Methar of Tengyeling Monastery
Dear friends around the world,
I wanted to share with all of you the story of the very potent Methar and how he arose as a dharma protector and came to be a part of Dorje Shugden’s mandala. He was placed under the care of Kache Marpo, who is Dorje Shugden’s main assistant. This protector has a very interesting but tragic story, and yet he is a very powerful being that can aid practitioners quickly and effectively. Serkong Dorje Chang and his son Serkong Tsenshab Rinpoche (debate partner of the 14th Dalai Lama) of Gaden Jangtse Monastery are among the many who relied on this protector. His story is one of political intrigue, unholy plots against innocent men and murder. Please read carefully and understand Methar’s origins well. It is very fascinating. You can also have a free download of Methar’s painting which cannot be found easily. I must thank my team for their help in research, composition and artwork for this fantastic post.
During the period of His Holiness the 13th Dalai Lama, there was an attempt to assassinate him by means of black magic. When the 13th Dalai Lama was around 20 years old, he was given a pair of silk soles for his shoes by one of his senior tutors, the 9th Demo Rinpoche, Ngawang Lobsang Trinle Rabgye. Demo Rinpoche in turn had been given the silk soles by a stranger, who was a Ngakpa. Ngakpas are non-monastic practitioners who follow a different set of vows as compared to lay practitioners. Thinking that they were too precious for him, Demo Rinpoche offered them to the 13th Dalai Lama.
Demo Rinpoche held the position of Regent of Tibet between 1886-1895, before the 13th Dalai Lama was enthroned and he was also known as the Demo Khutuktu. ‘Khutuktu’ being a Mongolian title given to high lamas just like the title ‘Rinpoche’ that is used in Tibet.
Around the same time, the Nechung oracle Rago Chenpa, visited Tsuglak Khang temple which is better known as Jokhang, where Palden Lhamo is said to reside. There he removed live scorpions from under the statue of Palden Lhamo with his bare hands, exclaiming that it was a bad omen. He told the monks of Drepung Loseling Monastery where the 13th Dalai Lama’s residence was, to be on their guard.
The 13th Dalai Lama happily accepted the offering of silk soles and was just about to wear them, when the protector Nechung took spontaneous trance and warned, “You cannot wear this. It may have something bad that can harm you. You should cut it first then wear it.” After the attendants of the Dalai Lama cut open the soles, they found a black magic spell inside in the form of a chakra. The Kashag, or Tibetan Government, conducted an investigation into the attempt to kill the 13th Dalai Lama and made inquiries into who gave the gift to the Dalai Lama.
When they found out that it was actually Demo Rinpoche who gifted the silk soles, he was tried for treason and he was consequently expelled from his position. His ladrang was sealed and a ban was placed on the search for his reincarnations in the future, a political move the Tibetan government had employed in the past, as in the case of Tulku Drakpa Gyaltsen. In fact it was declared that no Demo Rinpoche would ever be eligible to hold the position of Regent ever again. This was announced publically. At the same time, a close associate of Demo Rinpoche called Nyari Tulku was also arrested on suspicion of being the one who cast the black magic intending harm upon the 13th Dalai Lama. The Tibetan Government had him tortured and killed in a painful and horrific manner. Nyari Tulku was innocent and after his gruesome death he arose as Nyatrul, a powerful spirit determined to exact vengeance by destroying the Tibetan government.
Demo Rinpoche was later summoned to the Potala Palace on the pretext of attending a religious ceremony, but he was held captive instead. Many of Demo Rinpoche’s relatives and monks from his Tengyeling Monastery also suffered the same fate. Tengyeling Monastery was one of the four great Regency monasteries, from which a Regent would be chosen between the successive incarnations of Dalai Lamas. It was built in the 17th century and was also famous for its religious Cham dances. The Regent would rule the country in the period between the passing into clear light of a Dalai Lama and when his new incarnation turned 18 years old. The Tengyeling Regency was considered the most important of the four Regency seats which included the Kundeling, Tsemonling and Tsechogling Regencies. The tradition of Demo Rinpoche becoming Regent began with the 6th Demo Rinpoche, Ngawang Jampel Delek Gyatso, who ruled between 1757 and 1777. He was bestowed the Mongolian title Khutuktu and declared the Regent of Tibet by the Qianlong Emperor of China. This highlights the level of interaction between native Tibetans and the Chinese in matters of State. The 7th Demo Rinpoche also ruled Tibet between 1811 and 1819.
Demo Rinpoche’s nephews, Norbu Tsering and Palcho Lobsang were sentenced to life imprisonment. Since Demo Rinpoche was the former Regent and Abbot of Tengyeling Monastery, his punishment was less severe. He was ordered to enter into life-long retreat in a house built in the courtyard of his Tengyeling Monastery. It was here under this house-arrest that the Demo Rinpoche passed away. Some claim that he was murdered by agents of the Tibetan government, by being put in a barrel or large container and drowned.
