

豆浆

中国常见的豆浆

中国常见的豆浆

有豆腐,自然有豆浆,产自不同区域的豆浆自然有其独特之处。

中国的豆浆,也称作“中式豆浆”、“豆腐浆”“豆奶”或“豆乳”。豆浆在中 国的饮食地位甚高,食用的概率或许还比传统豆腐还要高,因为是中国的幼儿、儿童和成人的主要蛋白质来源,远远胜于其他国家。每天早上,许多中国人会带着容器到 传统豆腐店或专卖豆浆的小店购买一家人所需的豆浆,因此小区、学校、广场皆是豆 浆的踪影,其需求是众饮料中的榜首。

日本盒装浓豆浆。日本工厂贩售的盒装豆浆口味众多,原味、蜂蜜、麦芽、草莓或巧克力,日本以 外的国家都以原味豆浆为主,反观之日本的口味较为丰富。而厂商会将盒装豆浆贩售 到贩卖机,路上看见贩卖机可随时买一盒豆浆。

豆浆小贩常以一般的搅果汁机打豆浆,味道淡而只剩黄豆味,口感细薄,入喉后感到明显的渣儿,多数售卖原味,食客也可要求在豆浆里撒上少许的白糖,四季皆以热饮为主。若买不着新鲜豆浆,也可购买瓶装豆浆。如今工厂大量制成瓶装豆浆,食客可根据自己的需求或喜爱的品牌购买放置在家中。简言之,豆浆在中国家庭的地位 犹如西方的牛奶。

日式豆浆分为两大种类,传统豆腐店做的浓豆浆,或大公司所制作的盒包装豆浆。日本的传统豆腐店会售卖浓豆浆。这种浓豆浆是六种豆腐的原料,豆浆美味的秘诀在与其浓度,而豆浆的浓度是因店而异,豆浆除了当成饮料,也可用作制作绢豆腐。

日式浓豆浆在日本拥有个崇高的地位,深受日本妈妈和社区小孩推崇。原来,日本妈妈会购买浓豆浆喂食年纪太小无法食用豆腐的婴儿,或者她们想要孩子断奶便会以浓豆浆取代。如今厂商出产的灌装调配豆浆粉也为妈妈们提供了便利,方便妈妈们到药房或天然食品店购买。

马来西亚的冰豆水

马来西亚的冰豆水

豆浆亦是马来西亚常见的饮品,但不称作豆浆,而是“豆水”,顾名思义是黄豆 制作的水,口感如一般的水,没有渣儿的口感,多数小贩也不用搅果汁机打黄豆,坚 持在厨房以机器打黄豆,再以人工搅拌直到口感顺滑。

马来西亚式的豆水会加上白糖浆, 或黄糖浆,以冷饮冰爽为主,还会添加豆腐脑,增加多层次的口感。

豆浆在其他国家地域也是有饮品的概念,例如印度和非洲,豆浆厂商为了将此饮料大众化,加入了当地人喜欢的口味,像是麦芽、柳橙、咖啡、肉桂和香草,而且价钱也定价在牛奶的四分之一。

 

韩式豆腐

韩式豆腐

韩式豆腐。传统韩式豆腐,名为“tubu”,比日式豆腐晒微结实,有没有中式木棉豆腐般结实。

韩国到处可见贩卖豆腐的店,也有农家会在家自制豆腐。由于豆腐有减缓辛辣的作用,因此韩式料理有道非常著名的菜叫“豆腐锅”,这是一道辛辣的汤料理,里面的豆腐就起到了作用,而一般的“泡菜锅”也会加入豆腐淡化强烈的泡菜味。

豆腐渣、 豆浆和凝乳都出现在韩式料理,绢豆腐、烤豆腐、豆皮和豆腐乳几乎没出现在韩国。

韩式豆腐汤锅

韩式豆腐汤锅。由于豆腐有减缓辛辣的作用,因此韩式料理有道非常著名的菜叫“豆腐锅”,这是一道辛辣的汤料理,里面的豆腐就起到了作用,而一般的“泡菜锅”也会加入豆腐淡化强烈的泡菜味。

