中国豆腐的饮食文化差异与融合

2017年12月24日 | 浏览量: 321

Photo credit: Wikimedia Commons

摘要

近代科学使人们对黄豆的营养价值充分认识,中国发明的豆腐与其副产品在饮食界的地位迅速提升。品种、数量和烹调方式相应增加,如今豆腐在中国更是无分南北东西,贫富身份,早已冲出海外,传播到其他国家, 发扬光大其滋味。本文以五个部分浅谈中国饮食文化的对比,并以中国发明的豆腐为主轴,一是豆腐饮食文化、二是豆腐的名称和种类、三是豆腐 的发源与传播、四是豆腐的文化差异与融合,最后是结语,并尝试在本文中介绍豆腐在世界各地的饮食差异与文化融合。

 

一、 豆腐饮食文化

每个民族都有属于自己独特的饮食文化,世界上有数百中民族,理应有百花齐放的饮食文化,然而,被近代世界各国所接受的饮食文化,大致上只分为两大种类,即欧洲饮食文化和中国饮食文化。欧洲的饮食文化是在政治与经济的背景下走向世界, 反观之,中华饮食文化与政治权利毫无关系,纯碎是中华民族赞誉中国饮食的美味, 将其滋味带到他国去,中国餐馆才遍布于世界各地。

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孙中山先生在《建国方略》支持了这个观点,“我中国近代文明先进,事事皆落人之后,惟饮食一道之进步,至今尚为文明各国所不及。中国所发明之食物,固大胜于欧美;而中国烹调法之精良,又非欧美所可并驾……。中国烹调之术不独偏传于美洲, 而欧洲各国之大都会渐有中国菜馆矣。日本自维新以后,习尚多采西风,而独于烹调 一道嗜中国之味,东京中国菜馆亦林立焉。是知口之于味,人所同也。”

除了中国烹调之术和中餐馆遍布全世界,中国制作的食品也传遍世界各国,例如: 茶叶、饺子、油条、面条等等,尤其是中国发明的豆腐。中国发明的豆腐先是传到日本,接着是东南亚国家,如今更是受欧美国家欢迎,继茶叶之后又一个畅销到世界各地的中国食品。1981 年,美国的《经济展望》杂志曾预言,未来十年,最成功的而最有潜力的商品不是汽车,也不是电子产品,而是中国的豆腐。果然这预言成真了,中国发明的豆腐成为中西餐厅必备的食品,中国发明的豆腐副产品是家家户户必吃的食 品,中国发明的豆浆更是取代了欧美牛奶的地位。

 

二、 豆腐的名称与种类

“豆腐”这个词在广义上是各种黄豆食品的统称,在狭义上是指一般的豆腐,也 就是最普通,最为人知,最廉价的豆腐。中国的每个省份都有各自的豆腐名称与种类, 且相同种类的豆腐在不同省份也会冠上不同的名字与读音。如今这个食品广传到世界 各地,几乎每个民族都会用自己的语言给这食品取个音译名。

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中国普通话的豆腐,念作“dòu fǔ”;粤语的豆腐,念作“dowfu”;闽南话的 豆腐,发音成“tahu”;印尼语借用闽南话,豆腐也念着“tahu”;菲律宾人称之为 “tojo”或“tokua”;西方英语音译成“tofu”,或取名“Bean Curd”。由于西方厨房里并没有和豆腐对等的食品,因此他们用“Bean Curd”一词命名豆腐,形容这食品是“黄豆凝乳”或“黄豆乳酪”,甚至是“黄豆起司”。

豆腐问世后其家族成员不断壮大,相续衍生出豆浆、豆腐脑、豆腐皮、豆腐丝、水豆腐、豆腐干、南豆腐、臭豆腐、油豆腐、冻豆腐、豆腐乳等。清朝李调元还写了一首戏詠《豆腐》记载各种豆腐副食品:

家用为宜客非用,合家高会命相依。(豆浆)
石膏化后浓加酪,水沫挑成皱成衣。(豆腐皮)
剁作银条垂缕滑,划为玉段载脂肥。(豆腐丝)
近来腐价高于肉,只恐贫人不救饥。(水、干豆腐)
不须玉豆与金笾,味比佳肴尽可捐。(南豆腐)
逐臭有时入鲍肆,闻香无处辨龙涎。(臭豆腐)
市中白水常成醉,寺里清油不碑禅。(油豆腐)
最是广大寒彻骨,连筐称罢御卧寒。(冻豆腐)
才闻香气已先贪,白楮油封四小甔。(豆腐乳)
滑似油膏挑不起,可怜风味似淮南。(豆腐脑)

此清朝戏詠描述了十种较为人知的豆腐副产品,字字描述得十分显明,由此推断豆腐与其副产品在古时候属于庶民之食,而豆腐的饮食文化踪迹可追溯至更早时期的汉朝。

 

三、 豆腐的发源与传播

中国豆腐在饮食文化历史上存有不同的说法,广为人知的是“淮南王刘安版”。中国豆腐面世于西元前 164 年,由中国汉高祖刘邦之孙——淮南王刘邦所发明。据说淮南王对炼金术极为兴趣,有次他到八公山上烧药炼丹,无意将卤水或海水点入黄豆汁,进而发明了一块凝固块状的食品,亦是今日所食的中国豆腐。

中国豆腐面世一千年后才被宋朝的《清異录》记载,文中提及了淮南王发明豆腐之事。而详细的传统豆腐制作过程记载于明代李时珍的《本草纲目》谷部卷 25“豆 腐”:“凡黑豆、黄豆及白豆、泥豆、豌豆、绿豆之类,皆可为之。水浸,硙碎。滤 去渣,煎成。以卤汁或山矾叶或酸浆醋淀,就釜收之。”

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虽然中国豆腐的制作过程记载于明朝的《本草纲目》,可是这食品早在唐朝传入到日本去。据《和名抄》所载,唐朝中国长安及扬州的著名菜肴和糕点,随着中日饮食文化交流的开展,陆续传到日本,日本当地流行了唐式美食,其中包括豆腐。

中国豆腐也伴着中国扬州大明寺的鉴真和尚传入日本。早在公元 743 年,他受到日本佛教界朋友的邀请,远赴日本传授佛教,他不仅把佛教传入日本,也将中国豆腐 带到了日本的寺庙。有学者认为,早期中国和日本的豆腐制作场所设置于寺庙里,由寺庙的唐僧经营,信徒们在寺庙尝到豆腐后,向寺庙的唐僧请教豆腐做法,最后带到民间去开设自己的豆腐店,从此中国豆腐立足于日本民间。

欧洲人最早认识中国豆腐是在 1665 年,多明我会士闵明我(Domingo Fernández de Navarrete)写的《旅行记》中介绍了中国上子帝王下至平民所食用的食物,其中包括豆腐(teu fu),他也在文中提及了豆腐制作法,然而,中国豆腐正式面世于欧 洲于本世纪初,可说是才刚开始正式踏入欧洲。

根据新闻报导,数位中国人在法国开设了一间“豆腐公司”,生产豆腐、豆腐干、 油豆腐、豆腐乳、豆乳酱等豆腐副产品,并有幸让法国总统品尝中国豆腐后,并成为法国宫廷餐桌上的佳肴。从此,中国豆腐在法国的身价提高数倍,甚至广传到英国、意大利、葡萄牙、美国等。目前,美国已经有五十多间豆腐店店,豆腐与豆腐副产品 的需求不断提升,相信未来会开设更多间豆腐店。

中国饮食文化对东南亚的影响甚大,以马来西亚和印尼为例,早在十八世纪末生 活于中国南方的人迁移到南洋居住,亦是今日的“华裔”。他们从中国带来了水稻、 蔬果、茶叶、面条、豆腐等,这些食品与烹调技术在当地流传,同时开设了多家中国 餐饮店,逐渐深受当地人喜欢,中国菜肴成功融合到当地的饮食文化。

 

四、 豆腐的差异与融合

豆腐的文化不断开拓,日益创新,如今更被标记为世界性食品,犹如座桥梁搭建到世界各地传播饮食文化,共享文化资源。这块中国豆腐去到世界各地后是否保留其 风味和滋味,以下内容举例了一些豆腐传播到海外后的新面貌,并略谈其不同之处。

 