Demo Rinpoche shouldered the blame for the assassination attempt purely because the Kashag (Tibetan government) could not find the Ngakpa who originally gave him the silk shoe soles. The 9th in his reincarnation lineage, Demo Rinpoche was actually a highly accomplished and great master. Not only did he serve as Regent of Tibet, he was also the abbot of his monastery, tutor to the 13th Dalai Lama and commanded tremendous respect from the Sangha community.
Tengyeling monastery and its various estates were seized by the Kashag, leading to the decline of the monastery’s coffer. Many of the monks and people who lived there became bitter towards the Kashag due to the treatment Demo Rinpoche suffered and the unjust treatment meted out to their monastery.
The Chinese Invasion
In 1910, the Chinese invaded Lhasa forcing the 13th Dalai Lama to flee. During that time Tengyeling Monastery aided the Chinese troops and the monastery became one of the Chinese army’s strongholds. It is said that the Tengyeling oracle, who took trance of the Dharma protector Tsiu Marpo (also known as Kache Marpo), told the monks to aid the Chinese and fight against the Kashag of the 13th Dalai Lama. Since Demo Rinpoche had great faith in Tsiu Marpo and took him as his personal protector, he had built a protector chapel to him in the monastery. Since then Tsiu Marpo became the protector of Tengyeling Monastery.
However the Chinese forces were not able to hold on to Lhasa for long. They were in a strange environment and the local Tibetan fighters knew the intricate Lhasa streets better than the Chinese. They also stopped receiving aid and reinforcements from China. They were soon overwhelmed and captured by the Tibetan army.
In 1912, once the Chinese has been expelled from Lhasa, the Kashag sought to punish those who had aided the invading army. Tengyeling Monastery, that had acted as a Chinese stronghold was one of the first to be targeted. The monastery was ransacked and destroyed. Monks involved in aiding the Chinese forces were brutally imprisoned and those who were not involved were later sent to other monasteries. This marked the end of the Tengyeling Monastery and the line of Tengyeling oracles who took trance of Tsiu Marpo (Kache Marpo).
How Methar Arose
At the time, the treasurer of Tengyeling was a lay man called Methar. He was an ardent disciple of Demo Rinpoche and loved the monastic community of Tengyeling. He practiced the Dharma to the best of his ability and was obviously trustworthy enough to hold such an important position within the monastery. This position would have only be bestowed on someone qualified to do a good job and would have been appointed by the holy monastic community themselves, showing he was a person who was well respected.
Due to their greed and jealousy in wanting the resources of Tengyeling, the Tibetan government had Methar imprisoned. In fact many people claim that the whole situation surrounding the silk soles that Demo Rinpoche gave to the 13th Dalai Lama had been orchestrated by the Tibetan government and high officials. They were jealous of Demo Rinpoche’s status and influence as a previous Regent, so they hatched a plot to over throw him and take his monastery’s resources for their own. This mirrors what had happened to Tulku Drakpa Gyaltsen, who was brutally murdered for his growing influence and the jealousy of the Tibetan government.
While in prison, Methar was tortured by the Tibetan army. He was asked to give up the location of Tengyeling’s accumulated resources, such as the gold, silver, gems and other precious and holy items that the monastery had been bestowed over time and relied on for their sustenance. However, Methar’s guru devotion and loyalty to the Sangha was exemplary. He would not give the Tibetan government what they wanted, no matter what they did to him, thereby protecting the memory of his holy guru.
During the torture, Methar was horrifically skinned alive, brutally disembowelled and stabbed repeatedly. Throughout the whole gruesome and savage ordeal, Methar remembered his guru and Kache Marpo, the Dharma protector of Tengyeling, a sign of his intense devotion. However due to the excruciating circumstances of his passing, Methar developed anger. This led him to take rebirth as a ferocious spirit bent on revenge and he caused a lot of harm. He had arisen to right the wrongs inflicted upon himself, his guru and the monastery.
As mentioned in his biography, Serkong Dorje Chang subdued Methar who became a potent Dharma protector. Having been requested to perform wrathful fire pujas and rituals necessary to bind ferocious spirits, Serkong Dorje Chang simply gave Methar Dharma teachings. Serkong Dorje Chang taught Methar about the negative karmic effects of harming others and about developing compassion. Since Methar had strong Dharmic imprints and devotion from his previous life, his mind turned back towards the Dharma and he willingly took an oath as a Dharma protector. This is an important point, since powerful beings need to willingly take an oath to become Dharma protectors.
Serkong Dorje Chang placed him into Dorje Shugden’s mandala, under the care of Kache Marpo who Methar had a strong connection with from his previous life. As treasurer of Tengyeling monastery, Methar would have relied heavily on Kache Marpo as his protector. This shows that Methar’s faith, trust and devotion to Kache Marpo was strong even in his new rebirth.