 

五、结语

纵观所述,豆腐间的差异比较可探讨得更深入仔细,从制作过程,烹调方法,食材配搭,售卖形式,食用习惯等等。而一番比较后会更认识这块中国豆腐在世界上扮演的饮食文化角色。

若将豆腐作为代表中国饮食文化的代表象征,也许有点不够称职,毕竟论排位身份其他的食品同样具有浓厚的特色。不过,中国食品当中似乎很少有像豆腐般,广泛 受到世界各地不同国家民族的认同,全世界对豆腐的认知,已经超出了“形”与 “味”,并达到了“意”的境界。

一块白白实实的中国豆腐已不是单纯地食品。尝一口豆腐,吃出中国人的饮食智 慧;烹调一道豆腐料理,感受到人们对自身健康的认知与追求;做一桌豆腐宴,品出全世界的饮食文化差异与融合。

 

走遍中国吃豆腐

 

八公山豆腐——中国安徽

推荐菜:刘安点丹
餐厅:淮上豆府
地址:安徽省淮南市国庆东路与水厂路交叉口(老店)、安徽省合肥市怀宁路天鹅湖万达内街三楼(新店)
电话: 0554-3311116、0551-65990958
时间:9:30-13:30 16:30-21:00

Picture2

简介:豆腐起源于安徽的淮南地区,距已有两千多年的历史。豆腐中质量最好的数淮南八公山一带,叫做“八公山豆腐”。这种豆腐采用纯黄豆作原料,加八公山的泉水精制而成。当地农民制作豆腐的技艺世代相传,很多人都掌握了一套好手艺,做出的豆腐细、白、鲜、嫩,深受群众欢迎。如今,安徽当地有家专设“豆腐宴”的餐厅,名为“淮上豆府”,该餐厅的行政总厨也叫着刘安呢!

Picture1

特色:“刘安点丹”是“淮上豆府”餐厅为了纪念淮南刘安而设计的一道豆腐创意菜。厨师会在托盘上摆设了6个装有小菜的碟子,其中有数个空白的瓷碗,而碗底散了一些白色的粉末。之后,厨师会拎起小茶壶,将豆浆一点点导入白瓷碗内,约两分钟,碗内的豆浆开始凝固,成为鲜嫩的豆花,最后加些调料增加风味。

 

剑门豆腐——中国四川

推荐菜:剑门怀胎豆腐
餐厅:剑门关六娃子豆腐店
地址:四川广元市剑阁县剑门场镇
电话:0839-6750036

pic4

简介 :“不吃剑门豆腐,枉游天下雄关”,剑门豆腐,相传始于三国。当时姜维被魏军所困,人马疲惫,令驻扎各营及当地百姓磨豆浆做豆腐,豆渣喂军马,制作豆腐的习俗沿袭下来。此外,剑门山砾岩沙石坡土种植黄豆的品质优良,剑门泉水清澈甘甜,加上独特的制作工艺,因此剑门以豆腐白嫩、清香、有韧性著称。

pic3

特色:凡到剑门关景区的旅客都有机会在附近品尝著名的剑门豆腐,若是一群人想到餐馆里享受一顿豆腐宴不妨考虑“剑门关六娃子豆腐店”。2012年四川省旅游协会主办了“剑门关豆腐烹饪大赛”,剑门关六娃子豆腐店荣获“剑门豆腐”名店第一名,而剑门怀胎豆腐则是该餐厅的特色餐。

 

高碑店豆腐丝——中国河北

推荐菜:高碑店豆腐丝
餐厅:家兴快捷酒店
地址:高碑店市北大街1号(近高碑店市火车站)
电话:0312-2839866

pic5

简介:高碑店是个地名,位于中国河北,豆腐丝又名豆腐筋,源自当地姓贾和姓王的两家,现在仍从事豆腐丝加工的贾、王两家传人,已是第七代。高碑豆腐盛行于清朝,相传清朝在易州修建了西陵后,皇帝王侯来这里祭祀,曾食用高碑店的豆腐丝,故此成为一道名贵的菜肴,并在清代宫廷里供应帝王公侯食用。

pic6

特色:高碑店五香豆腐丝采用成熟饱满的大豆作原料,经过筛选、浸泡、磨浆、煮沸、除渣、凝固、压片、切丝、卤煮、捆把等十几道工序,才卤制成具有独特风味的五香豆腐丝。色泽乳白,束丝状,味道咸香,老幼皆宜,还有“素食之首”的美誉。