水豆腐

块状水豆腐

块状水豆腐--“水豆腐”也称作“嫩豆腐”,这种豆腐在中国并不普遍,因为这种豆腐非常柔 软,由稀释的豆浆制作而成,再被保存于水中。

中国有两种水豆腐,第一种的做法像日本的日式绢豆腐,成块出售;第二种是在大壶里凝结成形,质地非常柔软得用汤匙舀入客人的碗中,若淋上一些酱油或糖可直接食用。反观之第二种水豆腐是马来西亚常见的豆腐料理,几乎每个超市或菜市场都可见到水豆腐的踪影。

一般的中餐馆会在水豆腐上撒肉碎,淋上特调酱料,再蒸上几分钟, 皆以咸食为主,不曾出现甜味的水豆腐,且马来西亚食客不爱老豆腐,尤其是中国北方的老豆腐,放到舌尖立即皱眉头。

 

豆腐脑、豆腐花

桶装水豆腐

桶装水豆腐

中国的豆腐脑如同布丁,一般装置在木制的桶子里,顾客点了豆腐脑便一勺勺舀 入到碗中,淋上花生和红糖,或榨菜、虾米和酱油,再附上汤匙,甜咸二味供顾客选择,可围绕在推车旁吃。

豆腐脑的口感与水豆腐相似,但是质地再软一些,水豆腐属于餐桌上的菜肴,豆腐脑则属于路边摊子卖的甜品小吃。

东南亚卖的豆腐脑一般以甜味为主,白糖浆或红糖浆,绝不会出现肉沫榨菜酱油 的咸味版。而东南亚称豆腐脑为“豆腐花”,中国却认为“豆腐脑”和“豆腐花”不属于同类,前者是布丁形,后者如同汤里的蛋花。

中国咸味豆腐脑

中国咸味豆腐脑

左为中国豆腐花。右为马来西亚甜味豆腐脑

左为中国豆腐花。右为马来西亚甜味豆腐脑

 

豆干

“豆干”或“豆腐干”,中国的豆腐干一般是方块形状,四边约 7.5 公分,厚 2 公分,深棕色或橙黄色,印有朱红色的中国字是家里拜祭的贡品,而切成条状、丝或小丁的豆腐干与中式酱汁一块儿炒或砂锅方式烹调。

美国旧金山纽约也卖豆干,不过是“五香豆干”(Spiced Dry Tofu),西方人喜欢将豆干切成薄片像冷盘的肉类一样食用,或

者当成开胃小菜。他们也把五香豆干和新鲜蔬菜、坚果和沙拉酱一起凉拌。

左为中国条状豆干。右为五香豆干。

左为中国条状豆干。右为五香豆干。

 

油豆腐块

中国三角状油豆腐块

中国三角状油豆腐块。

“油豆腐块”,也称作“厚扬”,中国油豆腐块的传统做法是把整块传统豆腐经过挤压,再制作成三角形用油炸至金黄色出售。中国三角形金黄色油豆腐块多用于砂 锅,再加入酱汁和蔬菜一起烹调。

早期日本的油豆腐块和中国的油豆腐块相似,然而东京的豆腐师傅将之改成长方形,并切成四块,四边约 2.5 公分,重量约 150 克,体积变小了,再放入油锅炸直到 酥脆,最后用于锅料理与高汤和蔬菜燉煮。

西方人喜欢将油豆腐块当作牛排烧烤,放在小炭的炉子上慢慢慢烘烤,并在油豆腐块表面划几刀,淋上烧烤酱汁让其味道渗入油豆腐块里,最后粘上辣椒酱或番茄酱食用。

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日本关东煮西方状油豆腐块。

西方烧烤油豆腐块

西方烧烤油豆腐块。

 

油豆腐泡

日本的豆皮寿司

日本的豆皮寿司

“油豆腐泡”,一个小袋或泡状的油炸豆腐,有袋装、片状、及薄条状,可在里面填入蔬菜、肉碎或其他馅料,深受日式料理欢迎。据说油豆腐泡是日本发明的,因为 在旧时代的中国没发现其踪迹。油豆腐泡在不同国家有不同做法。在日本,日本寿司师傅喜欢用袋装的油豆腐泡塞入醋饭,变成豆皮寿司,日本妈妈还喜欢在油豆皮泡里加入谷类、面条和蔬菜,当作小孩的便当。

日本占领韩国期间,也把油炸豆腐带到韩国去了,像是各种大小的福袋,此福袋 可作豆皮寿司或束袋,里面打开可放馅料。

韩国的福袋油豆皮泡

韩国的福袋油豆皮泡

美国人也爱吃油豆腐泡,当地有种独特的油豆腐泡,名叫油豆腐泡芙(Age Puff),形状像一个小正方棒棍,油炸时随时会膨胀成一根长 11 公分、直径 5 公分的 金黄色香肠。有别于日本的油豆腐泡,美国的油豆腐泡冷却后依然是鼓胀的,也不像日式的油豆腐泡可塞入馅料在中间,美国的油豆腐泡芙得在旁边切开一道细缝。

 

豆腐乳

白豆腐乳

白豆腐乳

“豆腐乳”得普通话也称作“腐乳”或“乳腐”,粤语是“fuyu”或“funan”, 上海话是“sufu”或“dou-sufu”,意思是长了霉的牛奶。豆腐乳是一种黏稠度很高, 风味非常强烈的食品,人们切碎红辣椒调味,味道强烈且辛辣,一小口可吃许久。豆 腐乳一般不在传统豆腐店售卖,多数在中式酱菜店制作贩卖,也有不少家庭会自制, 因为低成本,还可长时间储存。中国人喜欢将豆腐乳当做粥的调味料,白饭的开胃小 菜或前菜,也有人喜欢在炒菜时加入豆腐乳调味。

红豆腐乳

红豆腐乳。

众多豆腐副产品唯有豆腐乳最具特色,因为豆腐乳不像日本所制的任何东西,也不是西方人所熟悉的食品,因此豆腐乳在西方享有“中国起司”的美誉,西方人对发酵的食品更是大为所爱。

西方常见的豆腐乳是白豆腐乳(Fermented Bean Curd)和红豆腐乳(Red Bean Curd),玫瑰豆腐乳是西方的牌子,包装如同番茄酱,西方人喜欢 这牌子的红腐乳与辣椒酱一起搅拌,并与锅里的肉类和海鲜粘上食用。

美国卖的罐头红豆腐乳

美国卖的罐头红豆腐乳。

 

豆浆

中国常见的豆浆

中国常见的豆浆

有豆腐,自然有豆浆,产自不同区域的豆浆自然有其独特之处。

中国的豆浆,也称作“中式豆浆”、“豆腐浆”“豆奶”或“豆乳”。豆浆在中 国的饮食地位甚高,食用的概率或许还比传统豆腐还要高,因为是中国的幼儿、儿童和成人的主要蛋白质来源,远远胜于其他国家。每天早上,许多中国人会带着容器到 传统豆腐店或专卖豆浆的小店购买一家人所需的豆浆,因此小区、学校、广场皆是豆 浆的踪影,其需求是众饮料中的榜首。

日本盒装浓豆浆。日本工厂贩售的盒装豆浆口味众多,原味、蜂蜜、麦芽、草莓或巧克力,日本以 外的国家都以原味豆浆为主,反观之日本的口味较为丰富。而厂商会将盒装豆浆贩售 到贩卖机,路上看见贩卖机可随时买一盒豆浆。

豆浆小贩常以一般的搅果汁机打豆浆,味道淡而只剩黄豆味,口感细薄,入喉后感到明显的渣儿,多数售卖原味,食客也可要求在豆浆里撒上少许的白糖,四季皆以热饮为主。若买不着新鲜豆浆,也可购买瓶装豆浆。如今工厂大量制成瓶装豆浆,食客可根据自己的需求或喜爱的品牌购买放置在家中。简言之,豆浆在中国家庭的地位 犹如西方的牛奶。

日式豆浆分为两大种类,传统豆腐店做的浓豆浆,或大公司所制作的盒包装豆浆。日本的传统豆腐店会售卖浓豆浆。这种浓豆浆是六种豆腐的原料,豆浆美味的秘诀在与其浓度,而豆浆的浓度是因店而异,豆浆除了当成饮料,也可用作制作绢豆腐。