 

豆腐箱——中国山东

地点:延庆豆腐宴,北京北苑2号院
推荐菜:箱箱豆腐

pic7

简介:山东豆腐箱又名齐国豆腐箱,是山东省汉族传统名菜,属于鲁菜系。预想品尝豆腐箱不必专程到山东去,北京郊外的北苑家园设有豆腐宴,其中的“箱箱豆腐”大受好评。箱箱豆腐也称得上一道功夫菜,虽然味道和北京人家里做的夹板豆腐很像似,但是厨师把豆腐切成箱子形状,再挖出里面的心儿,放入搅拌好的肉馅,再把豆腐盖好,从外边看就是一块完整的豆腐。

 

葱烧豆腐

地点:57度湘,广州新港中路354号珠影星光城1楼
推荐菜:葱烧豆腐

pic8

简介:葱烧豆腐是道家常菜,做法简单,味道可口,十分下饭。然而,如此简单的一道菜竟然是57度湘的人气佳肴,再普通的一道菜,也不再普通。57度湘以铁板烧闻名,白嫩豆腐经由铁板烧后,外表煎得香香辣辣,却保住里面豆腐最纯真的味道,成功荣获了“最高人气北京葱烧豆腐”这名誉啊!

 

臭豆腐——中国苏州

地点:谷兰臭豆腐,苏州观前街宫巷81号
推荐菜:香辣臭豆腐

pic9

简介:臭豆腐,又名臭干子,其名虽俗气,却外陋内秀,平中见奇,源远流长,是一种极具特色的汉族传统小吃。古老而传统,一经品味,常令人欲罢不能。谷兰臭豆腐是苏州区的臭豆腐之王,来到观前街的人都会专程来到这个小档口排队,一边看着黑色方块在油锅里翻滚,一边闻着阵阵的臭味。最后将炸好的黑豆腐块浸在汤汁里,撒上香菜,再来个香辣酱调味,酥脆的外皮,满满的汤汁,简直是香啊!

 

麻婆豆腐——中国四川

pic10

地点:成都明婷饭店,外曹家巷26号附6号
推荐菜:脑花豆腐

简介:“明婷饭店”的独创之作——脑花豆腐。豆腐鲜,脑花嫩,新鲜的豆腐和新鲜的豆腐脑完美结合,豆瓣酱和多种佐料炒在一块儿,麻辣中不失咸香味,恰好来碗白米饭,味道像极了四川麻婆豆腐。

pic11

 

参考文献

[1]青柳昭子、威廉·夏利夫.豆腐之书本[M].台北柿子文化事业有限公司,2005.

[2]徐海荣.中国饮食文化在世界上的深远影响,第七届中国饮食文化学术研讨会论文集 [J].财团法人中国饮食文化基金会,2002.

[3]赵荣光.中国古代庶民饮食生活[M].北京商务印书馆国际有限公司,1997. [4]中央电视台记录频道.舌尖上的中国[M].北京光明日报出版社,2012

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  1. yin ping 于 2018年5月20日 上午4:15

    豆腐营养丰富,本身也没什么味道。它可以用来烹调清淡或浓郁的菜肴,即便是上等的佳肴或者老百姓的日常餐桌上,无论是素素搭配还是荤素搭配,豆腐都可以为菜肴的营养和口味加分。

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The first title published by Kechara Comics is Karuna Finds A Way. It tells the tale of high-school sweethearts Karuna and Adam who had what some would call the dream life. Everything was going great for them until one day when reality came knocking on their door. Caught in a surprise swindle, this loving family who never harmed anyone found themselves out of luck and down on their fortune. Determined to save her family, Karuna goes all out to find a solution. See what she does- https://bit.ly/2LSKuWo
Very powerful story! Tibetan Resistance group Chushi Gangdruk reveals how Dalai Lama escaped in 1959- https://bit.ly/2S9VMGX
2 月前
Very powerful story! Tibetan Resistance group Chushi Gangdruk reveals how Dalai Lama escaped in 1959- https://bit.ly/2S9VMGX
At Kechara Forest Retreat land we have nice fresh spinach growing free of chemicals and pesticides. Yes!
3 月前
At Kechara Forest Retreat land we have nice fresh spinach growing free of chemicals and pesticides. Yes!
See beautiful pictures of Manjushri Guest House here- https://bit.ly/2WGo0ti
3 月前
See beautiful pictures of Manjushri Guest House here- https://bit.ly/2WGo0ti
Beginner’s Introduction to Dorje Shugden~Very good overview https://bit.ly/2QQNfYv
3 月前
Beginner’s Introduction to Dorje Shugden~Very good overview https://bit.ly/2QQNfYv
Fresh eggplants grown on Kechara Forest Retreat\'s land here in Malaysia
4 月前
Fresh eggplants grown on Kechara Forest Retreat's land here in Malaysia
Most Venerable Uppalavanna – The Chief Female Disciple of Buddha Shakyamuni - She exhibited many supernatural abilities gained from meditation and proved to the world females and males are equal in spirituality- https://bit.ly/31d9Rat
4 月前
Most Venerable Uppalavanna – The Chief Female Disciple of Buddha Shakyamuni - She exhibited many supernatural abilities gained from meditation and proved to the world females and males are equal in spirituality- https://bit.ly/31d9Rat
Thailand’s ‘Renegade’ Yet Powerful Buddhist Nuns~ https://bit.ly/2Z1C02m
4 月前
Thailand’s ‘Renegade’ Yet Powerful Buddhist Nuns~ https://bit.ly/2Z1C02m
Mahapajapati Gotami – the first Buddhist nun ordained by Lord Buddha- https://bit.ly/2IjD8ru
4 月前
Mahapajapati Gotami – the first Buddhist nun ordained by Lord Buddha- https://bit.ly/2IjD8ru
The Largest Buddha Shakyamuni in Russia | 俄罗斯最大的释迦牟尼佛画像- https://bit.ly/2Wpclni
4 月前
The Largest Buddha Shakyamuni in Russia | 俄罗斯最大的释迦牟尼佛画像- https://bit.ly/2Wpclni
Sacred Vajra Yogini
4 月前
Sacred Vajra Yogini
Dorje Shugden works & archives - a labour of commitment - https://bit.ly/30Tp2p8
4 月前
Dorje Shugden works & archives - a labour of commitment - https://bit.ly/30Tp2p8
Mahapajapati Gotami, who was the first nun ordained by Lord Buddha.
4 月前
Mahapajapati Gotami, who was the first nun ordained by Lord Buddha.
Mahapajapati Gotami, who was the first nun ordained by Lord Buddha. She was his step-mother and aunt. Buddha\'s mother had passed away at his birth so he was raised by Gotami.
4 月前
Mahapajapati Gotami, who was the first nun ordained by Lord Buddha. She was his step-mother and aunt. Buddha's mother had passed away at his birth so he was raised by Gotami.
Another nun disciple of Lord Buddha\'s. She had achieved great spiritual abilities and high attainments. She would be a proper object of refuge. This image of the eminent bhikkhuni (nun) disciple of the Buddha, Uppalavanna Theri.
4 月前
Another nun disciple of Lord Buddha's. She had achieved great spiritual abilities and high attainments. She would be a proper object of refuge. This image of the eminent bhikkhuni (nun) disciple of the Buddha, Uppalavanna Theri.
Wandering Ascetic Painting by Nirdesha Munasinghe
4 月前
Wandering Ascetic Painting by Nirdesha Munasinghe
High Sri Lankan monks visit Kechara to bless our land, temple, Buddha and Dorje Shugden images. They were very kind-see pictures- https://bit.ly/2HQie2M
4 月前
High Sri Lankan monks visit Kechara to bless our land, temple, Buddha and Dorje Shugden images. They were very kind-see pictures- https://bit.ly/2HQie2M
点击上面的“查看所有照片”以查看更多图像