日式浓豆浆在日本拥有个崇高的地位,深受日本妈妈和社区小孩推崇。原来,日本妈妈会购买浓豆浆喂食年纪太小无法食用豆腐的婴儿,或者她们想要孩子断奶便会以浓豆浆取代。如今厂商出产的灌装调配豆浆粉也为妈妈们提供了便利,方便妈妈们到药房或天然食品店购买。

马来西亚的冰豆水

马来西亚的冰豆水

豆浆亦是马来西亚常见的饮品,但不称作豆浆,而是“豆水”,顾名思义是黄豆 制作的水,口感如一般的水,没有渣儿的口感,多数小贩也不用搅果汁机打黄豆,坚 持在厨房以机器打黄豆,再以人工搅拌直到口感顺滑。

马来西亚式的豆水会加上白糖浆, 或黄糖浆,以冷饮冰爽为主,还会添加豆腐脑,增加多层次的口感。

豆浆在其他国家地域也是有饮品的概念,例如印度和非洲,豆浆厂商为了将此饮料大众化,加入了当地人喜欢的口味,像是麦芽、柳橙、咖啡、肉桂和香草,而且价钱也定价在牛奶的四分之一。

 

韩式豆腐

韩式豆腐

韩式豆腐。传统韩式豆腐,名为“tubu”,比日式豆腐晒微结实,有没有中式木棉豆腐般结实。

韩国到处可见贩卖豆腐的店,也有农家会在家自制豆腐。由于豆腐有减缓辛辣的作用,因此韩式料理有道非常著名的菜叫“豆腐锅”,这是一道辛辣的汤料理,里面的豆腐就起到了作用,而一般的“泡菜锅”也会加入豆腐淡化强烈的泡菜味。

豆腐渣、 豆浆和凝乳都出现在韩式料理,绢豆腐、烤豆腐、豆皮和豆腐乳几乎没出现在韩国。

韩式豆腐汤锅

韩式豆腐汤锅。由于豆腐有减缓辛辣的作用,因此韩式料理有道非常著名的菜叫“豆腐锅”,这是一道辛辣的汤料理,里面的豆腐就起到了作用,而一般的“泡菜锅”也会加入豆腐淡化强烈的泡菜味。

 

五、结语

纵观所述,豆腐间的差异比较可探讨得更深入仔细,从制作过程,烹调方法,食材配搭,售卖形式,食用习惯等等。而一番比较后会更认识这块中国豆腐在世界上扮演的饮食文化角色。

若将豆腐作为代表中国饮食文化的代表象征,也许有点不够称职,毕竟论排位身份其他的食品同样具有浓厚的特色。不过,中国食品当中似乎很少有像豆腐般,广泛 受到世界各地不同国家民族的认同,全世界对豆腐的认知,已经超出了“形”与 “味”,并达到了“意”的境界。

一块白白实实的中国豆腐已不是单纯地食品。尝一口豆腐,吃出中国人的饮食智 慧;烹调一道豆腐料理,感受到人们对自身健康的认知与追求;做一桌豆腐宴,品出全世界的饮食文化差异与融合。

 

走遍中国吃豆腐

 

八公山豆腐——中国安徽

推荐菜:刘安点丹
餐厅:淮上豆府
地址:安徽省淮南市国庆东路与水厂路交叉口(老店)、安徽省合肥市怀宁路天鹅湖万达内街三楼(新店)
电话: 0554-3311116、0551-65990958
时间:9:30-13:30 16:30-21:00

Picture2

简介:豆腐起源于安徽的淮南地区,距已有两千多年的历史。豆腐中质量最好的数淮南八公山一带,叫做“八公山豆腐”。这种豆腐采用纯黄豆作原料,加八公山的泉水精制而成。当地农民制作豆腐的技艺世代相传,很多人都掌握了一套好手艺,做出的豆腐细、白、鲜、嫩,深受群众欢迎。如今,安徽当地有家专设“豆腐宴”的餐厅,名为“淮上豆府”,该餐厅的行政总厨也叫着刘安呢!

Picture1

特色:“刘安点丹”是“淮上豆府”餐厅为了纪念淮南刘安而设计的一道豆腐创意菜。厨师会在托盘上摆设了6个装有小菜的碟子,其中有数个空白的瓷碗,而碗底散了一些白色的粉末。之后,厨师会拎起小茶壶,将豆浆一点点导入白瓷碗内,约两分钟,碗内的豆浆开始凝固,成为鲜嫩的豆花,最后加些调料增加风味。

 

剑门豆腐——中国四川

推荐菜:剑门怀胎豆腐
餐厅:剑门关六娃子豆腐店
地址:四川广元市剑阁县剑门场镇
电话:0839-6750036

pic4

简介 :“不吃剑门豆腐,枉游天下雄关”,剑门豆腐,相传始于三国。当时姜维被魏军所困,人马疲惫,令驻扎各营及当地百姓磨豆浆做豆腐,豆渣喂军马,制作豆腐的习俗沿袭下来。此外,剑门山砾岩沙石坡土种植黄豆的品质优良,剑门泉水清澈甘甜,加上独特的制作工艺,因此剑门以豆腐白嫩、清香、有韧性著称。

pic3

特色:凡到剑门关景区的旅客都有机会在附近品尝著名的剑门豆腐,若是一群人想到餐馆里享受一顿豆腐宴不妨考虑“剑门关六娃子豆腐店”。2012年四川省旅游协会主办了“剑门关豆腐烹饪大赛”,剑门关六娃子豆腐店荣获“剑门豆腐”名店第一名,而剑门怀胎豆腐则是该餐厅的特色餐。

 

高碑店豆腐丝——中国河北

推荐菜:高碑店豆腐丝
餐厅:家兴快捷酒店
地址:高碑店市北大街1号(近高碑店市火车站)
电话:0312-2839866

pic5

简介:高碑店是个地名,位于中国河北,豆腐丝又名豆腐筋,源自当地姓贾和姓王的两家,现在仍从事豆腐丝加工的贾、王两家传人,已是第七代。高碑豆腐盛行于清朝,相传清朝在易州修建了西陵后,皇帝王侯来这里祭祀,曾食用高碑店的豆腐丝,故此成为一道名贵的菜肴,并在清代宫廷里供应帝王公侯食用。

pic6

特色:高碑店五香豆腐丝采用成熟饱满的大豆作原料,经过筛选、浸泡、磨浆、煮沸、除渣、凝固、压片、切丝、卤煮、捆把等十几道工序,才卤制成具有独特风味的五香豆腐丝。色泽乳白,束丝状,味道咸香,老幼皆宜,还有“素食之首”的美誉。

 

豆腐箱——中国山东

地点:延庆豆腐宴,北京北苑2号院
推荐菜:箱箱豆腐

pic7

简介:山东豆腐箱又名齐国豆腐箱,是山东省汉族传统名菜,属于鲁菜系。预想品尝豆腐箱不必专程到山东去,北京郊外的北苑家园设有豆腐宴,其中的“箱箱豆腐”大受好评。箱箱豆腐也称得上一道功夫菜,虽然味道和北京人家里做的夹板豆腐很像似,但是厨师把豆腐切成箱子形状,再挖出里面的心儿,放入搅拌好的肉馅,再把豆腐盖好,从外边看就是一块完整的豆腐。

 

葱烧豆腐

地点:57度湘,广州新港中路354号珠影星光城1楼
推荐菜:葱烧豆腐

pic8

简介:葱烧豆腐是道家常菜,做法简单,味道可口,十分下饭。然而,如此简单的一道菜竟然是57度湘的人气佳肴,再普通的一道菜,也不再普通。57度湘以铁板烧闻名,白嫩豆腐经由铁板烧后,外表煎得香香辣辣,却保住里面豆腐最纯真的味道,成功荣获了“最高人气北京葱烧豆腐”这名誉啊!

 

臭豆腐——中国苏州

地点:谷兰臭豆腐,苏州观前街宫巷81号
推荐菜:香辣臭豆腐

pic9

简介:臭豆腐,又名臭干子,其名虽俗气,却外陋内秀,平中见奇,源远流长,是一种极具特色的汉族传统小吃。古老而传统,一经品味,常令人欲罢不能。谷兰臭豆腐是苏州区的臭豆腐之王,来到观前街的人都会专程来到这个小档口排队,一边看着黑色方块在油锅里翻滚,一边闻着阵阵的臭味。最后将炸好的黑豆腐块浸在汤汁里,撒上香菜,再来个香辣酱调味,酥脆的外皮,满满的汤汁,简直是香啊!