即时视频

  • Always be kind to animals-They deserve to live just like us.
    2 月前
    Always be kind to animals-They deserve to live just like us.
    Whales and dolphins playing with each other in the Pacific sea. Nature is truly incredible!
  • Bodha stupa July 2019-
    2 月前
    Bodha stupa July 2019-
    Rainy period
  • Cute Tara girl having a snack. She is one of Kechara Forest Retreat’s resident doggies.
    3 月前
    Cute Tara girl having a snack. She is one of Kechara Forest Retreat’s resident doggies.
  • Your Next Meal!
    4 月前
    Your Next Meal!
    Yummy? Tasty? Behind the scenes of the meat on your plates. Meat is a killing industry.
  • This is Daw
    4 月前
    This is Daw
    This is what they do to get meat on tables, and to produce belts and jackets. Think twice before your next purchase.
  • Don’t Take My Mummy Away!
    4 月前
    Don’t Take My Mummy Away!
    Look at the poor baby chasing after the mother. Why do we do that to them? It's time to seriously think about our choices in life and how they affect others. Be kind. Don't break up families.
  • They do this every day!
    4 月前
    They do this every day!
    This is how they are being treated every day of their lives. Please do something to stop the brutality. Listen to their cries for help!
  • What happened at Fair Oaks Farm?
    4 月前
    What happened at Fair Oaks Farm?
    The largest undercover dairy investigation of all time. See what they found out at Fair Oaks Farm.
  • She’s going to spend her whole life here without being able to move correctly. Like a machine. They are the slaves of the people and are viewed as a product. It’s immoral. Billions of terrestrial animals die annually. Billions. You can’t even imagine it. And all that because people don’t want to give up meat, even though there are so many alternatives. ~ Gabriel Azimov
    4 月前
    She’s going to spend her whole life here without being able to move correctly. Like a machine. They are the slaves of the people and are viewed as a product. It’s immoral. Billions of terrestrial animals die annually. Billions. You can’t even imagine it. And all that because people don’t want to give up meat, even though there are so many alternatives. ~ Gabriel Azimov
  • Our Malaysian Prime Minister Dr. Mahathir speaks so well, logically and regarding our country’s collaboration with China for growth. It is refreshing to listen to Dr. Mahathir’s thoughts. He said our country can look to China for many more things such as technology and so on. Tsem Rinpoche
    5 月前
    Our Malaysian Prime Minister Dr. Mahathir speaks so well, logically and regarding our country’s collaboration with China for growth. It is refreshing to listen to Dr. Mahathir’s thoughts. He said our country can look to China for many more things such as technology and so on. Tsem Rinpoche
  • This is the first time His Holiness Dalai Lama mentions he had some very serious illness. Very worrying. This video is captured April 2019.
    5 月前
    This is the first time His Holiness Dalai Lama mentions he had some very serious illness. Very worrying. This video is captured April 2019.
  • Beautiful Monastery in Hong Kong
    5 月前
    Beautiful Monastery in Hong Kong
  • This dog thanks his hero in such a touching way. Tsem Rinpoche
    5 月前
    This dog thanks his hero in such a touching way. Tsem Rinpoche