 

麻婆豆腐——中国四川

pic10

地点:成都明婷饭店,外曹家巷26号附6号
推荐菜:脑花豆腐

简介:“明婷饭店”的独创之作——脑花豆腐。豆腐鲜,脑花嫩,新鲜的豆腐和新鲜的豆腐脑完美结合,豆瓣酱和多种佐料炒在一块儿,麻辣中不失咸香味,恰好来碗白米饭,味道像极了四川麻婆豆腐。

pic11

 

参考文献

[1]青柳昭子、威廉·夏利夫.豆腐之书本[M].台北柿子文化事业有限公司,2005.

[2]徐海荣.中国饮食文化在世界上的深远影响,第七届中国饮食文化学术研讨会论文集 [J].财团法人中国饮食文化基金会,2002.

[3]赵荣光.中国古代庶民饮食生活[M].北京商务印书馆国际有限公司,1997. [4]中央电视台记录频道.舌尖上的中国[M].北京光明日报出版社,2012

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  1. yin ping 于 2018年5月20日 上午4:15

    豆腐营养丰富,本身也没什么味道。它可以用来烹调清淡或浓郁的菜肴,即便是上等的佳肴或者老百姓的日常餐桌上,无论是素素搭配还是荤素搭配,豆腐都可以为菜肴的营养和口味加分。

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On behalf of our Puja House team, Pastor Tat Ming receives food and drinks from Rinpoche. Rinpoche wanted to make sure the hardworking Puja House team are always taken care of.
1 年前
On behalf of our Puja House team, Pastor Tat Ming receives food and drinks from Rinpoche. Rinpoche wanted to make sure the hardworking Puja House team are always taken care of.
By the time I heard about Luang Phor Thong, he was already very old, in his late 80s. When I heard about him, I immediately wanted to go and pay my respects to him. - http://bit.ly/LuangPhorThong
1 年前
By the time I heard about Luang Phor Thong, he was already very old, in his late 80s. When I heard about him, I immediately wanted to go and pay my respects to him. - http://bit.ly/LuangPhorThong
It\'s very nice to see volunteers helping maintain holy sites in Kechara Forest Retreat, it\'s very good for them. Cleaning Buddha statues is a very powerful and effective way of purifying body karma.
1 年前
It's very nice to see volunteers helping maintain holy sites in Kechara Forest Retreat, it's very good for them. Cleaning Buddha statues is a very powerful and effective way of purifying body karma.
Kechara Forest Retreat is preparing for the upcoming Chinese New Year celebrations. This is our holy Vajra Yogini stupa which is now surrounded by beautiful lanterns organised by our students.
1 年前
Kechara Forest Retreat is preparing for the upcoming Chinese New Year celebrations. This is our holy Vajra Yogini stupa which is now surrounded by beautiful lanterns organised by our students.
One of the most recent harvests from our Kechara Forest Retreat land. It was grown free of chemicals and pesticides, wonderful!
1 年前
One of the most recent harvests from our Kechara Forest Retreat land. It was grown free of chemicals and pesticides, wonderful!
Third picture-Standing Manjushri Statue at Chowar, Kirtipur, Nepal.
Height: 33ft (10m)
2 年前
Third picture-Standing Manjushri Statue at Chowar, Kirtipur, Nepal. Height: 33ft (10m)
Second picture-Standing Manjushri Statue at Chowar, Kirtipur, Nepal.
Height: 33ft (10m)
2 年前
Second picture-Standing Manjushri Statue at Chowar, Kirtipur, Nepal. Height: 33ft (10m)
First picture-Standing Manjushri Statue at Chowar, Kirtipur, Nepal.
Height: 33ft (10m)
2 年前
First picture-Standing Manjushri Statue at Chowar, Kirtipur, Nepal. Height: 33ft (10m)
The first title published by Kechara Comics is Karuna Finds A Way. It tells the tale of high-school sweethearts Karuna and Adam who had what some would call the dream life. Everything was going great for them until one day when reality came knocking on their door. Caught in a surprise swindle, this loving family who never harmed anyone found themselves out of luck and down on their fortune. Determined to save her family, Karuna goes all out to find a solution. See what she does- https://bit.ly/2LSKuWo
2 年前
The first title published by Kechara Comics is Karuna Finds A Way. It tells the tale of high-school sweethearts Karuna and Adam who had what some would call the dream life. Everything was going great for them until one day when reality came knocking on their door. Caught in a surprise swindle, this loving family who never harmed anyone found themselves out of luck and down on their fortune. Determined to save her family, Karuna goes all out to find a solution. See what she does- https://bit.ly/2LSKuWo
Very powerful story! Tibetan Resistance group Chushi Gangdruk reveals how Dalai Lama escaped in 1959- https://bit.ly/2S9VMGX
2 年前
Very powerful story! Tibetan Resistance group Chushi Gangdruk reveals how Dalai Lama escaped in 1959- https://bit.ly/2S9VMGX
At Kechara Forest Retreat land we have nice fresh spinach growing free of chemicals and pesticides. Yes!
2 年前
At Kechara Forest Retreat land we have nice fresh spinach growing free of chemicals and pesticides. Yes!
See beautiful pictures of Manjushri Guest House here- https://bit.ly/2WGo0ti
2 年前
See beautiful pictures of Manjushri Guest House here- https://bit.ly/2WGo0ti
Beginner’s Introduction to Dorje Shugden~Very good overview https://bit.ly/2QQNfYv
2 年前
Beginner’s Introduction to Dorje Shugden~Very good overview https://bit.ly/2QQNfYv
Fresh eggplants grown on Kechara Forest Retreat\'s land here in Malaysia
2 年前
Fresh eggplants grown on Kechara Forest Retreat's land here in Malaysia
Most Venerable Uppalavanna – The Chief Female Disciple of Buddha Shakyamuni - She exhibited many supernatural abilities gained from meditation and proved to the world females and males are equal in spirituality- https://bit.ly/31d9Rat
2 年前
Most Venerable Uppalavanna – The Chief Female Disciple of Buddha Shakyamuni - She exhibited many supernatural abilities gained from meditation and proved to the world females and males are equal in spirituality- https://bit.ly/31d9Rat
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即时视频