  • Join Tsem Rinpoche in prayer for H.H. Dalai Lama’s long life~ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gYy7JcveikU&feature=youtu.be
    5 月前
    Join Tsem Rinpoche in prayer for H.H. Dalai Lama’s long life~ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gYy7JcveikU&feature=youtu.be
  • These people going on pilgrimage to a holy mountain and prostrating out of devotion and for pilgrimage in Tibet. Such determination for spiritual practice. Tsem Rinpoche
    6 月前
    These people going on pilgrimage to a holy mountain and prostrating out of devotion and for pilgrimage in Tibet. Such determination for spiritual practice. Tsem Rinpoche
  • Beautiful new casing in Kechara for Vajra Yogini. Tsem Rinpoche
    6 月前
    Beautiful new casing in Kechara for Vajra Yogini. Tsem Rinpoche
  • Get ready to laugh real hard. This is Kechara’s version of “Whatever Happened to Baby Jane!” We have some real talents in this video clip.
    6 月前
    Get ready to laugh real hard. This is Kechara’s version of “Whatever Happened to Baby Jane!” We have some real talents in this video clip.
  • Recitation of Dorje Dermo‘s mantra or the Dharani of Glorious Vajra Claws. This powerful mantra is meant to destroy all obstacles that come in our way. Beneficial to play this mantra in our environments.
    6 月前
    Recitation of Dorje Dermo‘s mantra or the Dharani of Glorious Vajra Claws. This powerful mantra is meant to destroy all obstacles that come in our way. Beneficial to play this mantra in our environments.
  • Beautiful
    6 月前
    Beautiful
    Beautiful sacred Severed Head Vajra Yogini from Tsem Rinpoche's personal shrine.
  • My little monster cute babies Dharma and Oser. Take a look and get a cute attack for the day! Tsem Rinpoche
    6 月前
    My little monster cute babies Dharma and Oser. Take a look and get a cute attack for the day! Tsem Rinpoche
  • Plse watch this short video and see how all sentient beings are capable of tenderness and love. We should never hurt animals nor should we eat them. Tsem Rinpoche
    6 月前
    Plse watch this short video and see how all sentient beings are capable of tenderness and love. We should never hurt animals nor should we eat them. Tsem Rinpoche
  • Cruelty of some people have no limits and it’s heartbreaking. Being kind cost nothing. Tsem Rinpoche
    7 月前
    Cruelty of some people have no limits and it’s heartbreaking. Being kind cost nothing. Tsem Rinpoche
  • SUPER ADORABLE and must see
    8 月前
    SUPER ADORABLE and must see
    Tsem Rinpoche's dog Oser girl enjoying her snack in her play pen.
  • Cute!
    9 月前
    Cute!
    Oser girl loves the balcony so much. - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RTcoWpKJm2c
  • Uncle Wong
    9 月前
    Uncle Wong
    We were told by Uncle Wong he is very faithful toward Dorje Shugden. Dorje Shugden has extended help to him on several occasions and now Uncle Wong comes daily to make incense offerings to Dorje Shugden. He is grateful towards the help he was given.
  • Tsem Rinpoche’s Schnauzer Dharma boy fights Robot sphere from Arkonide!
    9 月前
    Tsem Rinpoche’s Schnauzer Dharma boy fights Robot sphere from Arkonide!
  • Cute baby owl found and rescued
    9 月前
    Cute baby owl found and rescued
    We rescued a lost baby owl in Kechara Forest Retreat.
  • Nice cups from Kechara!!
    9 月前
    Nice cups from Kechara!!
    Dorje Shugden people's lives matter!
  • Enjoy a peaceful morning at Kechara Forest Retreat
    9 月前
    Enjoy a peaceful morning at Kechara Forest Retreat
    Chirping birds and other forest animals create a joyful melody at the Vajrayogini stupa in Kechara Forest Retreat (Bentong, Malaysia).
  • His Holiness Kyabje Trijang Rinpoche makes offering of khata to Dorje Shugden.
    9 月前
    His Holiness Kyabje Trijang Rinpoche makes offering of khata to Dorje Shugden.
    Trijang Rinpoche never gave up his devotion to Dorje Shugden no matter how much Tibetan government in exile pressured him to give up. He stayed loyal inspiring so many of us.
  • This topic is so hot in many circles right now.
    2 年前
    This topic is so hot in many circles right now.
    This video is thought-provoking and very interesting. Watch! Thanks so much to our friends at LIVEKINDLY.
  • Chiropractic CHANGES LIFE for teenager with acute PAIN & DEAD LEG.
    2 年前
    Chiropractic CHANGES LIFE for teenager with acute PAIN & DEAD LEG.
  • BEAUTIFUL PLACE IN NEW YORK STATE-AMAZING.
    2 年前
    BEAUTIFUL PLACE IN NEW YORK STATE-AMAZING.
  • Leonardo DiCaprio takes on the meat Industry with real action.
    2 年前
    Leonardo DiCaprio takes on the meat Industry with real action.
  • Do psychic mediums have messages from beyond?
    2 年前
    Do psychic mediums have messages from beyond?
  • Lovely gift for my 52nd Birthday. Tsem Rinpoche
    2 年前
    Lovely gift for my 52nd Birthday. Tsem Rinpoche
  • This 59-year-old chimpanzee was refusing food and ready to die until...
    2 年前
    This 59-year-old chimpanzee was refusing food and ready to die until...
    she received “one last visit from an old friend” 💔💔
  • Bigfoot sighted again and made it to the news.
    2 年前
    Bigfoot sighted again and made it to the news.
  • Casper is such a cute and adorable. I like him.
    2 年前
    Casper is such a cute and adorable. I like him.
  • Dorje Shugden Monastery Amarbayasgalant  Mongolia's Ancient Hidden Gem
    2 年前
    Dorje Shugden Monastery Amarbayasgalant Mongolia's Ancient Hidden Gem
  • Don't you love Hamburgers? See how 'delicious' it is here!
    2 年前
    Don't you love Hamburgers? See how 'delicious' it is here!
  • Such a beautiful and powerful message from a person who knows the meaning of life. Tsem Rinpoche
    2 年前
    Such a beautiful and powerful message from a person who knows the meaning of life. Tsem Rinpoche
  • What the meat industry figured out is that you don't need healthy animals to make a profit.
    2 年前
    What the meat industry figured out is that you don't need healthy animals to make a profit.
    Sick animals are more profitable... farms calculate how close to death they can keep animals without killing them. That's the business model. How quickly they can be made to grow, how tightly they can be packed, how much or how little can they eat, how sick they can get without dying... We live in a world in which it's conventional to treat an animal like a block of wood. ~ Jonathan Safran Foer
  • This video went viral and it's a must watch!!
    2 年前
    This video went viral and it's a must watch!!
  • SEE HOW THIS ANIMAL SERIAL KILLER HAS NO ISSUE BLUDGEONING THIS DEFENSELESS BEING.
    2 年前
    SEE HOW THIS ANIMAL SERIAL KILLER HAS NO ISSUE BLUDGEONING THIS DEFENSELESS BEING.
    This happens daily in slaughterhouse so you can get your pork and Bak ku teh. Stop eating meat.