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    Pig puts his toys away
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  • Our Malaysian Prime Minister Dr. Mahathir speaks so well, logically and regarding our country’s collaboration with China for growth. It is refreshing to listen to Dr. Mahathir’s thoughts. He said our country can look to China for many more things such as technology and so on. Tsem Rinpoche
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  • April 13, 2021 21:55
    ray 问: Dear Pastors, Thank you for clearing my doubts previously about purification practices. Today i have a question about reciting praises to buddhas, why do we recite praises and how does reciting praises to buddhas like Tara, Dorje shugden etc. help and benefit us? Because ive seen certain prayer texts to mother tara which i think is referring to the 21 tara praises stating that : ~If this prayer is recited two, three, or seven times, It will pacify all the sufferings of torments Caused by spirits, fevers, and poisons, And by other beings as well. If you wish for a child, you will get a child; If you wish for wealth, you will receive wealth. All your wishes will be fulfilled And all obstacles pacified.~ Will reciting praises to buddhas also be able to fulfill our wishes as stated? Thank you very much.
    尚未回复
  • April 12, 2021 03:20
    Eden 问: Dear Pastors, How are all of you doing? I have a few questions here. I will be very grateful if you can answer them. Thank you. 1) If we are here because of our previous life karma, previous previous karma and so on. May i know when does all of this started? How does this chain of karma started? Im sure we all had our 1st life and everything had a beginning to it. 2) I am currently facing some problem over my career pathway, are there any practices and mantras that I can do to request for guidance?
    pastor 已答: Dear Eden, Thank you for your questions. 1. Buddhism does not believe in a 1st life, and the reason being is the Buddhist view of time. Most people think of time and existence as linear. It has a definitive starting point and a certain end point. But Buddhism views time as a cyclic. Hence, our universe as we understand it, will at one point cease to exist, and then a new universe will come into existence. However, even though our current universe will end, due to the force of karma and reincarnation, we will take rebirth into the new universe and have many rebirths there. So in Buddhism we say that we have had "countless" rebirths, as you would never be able to count how many lifetimes you have had. This cycle is vicious and leads us to take rebirth endlessly. The only way to stop this cycle is to transcend it altogether, which is the state of Buddhahood, in which you are completely liberated from the cycle, known as "samsara". Also the way in which we think about karma is not linear either. It is not one for one. By this I mean, if you do one negative action, it is not that you will experience only one negative result. You will actually experience many negative results, with differing levels of severity until the karma is exhausted. How you respond to the negative results can lead to either more negative karma, or positive karma. Hence, the law of karma according to the Buddhist view point is much more nuanced then the general understanding of karma that people have these days. The Buddha explained this process in a teaching known as the 12 Links of Dependent Origination, which is quite complex. If you want to learn more about this teaching, H.E. Tsem Rinpoche gave a very profound teaching on it here: https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/buddhas-dharma/teaching-on-the-twelve-links-of-dependent-origination.html Hence, according to Buddhism, the understand of time is a never-ending cycle in which universes are created, destroyed and created again due to the power of karma. Since it is a cycle, there is no "beginning" or "1st life" for sentient beings. 2. In regards to your career pathway, I would suggest you engage in the combined practice of Lama Tsongkhapa and Dorje Shugden. We have heard of many people who are either stuck in their career or who need to find good jobs, succeed in the their goals after engaging in this practice with a sincere motivation. There is a book available regarding the practice here: https://www.vajrasecrets.com/the-dorje-shugden-handbook. We also have an entire section of this website dedicated to various aspects of the practice, including history, other prayers, etc. (https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/category/dorje-shugden). I hope this helps. Let us know if we can help in any other way.
  • April 11, 2021 00:23
    Lara 问: Hello pastors, I have a family member suffering from depression right now. May I know how I can help him to overcome this? Thank you.
    pastor 已答: Dear Lara, I'm sorry to hear that your family member is going through this. When someone is going through such a difficult time, H.E. Tsem Rinpoche has advised that the person themselves seek qualified medical help as well as engage in the practice of Lama Tsongkhapa, which is well-known to help overcome things like depression. From your side you should be as supportive as possible. Take the time to understand what your family member is going through, and in which ways you can support them to overcome their depression and heal. You can watch a fantastic teaching about the practice of Lama Tsongkha here: https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/buddhas-dharma/sayonara-to-depression.html. The prayer text for the practice can be found here: https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/prayers-and-sadhanas/sadhana-prayers.html#19 However, sometimes family members may not be open to the engaging in the practice themselves. In that case, you can engage in the practice yourself and dedicate the merits for the family member to heal, but this will not be as effective as the family member doing the practice themselves. Another thing that you can do, it to make abundant offerings or engage in virtuous activities like as helping the less fortunate, and dedicating the merits from those activities to your family member. You can also have pujas sponsored for your family member. The following two pujas would be excellent: Medicine Buddha Puja - which is good for healing, both physical and mental (https://www.vajrasecrets.com/medicine-buddha-puja-fund) Dorje Shugden Puja - to remove obstacles for a swift recovery (https://www.vajrasecrets.com/dorje-shugden-wishfulfilling-puja-fund) These are the various methods in which you can help. You can do just one or a combination of the methods mentioned to generate as much positive energy and merit as possible for your family member. I hope this helps.
  • April 10, 2021 07:50
    ray 问: hi pastor i have a question regarding purification practices because ive been having some doubts now, is it true that some people say engaging in purification practices bad things would then happen to the practitioner after that? be it being sick or facing obstacles coming after that.
    pastor 已答: Dear Ray, Thank you for your question. When we engage in purification practices, what we are purifying is our negative karma. If you know about karma, you know that eventually you will need to experience your karma, be this negative or positive. When you experience your negative karma, then you experience negative situations. This could be something major, like having an accident, to something very minor such as feeling bad if say a loved one says something in a way that you perceive as being negative. Any experience you have that you perceive as negative, is a manifestation of your negative karma. During purification practices, through your own effort of invoking upon the enlightened beings and practice of the Four Opponent Powers, you are able to purify this negative karma. However, for a negative karma to be fully exhausted, you need to experience it. Say you have a karma to get into an accident, if you don't purify and exhaust it, then you will need to suffer from it 100%. This could mean getting into a car accident which is very severe and you are hurt badly. If you engage in purification practices then you can purify, let's say 99% of the karma. But for it to be exhausted fully, you still need to experience it. In this case, maybe you do get into an accident. Since you have purified most of the karma, your car only bumps into another car very softly. You don't even feel it, the person in the other car doesn't feel it and you car is not damaged at all. This is the reason why some people say if you engage in purification practices, bad things will happen. And because of that people are put off doing purification practices. This is wrong thinking because if you do experience negative situations when engaged in purification practices, this could be because: a) What you experienced is actually the purified karma, rather than the full force of the karma. In this case you should rejoice that through your effort of engaging in the practice, you didn't experience something much worse. b) It could just simply be the manifestation of a karma that wasn't purified. This means, you would have had to go through this experience anyway. c) Because you are engaged in purification practices, you are thinking of karma a lot. Therefore, when such experiences occur then you attribute it to karma, and then think it is linked to your purification practice. Then you believe that doing purification practices is bad because you have to suffer from such experiences. This is wrong thinking. Perhaps even if you were not doing purification practices, then you would still experience the situation, but you wouldn't actually think anything of it. You would just go about the rest of your day as usual. That being said, when you are doing purification practices, there comes a point were certain negative karma is so weak that you need to experience it for it to be exhausted completely. This can and does manifest as negative situations, such as minor illnesses, or even accidents, etc. However, the point to remember is the karma causing these situations have been purified so they are very mild compared to their full form. These negative situations can also be purified/exhausted in dreams, etc. Another way they can be purified is having mental disturbances or emotional ups and downs when actually doing the purification practices. In essence, you will need to feel the effects of your negative karma in some form or another, so better that you experience it in a very mild form right? This is what purification practices helps you to do. Purification practices are not something to be scared of. In fact, you should rejoice when engaged in purification practices. On a more deeper level, without some form of purification practice it is hard to understand higher aspects of the Dharma. Your negative karma will block you from being able to understand the Dharma and then internalise it. That is why purification practices are emphasised within each and every tradition and are a prerequisite for higher teaching such as tantra. The benefits of purification practices (such as enabling you to exhaust your negative karma in a very mild form, and preparing your mind for higher teachings) outweighs having to experience a very small negative situation. Therefore think about the benefits of purification practice and contemplate on it. This will help you to develop faith in them and get rid of any doubts or fears that you may have. I hope this helps.
  • April 1, 2021 04:54
    You are awesome! 问: Hello, you are awesome! keep going!
    pastor 已答: Thank you for your kind message. It is very encouraging for us to read. May you always be blessed by the Three Jewels.
  • March 28, 2021 15:08
    vikas baluni 问: abut growth of my business
    pastor 已答: Dear Vikas Baluni, I am unclear as to the actually meaning of your question but I believe you are asking how to increase and grow your business. According to Buddhism, everything that we go through in life is due to karma, this includes both the good things and the bad things. Therefore, for your business to grow and do well depends on your good karma. Only one type of energy can overcome karma and is always good for your, and that is what we call merit or punya (in sanskrit). So in order to have merit for your business to do well, you have to take actions that generate merit. The main of these is to transform your mind to become a more compassionate and wiser person, to help others less fortunate, to engage in pujas and other such virtuous activities. There are certain deity practices that are well-known in Buddhism to help increase the energies of wealth and success in our lives. These can help your business to grow. Once such practice is that of Bhagawan Gyenze, you can click here to find out more: https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/prayers-and-sadhanas/dorje-shugden-gyenze-to-increase-life-merits-and-wealth.html Bhagawan Gyenze will definitely help you to grow your business, if you have a good motivation. If you motivation is only about yourself, then your business will not grow that much. But if you have the motivation help others, then Bhagawan Gyenze will help you even more. I hope this helps. Thank you.
  • March 25, 2021 01:11
    Jason 问: I have been practicing white dzambala and the bathing / water tormas for quite some time now. Recently I have been getting regular dreams where white dzambala appears and just smiles at me, or I dream that I am doing white dzambala chutor practice. I understand that when lama tsongkhapa got dreams of deities he thought that this was Mara acting up and paid no attention to it until his lama said something. My lama is currently on retreat and it is difficult to contact him. Please give me some advice on what is happening. I'm just some normal beginners smuck and I'm getting worried that this is a bad sign. When I wake up I feel at peace... But according to commentaries this could be Mara.
    pastor 已答: Dear Jason, Thank you for your question. I am really happy to hear that you are engaging in Dzambhala's practice. It's extremely beneficial. You are right that Lama Tsongkhapa ignored his dreams of deities, and viewed them as bad signs. But before jumping to conclusions, we must analyse the reasons why Lama Tsongkhapa ignored not only his dreams, also the visions of the deities he received. The reason that Lama Tsongkhapa did not consider it a positive sign is because as practitioners on the spiritual path, it is all too easy to get carried away with 'signs' or advice, visions, dreams from supposed deities. Sometimes if we 'analyse' them it can lead us in the wrong direction because of our mistaken understanding. Sometimes, other entities can also enter our dreams and tell us things that we believe, hence we start practising things that are not Dharmic in nature. Lama Tsongkhapa warned against such things, rather Lama Tsongkhapa said that we should rely on the Dharma teachings that are genuine and transmitted to us through an unbroken line through our lineage. Generally speaking however, these dreams you are having are literally just dreams, so there is nothing to worry about. One category of dreams we have are known as samsaric dreams. These arise from karma and karmic traces in the mind. This can also include emotions, memories, etc. The meaning we find in these dreams are imputed by the dreamer, and not inherent in the dream. This also applies to waking life. We impute meaning onto situations and circumstances, rather than the meaning being inherent to the circumstance. It is like reading a book. Words in the book are just marks on paper, however, because we use our sense of meaning, we make a meaning out of it. However, this is always open to interpretation. For example, if you tell your dream to two people, they can interpret the meaning very differently, even though you told them the exact same details. When we have dreams such as of our teacher, our practice, the Buddhas, etc., it is still more than likely to be just a samsaric dream. Because we have been engaging in sustained practice, or have imprints from previous lives, these can surface in our dreams hence we have dreams of Buddhas, our teachers, etc. There is nothing to worry about or to consider overly auspicious or a 'sign'. Just realise that you have had the dream, do not allow your thoughts to dwell on it, accept it and move on. However, do take note that you had these dreams and once your Guru is out of retreat, please consult your Guru and inform him/her of these occurances and seek your Guru's advice if any. I hope this helps. Thank you.
  • March 23, 2021 02:01
    Jason 问: I white dzambhala is a wealth deity but can he also act as a dharma protector?
    pastor 已答: Dear Jason, Thank you for your question. The practice of Dzambhala is actually a Yidam practice, this means that Dzambhala is a meditational deity. When you engage in his practice, as well as bestowing wealth, through his practice you also develop qualities that help you progress towards enlightenment. In the case of Dzambhala, the primary quality he helps you develop is actually generosity, which is one of the Six Perfections. Therefore, although he is known as a wealth deity, he is much, much more than that. When you engage in his practice, you are actually developing virtuous qualities in your mindstream. The function of Dharma Protectors however is to remove obstacles and to create conducive conditions so that you can transform your mind. Hence, the function of a meditational deity and a Dharma Protector is different. That being said, when you engage in Dzambhala's practice properly, you do gain wealth. Generally, we only consider this wealth to be external wealth, but Dzambhala's practice is more than that, because through his practice you gain internal wealth which are virtuous qualities. Due to the fact his practice also brings material wealth, he is known as a wealth deity. When you practice any meditational deity, you will gain some physical benefit as well, which can seem to mirror the effect of Dharma Protectors, but their function is very different. Dzambhala for example grants material wealth, but his actually function is to increase inner wealth. Another example would be Medicine Buddha, outward he heals our physical body, but inwardly he also helps to heal our minds and develop qualities such as compassion. Dharma Protectors can also help to heal our body, but for real internal change, we need to rely on a meditational deity. I hope this answer helps.
  • March 16, 2021 21:23
    ray 问: Dear pastors, i have a question regarding vajra and bells. can one use them if they do not have any sort of initiation or whatsoever?
    pastor 已答: Dear Ray, Thank you for your question. You are right that traditionally vajras and bells are only used after receiving initiation. However, H.E. Tsem Rinpoche recommended learning how to use the vajra and bell, as a means of creating the causes to receive initiation in the future. That said, there are many dos and don'ts related to using the vajra and bell. You can learn not only how to use them, but also vajra and bell etiquette from one of Kechara's Pastors. I hope this helps. Thank you.
  • March 7, 2021 17:30
    Sandra 问: Respected pastors, Do you recommend doing Tsem Rinpoche’s guru yoga as part of daily Sadhana? I am sure I read on the article for the name retreat that it could be done as daily prayers but now I can’t see that sentence? Thank you.
    pastor 已答: Dear Sandra, Yes of course, you may include Tsem Rinpoche's Guru Yoga as part of your daily sadhana if you wish. This creates a very strong bond with Tsem Rinpoche. If you are following the Diamond Path sadhana (https://www.vajrasecrets.com/diamond-path), you insert the Guru Yoga after you have completed the Gaden Lhagyama (Guru Yoga of Lama Tsongkhapa). Alternative, if you are using a different prayer text, you insert the Guru Yoga after Gaden Lhagyama, or before any deity prayers that you do such as Manjushri, Tara, etc. After you complete the deity practice section of your sadhana, you continue on to your Dharma protector practice, and finish with your completion dedication. I hope this helps. Do let us know if this is not clear. Thanks.