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图文吧

Teachers & students do prostration before the start of dharma class. Lin Mun KSDS
2 天前
Teachers & students do prostration before the start of dharma class. Lin Mun KSDS
Teenage dharma class in Gompa Kechara House. Lin Mun KSDS
2 天前
Teenage dharma class in Gompa Kechara House. Lin Mun KSDS
Teacher Kien shared about Rinpoche’s biography from the Promise book. Lin Mun KSDS
2 天前
Teacher Kien shared about Rinpoche’s biography from the Promise book. Lin Mun KSDS
Learning about altar set up during dharma class. Lin Mun KSDS
2 天前
Learning about altar set up during dharma class. Lin Mun KSDS
Children learn to make water offering to Buddha. Lin Mun KSDS
2 天前
Children learn to make water offering to Buddha. Lin Mun KSDS
Currently the youngest student in dharma class :) Lin Mun KSDS
3 周前
Currently the youngest student in dharma class :) Lin Mun KSDS
Nice lotus sit done by the youngest class students. Lin Mun KSDS
3 周前
Nice lotus sit done by the youngest class students. Lin Mun KSDS
Teacher Jayce is teaching dharma to student of age 11-12 years old . Lin Mun MSDS
3 周前
Teacher Jayce is teaching dharma to student of age 11-12 years old . Lin Mun MSDS
Students enjoyed the light exercise session. Lin Mun KSDS
3 周前
Students enjoyed the light exercise session. Lin Mun KSDS
Some simple exercise before we finish our dharma class. Lin Mun KSDS
3 周前
Some simple exercise before we finish our dharma class. Lin Mun KSDS
Teacher Grace giving some ideas on activities to Wen Yue. Lin Mun KSDS
3 周前
Teacher Grace giving some ideas on activities to Wen Yue. Lin Mun KSDS
The children were so excited to wait for the next quiz question. Lin Mun KSDS
4 周前
The children were so excited to wait for the next quiz question. Lin Mun KSDS
Children will do prostration and recite Manjushri mantra before start of dharma class. Lin Mun KSDS
4 周前
Children will do prostration and recite Manjushri mantra before start of dharma class. Lin Mun KSDS
Throwback - Participants were so attentive when colouring tsa tsa. Lin Mun KSDS
4 周前
Throwback - Participants were so attentive when colouring tsa tsa. Lin Mun KSDS
Maya painting Vajrayogini tsa tsa at the kid’s corner during Wesak day. Lin Mun KSDS
4 周前
Maya painting Vajrayogini tsa tsa at the kid’s corner during Wesak day. Lin Mun KSDS
Throwback- Family visiting KFR on the auspicious Wesak Day. Lin Mun KSDS
4 周前
Throwback- Family visiting KFR on the auspicious Wesak Day. Lin Mun KSDS
Join us on Saturday, 24th August 2019 in celebrating International Dorje Shugden Day with an evening of auspicious and powerful pujas for abundance, prosperity, longevity and wish-fulfilment! PROGRAMME 4:00pm – Prayer Flag Puja & Lhasang Smoke Offering Ritual 5:30pm – Free vegetarian dinner 6:30pm – Gyenze Increasing Fire Puja 9:00pm – End Collectively, these pujas are a celebration of Dorje Shugden’s blessings and are highly beneficial for all sponsors and attendees. There’s really no better place to celebrate Dorje Shugden Day than in Kechara Forest Retreat, which is home to the world’s largest Dorje Shugden statue. MORE INFO: kecharaforestretreat.com/dorjeshugdenday
4 周前
Join us on Saturday, 24th August 2019 in celebrating International Dorje Shugden Day with an evening of auspicious and powerful pujas for abundance, prosperity, longevity and wish-fulfilment! PROGRAMME 4:00pm – Prayer Flag Puja & Lhasang Smoke Offering Ritual 5:30pm – Free vegetarian dinner 6:30pm – Gyenze Increasing Fire Puja 9:00pm – End Collectively, these pujas are a celebration of Dorje Shugden’s blessings and are highly beneficial for all sponsors and attendees. There’s really no better place to celebrate Dorje Shugden Day than in Kechara Forest Retreat, which is home to the world’s largest Dorje Shugden statue. MORE INFO: kecharaforestretreat.com/dorjeshugdenday
Teacher Jayce explained the good value from Rinpoche’s teachings. Alice, KSDS
1 月前
Teacher Jayce explained the good value from Rinpoche’s teachings. Alice, KSDS
“Be kind to animals.” Let your kids join the monthly Animal Liberation at Kechara House, Sunwaymas.
1 月前
“Be kind to animals.” Let your kids join the monthly Animal Liberation at Kechara House, Sunwaymas.
Chern Chern learnt dharma and show the good attitudes to others. Alice, KSDS
1 月前
Chern Chern learnt dharma and show the good attitudes to others. Alice, KSDS
The Promise
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  Support Blog Team
Lamps For Life
  Robe Offerings
  Vajrayogini Stupa Fund
  White Tara Mantra Bank Project
  Rinpoche's Medical Fund
  Dana Offerings
  Soup Kitchen Project
 
Zong Rinpoche

档案

  • 2019 (1)
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  • 2016 (39)
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  • 2012 (15)
  • 2011 (7)

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点击观看我对多杰雄登的说法。。。