  • March 4, 2021 22:52
    Sandra 问: Respected pastors, Can a lay person work towards the preliminary practices by accumulating daily ? Many thanks.
    pastor 已答: Dear Sandra, Yes, of course. Anyone can engage in the preliminary practices, you don't have to be ordained in order to do so. However for one's practice to be considered a full preliminary practice, you need to do 100,000 repetitions of whichever practice you are engaged in without break. That means you must engage in at least one session a day, until the count is completed. 10% of the count is also added on top, to make up for any unintentional mistakes. So the figure would actually be 110,000. If you skip a day, that means you have broken your preliminary retreat. If this occurs you can still dedicate the practice you have done so far, and you will still benefit from the merit generated and the purification of negative karma from the practice, but it is not counted as a full preliminary practice. Also you must adhere to the retreat procedures for the duration of the time it takes you to complete the particular preliminary practice. For example, an altar with daily offerings, retreat seat with swastika, refraining from eating black foods, etc. This may not be convenient for most people in our day and age. So what you can do is to spend a certain amount of time accumulating a specific figure, for example 10,000 repetitions of a particular practice. Seal the practice at the end with a strong dedication, like the King of Prayers. Later on, you can repeat the procedure more times until you complete 100,000. This method was given by H.E. Tsem Rinpoche for modern-day practitioners who do not have the time to complete 100,000 in one go. While it technically does not constitute a full preliminary retreat, you still gain immense merits and purification from engaging in the practice, even if spaced out. As Rinpoche said, it's better for you to do mini preliminary retreats than not doing any of the preliminary practices whatsoever. That being said, if you do have the ability to do a full preliminary retreat and it will not negatively impact you, such as create financial difficulties or strain familial relationships, then of course go ahead! To have the sincere wish to engage in any Dharma practice is wonderful. You can read more about the individual preliminary practices here: https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/buddhas-dharma/preliminary-practice.html You can watch a short teaching on the preliminary practices by H.E. Tsem Rinpoche here: https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/buddhas-dharma/cosmic-tantra.html
  • March 3, 2021 04:13
    Sandra 问: Dear respected pastors, what are dreams? Do dreams have significance? Are they simply images the mind views at night - do they resemble the dreamer's state of mind? Thank you for all your replies :) :)
    pastor 已答: Dear Sandra, Hello. Nice to see you back here. On the normal level, both waking and dream states are both marred by our delusions. The teachings tell us that this deluded state continues through all our experiences, whether during the dreaming or waking states. The way to overcome this is to "wake up" from our delusions, or reach enlightenment. Normally when people think of dreams, they do so in psychological terms and so focus on the content of the dream. When we investigate the nature of the dream itself, we begin to investigate something deeper, the processes that underlies the whole of our existence. Understand this propels you further along the spiritual journey towards enlightenment. We have many dreams during one night of sleep, and may or may not consciously remember then when we wake up. In terms of content, dreams can be used to work through psychological issues or can indicate certain issues and overcoming them (as is common within Western psychological practices). In Tibetan Buddhism, dreams can be used for much more. In the advanced practices, one can transform ordinary dreams to further one's spiritual journey. This is not only in terms of working through psychological issues, but in terms of meditation and practice as well. Generally, there are three types of dreams as described below. Most of us only experience the first type, unless we progress on the spiritual path. 1. Samsaric dreams: these arise from karma and karmic traces in the mind. This can also include emotions, memories, etc. The meaning we find in these dreams are imputed by the dreamer, and not inherent in the dream. This also applies to waking life. We impute meaning onto situations and circumstances, rather than the meaning being inherent to the circumstance. It is like reading a book. Words in the book are just marks on paper, however, because we use our sense of meaning, we take a meaning out of it. However, this is always open to interpretation. For example, if you tell your dream to two people, they can interpret the meaning very differently, even though you told them the exact same details. 2. Clarity dreams: These dreams occur when you are fairly progressed in meditational practices and can carry this into the dream state. These dreams arise not from the emotions, or memories, etc., but from more subtler forms of karma and delusions. However, just like in waking mediational practice, you are not affected by the images or thoughts that appear to you. 3. Clear Light dreams: In the advanced tantric practices, there are teachings called dream yoga. The object of these is to achieve the clear light dreams, which are very difficult to achieve and take years and years of intense practice. The most important clear light mind that arises is actually at the time of our death, if we are trained enough in this very subtle state, we can actually control where we take rebirth. If we are more experienced in this state, then we can actually use it to meditate on the teachings and achieve enlightenment. Clear light dreams are a "lesser" type of clear light mind, that helps practitioners prepare for the time of death. When we have an auspicious dream such as of our teacher, our practice, the Buddhas, etc., even though this is auspicious, it is still more than likely to be just a samsaric dream. There are instances however, when the enlightened beings and Dharma protectors will send practitioners dreams to help with their practice or as methods of divination. Tsem Rinpoche once told us of a very powerful Nyingma lama known for his divination abilities. Students would ask him a question, then he would take a nap, and receive divination advice in this dreams, which he would then relay to his students. This lama was well-known for this ability because his dream divinations were extremely accurate. As I am sure you can tell, the scope of dreams with the Buddhist context is very vast and I will not be able to cover everything here. However, I hope that what I have written helps your understanding. Thank you.
  • March 1, 2021 23:37
    Sandra 问: Hello dear pastors, wish we could have an article like the one below to highlight the auspicious days of 2021. https://www.tsemrinpoche.com/tsem-tulku-rinpoche/buddhas-dharma/auspicious-days.html
    pastor 已答: Dear Sandra, Thank you for your suggestion. At the moment, there are no plans to publish another article with 2021 dates. But I have listed out some of the auspicious days and their dates for this year for you. I have only included future dates, not those that have already passed. Saga Dawa Duchen - 26th May 2021 Chokhor Duchen - 14th July 2021 Dorje Shugden Day - 24th August 2021 Lhabab Duchen - 27th October 2021 Gaden Ngamchoe or Tsongkhapa Day - 29th December 2021 I hope this helps. Thank you.
  • February 27, 2021 03:31
    Sandra 问: Respected pastors, Is it ok to pray from different areas in the house (even where there is no altar)? I was told you can't create 2 altars in 1 house.
    pastor 已答: Dear Sandra, Thank you for your question and its nice to see you here again. The reason why we pray in front of our altars is because it becomes a focal point of the enlightened energies we are invoking. Therefore it becomes a kind of portal for the energies of transformation, peace, healing, prosperity and protection. It is also the place where we make offerings to the Buddhas. As such, most people usually only have 1 altar in their home. However, you can have more than 1 altar in your home. As it is an altar, it should be complete with representations of the body, speech and mind of the Buddhas. This would be an image (either a statue, thangka, tsa tsa, poster, framed picture, etc), a Dharma text and a stupa. In front of these, you should have at least 1 type of offering or more. This can be a fixed offering or maybe even a set of water offerings, which you make every day. Since practitioners make offerings on a daily basis, most opt to have only 1 altar, but there is no rule in Buddhism to say you can only have 1 altar. The altar however, should be placed in a respectful place. So, not in the bathroom. Or if in the bedroom, you should put a screen up to block it when you are changing, sleeping, etc. Alternatively, you can keep it in a cupboard, and close the doors during such activities. But altars should be dedicated places to the Buddhas, so don't put secular items in the same place, such as on the same shelf, etc. When it comes to praying, it is usually done in front of the altar, as you are invoking the enlightened beings. When you do your prayers there it becomes a powerful place in your home, and provides you with a sacred space to pray and meditate. However, if circumstances are difficult, then of course you can pray elsewhere. For example, when I first set up an altar, I was living in a single room with not much space. I set up an altar on a shelf but was not able to pray in front of it. Once I had made offerings, I would simply sit in another part of the room and do the prayers there. If it is really not convenient, then of course it is permissible to do the prayers elsewhere. It is better to do the prayers, than not do them at all if you can't be in front of your altar. I hope this helps. Thank you.

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Fwd: 12 minute Affiliate Multiple Ways to Earn Commissions
2 天前
Fwd: 12 minute Affiliate Multiple Ways to Earn Commissions
#kecharafoodbank: In collaboration with Good Shepherd Services (GSS) based in Ipoh, we travelled to Buntong with food rations for 33 families. Some of the food items given include rice, noodles, cooking oil and biscuits; in total, we gave 726kg of food to these beneficiaries from the underprivileged class. We are glad to have been able to contribute, especially to families with children and in poor living conditions. We wish to thank GSS for alerting us about those in need, and we look forward to extending more support in the future together with this not-for-profit organization doing good work. - Vivian @ Kechara Soup Kitchen
1 月前
#kecharafoodbank: In collaboration with Good Shepherd Services (GSS) based in Ipoh, we travelled to Buntong with food rations for 33 families. Some of the food items given include rice, noodles, cooking oil and biscuits; in total, we gave 726kg of food to these beneficiaries from the underprivileged class. We are glad to have been able to contribute, especially to families with children and in poor living conditions. We wish to thank GSS for alerting us about those in need, and we look forward to extending more support in the future together with this not-for-profit organization doing good work. - Vivian @ Kechara Soup Kitchen
In an urgent effort to provide food and necessities to the poverty-stricken in Bentong and rural areas of Pahang, we are launching Food Bank Bentong. With your support, Food Bank Bentong would be able to feed 500 families totaling 2,300 people on a regular basis, giving them a chance to enjoy a basic sense of security we consider a human right. - Vivian @ Kechara Soup Kitchen
1 月前
In an urgent effort to provide food and necessities to the poverty-stricken in Bentong and rural areas of Pahang, we are launching Food Bank Bentong. With your support, Food Bank Bentong would be able to feed 500 families totaling 2,300 people on a regular basis, giving them a chance to enjoy a basic sense of security we consider a human right. - Vivian @ Kechara Soup Kitchen
Kechara Sunday Dharma School Online Teaching Every Sunday Morning 11am class - KSDS Jayce Goh
2 月前
Kechara Sunday Dharma School Online Teaching Every Sunday Morning 11am class - KSDS Jayce Goh
Re: Kechara Sunday Dharma School Online Teaching Every Sunday Morning 11am class, students attend Pastor Shin Class happily - KSDS Jayce Goh
2 月前
Re: Kechara Sunday Dharma School Online Teaching Every Sunday Morning 11am class, students attend Pastor Shin Class happily - KSDS Jayce Goh
Update on Empowerment cookies, special holiday packaging. The bakers are most grateful for the overwhelming support of 834 tubs ordered, with a big order of 314 tubs from a group of friends. Thank you to those cookie lovers who couldn’t get enough of it. Watch out for the next update. Vivian @ Kechara Soup Kitchen
4 月前
Update on Empowerment cookies, special holiday packaging. The bakers are most grateful for the overwhelming support of 834 tubs ordered, with a big order of 314 tubs from a group of friends. Thank you to those cookie lovers who couldn’t get enough of it. Watch out for the next update. Vivian @ Kechara Soup Kitchen
Thank you, generous and kind donors, made possible by Alice Smith School's Official Site through their Build Kindness Campaign. The whooping amount of RM63,000 will provide much needed food to 25 poor families for the next 12 months. On behalf of these families, thank you! Vivian @ Kechara Soup Kitchen
4 月前
Thank you, generous and kind donors, made possible by Alice Smith School's Official Site through their Build Kindness Campaign. The whooping amount of RM63,000 will provide much needed food to 25 poor families for the next 12 months. On behalf of these families, thank you! Vivian @ Kechara Soup Kitchen
The global pandemic hasn't been easy for all of us. Some find it diffucult to find a job to support the family. Despite that, we are still delivering basic food pack to our recipients nationwide. Thank you to our volunteers, donors, and sponsors. Without your support, we would be unable to reach out to many families. Vivian @ Kechara Soup Kitchen
4 月前
The global pandemic hasn't been easy for all of us. Some find it diffucult to find a job to support the family. Despite that, we are still delivering basic food pack to our recipients nationwide. Thank you to our volunteers, donors, and sponsors. Without your support, we would be unable to reach out to many families. Vivian @ Kechara Soup Kitchen
Thanks to Yap Optometry for gifting Robert a new pair of glasses to see better. We wish him many clear and bright days ahead. Thank you to all sponsors. - Vivian @ Kechara Soup Kitchen
5 月前
Thanks to Yap Optometry for gifting Robert a new pair of glasses to see better. We wish him many clear and bright days ahead. Thank you to all sponsors. - Vivian @ Kechara Soup Kitchen
Donation received to date: RM33,468.00 Yes! We've achieved the target for the #TamanNegara project. Fundraising is closed for this project. Thank you to all donors, 113 Orang Asli families will benefit from it. Stay tuned! #kecharafoodbank #kecharaempowerment #kecharasoupkitchen - Vivian @ Kechara Soup Kitchen
5 月前
Donation received to date: RM33,468.00 Yes! We've achieved the target for the #TamanNegara project. Fundraising is closed for this project. Thank you to all donors, 113 Orang Asli families will benefit from it. Stay tuned! #kecharafoodbank #kecharaempowerment #kecharasoupkitchen - Vivian @ Kechara Soup Kitchen
FRESHLY BAKED by Kechara Empowerment trainees - Chocolate Chip Butter Cookies - Vivian @ Kechara Soup Kitchen
5 月前
FRESHLY BAKED by Kechara Empowerment trainees - Chocolate Chip Butter Cookies - Vivian @ Kechara Soup Kitchen
In memory of Wilson Lee, one of our most dedicated volunteers in Penang. Our heartfelt condolences to Wilson's wife, Tze Ling, family and friends. Our thoughts are with them for their loss. Thank you for your kindness and service to KSK Penang. From all of us in KSK.
5 月前
In memory of Wilson Lee, one of our most dedicated volunteers in Penang. Our heartfelt condolences to Wilson's wife, Tze Ling, family and friends. Our thoughts are with them for their loss. Thank you for your kindness and service to KSK Penang. From all of us in KSK.
Last weekend a Soup Kitchen activities @ Penang, Johor & Kuala Lumpur. Hot food, water, masks, biscuits, buns & fruits. This is what we give out to our friends living on the streets. Thank you to our sponsor & volunteers that make it happen. Come spread more love by being a volunteer at our activities. WhatsApp us today at 010-333-3260! See you soon! #kecharafoodbank #kecharaempowerment #kecharasoupkitchen - Vivian @ Kechara Soup Kitchen
6 月前
Last weekend a Soup Kitchen activities @ Penang, Johor & Kuala Lumpur. Hot food, water, masks, biscuits, buns & fruits. This is what we give out to our friends living on the streets. Thank you to our sponsor & volunteers that make it happen. Come spread more love by being a volunteer at our activities. WhatsApp us today at 010-333-3260! See you soon! #kecharafoodbank #kecharaempowerment #kecharasoupkitchen - Vivian @ Kechara Soup Kitchen
Fwd: Dear Sotha
6 月前
Fwd: Dear Sotha
Kechara Earth Project 13/9/2020
7 月前
Kechara Earth Project 13/9/2020
Thank you Domino's Pizza Malaysia, Kasih & Piza campaign for sponsoring 85 boxes of pizza to our friends who live on the streets. Your flavourful pizzas have put a smile on their faces. Thank you! - Vivan @ Kechara Soup Kitchen #kecharafoodbank #kecharaempowerment #kecharasoupkitchen #KasihdanPiza #ItsAllAboutYou
7 月前
Thank you Domino's Pizza Malaysia, Kasih & Piza campaign for sponsoring 85 boxes of pizza to our friends who live on the streets. Your flavourful pizzas have put a smile on their faces. Thank you! - Vivan @ Kechara Soup Kitchen #kecharafoodbank #kecharaempowerment #kecharasoupkitchen #KasihdanPiza #ItsAllAboutYou
Thank you Novo Nordisk! Your kind monetary donation and 1,320 boxes of masks will benefit many needy families under the Kechara Food Bank Program. Thank you! Much love from the needy families  ~ Vivian @ Kechara Soup Kitchen #kecharafoodbank #kecharaempowerment #kecharasoupkitchen #novonordisk #novonordiskmalaysia
7 月前
Thank you Novo Nordisk! Your kind monetary donation and 1,320 boxes of masks will benefit many needy families under the Kechara Food Bank Program. Thank you! Much love from the needy families ~ Vivian @ Kechara Soup Kitchen #kecharafoodbank #kecharaempowerment #kecharasoupkitchen #novonordisk #novonordiskmalaysia
We were graced with the presence of Tengku Zatashah & The Alice Smith School Foundation yesterday. 130 homeless were blessed to be served by them. RM 20,000 donated by Alice Smith School Foundation will benefit 100 families registered under Kechara Food Bank Program. Thank you! Much love from the needy families ~ Vivian @ Kechara Soup Kitchen #kecharafoodbank #kecharaempowerment #kecharasoupkitchen #alicesmithschoolfoundation #alicesmithschool #volunteerism #homeless
7 月前
We were graced with the presence of Tengku Zatashah & The Alice Smith School Foundation yesterday. 130 homeless were blessed to be served by them. RM 20,000 donated by Alice Smith School Foundation will benefit 100 families registered under Kechara Food Bank Program. Thank you! Much love from the needy families ~ Vivian @ Kechara Soup Kitchen #kecharafoodbank #kecharaempowerment #kecharasoupkitchen #alicesmithschoolfoundation #alicesmithschool #volunteerism #homeless
Thanks to the effort of our outstation team, we were able to mobilise food provisions to 600 families living in Kelantan, Penang, Negeri Sembilan, Melaka and Johor during the Raya period with each of these families receiving RM200 worth of provisions. Adding onto the current 368 families in Klang Valley, a total of 968 families were benefitted from this. Special thanks to the sponsors who have contributed especially Hong Leong Foundation and partially from Tesco Malaysia (where we also ordered the provisions from). ~ Vivian @ Kechara Soup Kitchen
9 月前
Thanks to the effort of our outstation team, we were able to mobilise food provisions to 600 families living in Kelantan, Penang, Negeri Sembilan, Melaka and Johor during the Raya period with each of these families receiving RM200 worth of provisions. Adding onto the current 368 families in Klang Valley, a total of 968 families were benefitted from this. Special thanks to the sponsors who have contributed especially Hong Leong Foundation and partially from Tesco Malaysia (where we also ordered the provisions from). ~ Vivian @ Kechara Soup Kitchen
So glad that our soup kitchen operations are back in full swing. Good to see the clients are observing the SOPs. Some of them lost their job during MCO and ended up on the streets. Special thanks to our sponsors and volunteers for the great support! - Vivian @ Kechara Soup Kitchen
10 月前
So glad that our soup kitchen operations are back in full swing. Good to see the clients are observing the SOPs. Some of them lost their job during MCO and ended up on the streets. Special thanks to our sponsors and volunteers for the great support! - Vivian @ Kechara Soup Kitchen
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Dorje Shugden
点击观看我对多杰雄登的说法。。。