Methar took rebirth as a spirit due to the anger that arose during his extreme torture and death. This anger, rather than a sign of his guilt, is actually a sign of his innocence. He arose in this form due to the power of having truth on his side and devotion to his guru. As he was being tortured he realised why the Tibetan government had treated Demo Rinpoche and Tengyeling so badly. It became clear that due to their greed and jealously, they wanted Tengyeling’s resources for themselves. Rather than giving into this, he withstood the torture due to the power of truth that his guru and monastery were not to blame at all for the assassination attempt on the 13th Dalai Lama.
His anger arose because the Tibetan government had let their greed take the better of them, to the extent of harming his guru and the holy Tengyeling monastery. This anger was what led to his current form, but his mind was still that of a Dharma practitioner. Hence Serkong Dorje Chang subdued him by teaching him the Dharma rather than having to resort to wrathful pujas. Methar’s merits from his previous life in protecting his guru and Tengyeling by taking on the pain and suffering of torture and death allowed him to arise a Dharma protector. Now, Methar once again continues his virtuous work of practising the Dharma and benefiting others through his role as a Dharma protector.
Methar is depicted wearing the colourful clothes of a high-ranking lay official, since he was the treasurer of Tengyeling monastery. His hair is in a top-knot like the lay officials of the past in Tibet. His face is human and he has fangs that bite down on his lower lip, like Setrap and Kache Marpo. In his right hand he holds a spear and in his left he holds a mala. He is depicted riding a blue horse on an ocean of blood.1 (To download a picture of Methar click here)
In another more wrathful depiction, Methar is seen having a human head, similar to the depiction above. He has his long black hair in a top-knot and his fangs biting down on his lower lip are dripping with human blood. However from the neck down his body is flayed exposing his red and bloodied flesh. He holds a spear his right hand that is black and he pierces the heart of a corpse that he stands on. All of this is above an ocean of dead bodies and blood. The mala in his left hand is made of bloody human skulls and he uses it as a lasso to bind the corpse by the neck. He also uses this mala to count the heads of those evil beings he has slain.
It is said that when this wrathful form takes trance of an oracle, it is characteristic of Methar to hold up his oracular apron, as if he was staring at his own flayed body and gutted belly. He also makes a sound, like he was being stabbed. This is a reminder of his violent death that led to arising in his current form. Only after doing this will he speak.
Praise to Tengyeling’s Dharmaphala Methar
The great incarnation whose nature is Yamantaka,
whose countless deeds of bringing many who are ripened
onto the path of the sublime Sage (Shakyamuni), to
this wondrous incarnation named His Holiness
Kyabje Demo Hutuktu Rinpoche, I offer obeisance!
Moist with devotion, faith and service to the great Demo Hutuktu,
Stalwart devotee Methar accepted wrongly the punishments due to others’ greed.
Although his lama, monastery and Methar himself the treasurer were innocent, all was lost.
Flayed, tortured and stabbed, Methar focused on his lama and the truth as his life force drained.
Arise Dharmaphala Methar, oath bound by the compassion of Serkong Dorje Chang,
Fulfill your duty and give me your protection, potent signs and ever constant presence.
May I gain bodhicitta and arise in the form of the Sugata. Homage to the
Tengyeling Monastic treasurer arising as Dharmaphala Methar who served his lama completely!
Mantra: OM METHAR SARWA SIDDHI HUNG
(recite many times to invoke Methar’s assistance and energy)
Composed by Tsem Tulku of Kechara, October 4, 2016
Serkong Dorje Chang’s Biography by Zemey Rinpoche
Serkong Tsenshab (son of the 2nd Serkong Dorje Chang) asked Kyabje Trijang Rinpoche to write the namthar or biography of the 1st Serkong Dorje Chang. Kyabje Trijang Rinpoche was preocupied at the time so he asked Zemey Rinpoche to write it. Zemey Rinpoche wrote a root text of Serkong Dorje Chang’s biography that mentions his connection with Methar explicitly. In Volume Nga, pages 559-562, Zemey Rinpoche recounts how Serkong Dorje Chang subdued Methar and how he arose as a Dharma protector. Please see below for a translation.
[ ] = indicates information or a phrase that has been added for clarity or context
Methar was a Tengyeling staff attached to the main changtso [manager / assistant] Nyima Drug Trag. After he died, he came back as a ghost. [Gen-la’s note: Zemey Rinpoche was close to Gaden Phodrang at the time of composing this namthar about Serkong Dorjechang so he could not write about the murder and how Methar was really killed]
After he died, Methar went in the direction of the outskirts of Lhasa, and started to hide and steal things. People knew he was stealing these things but they just could not see him or his form.
During a Kalachakra initiation in Gaden being given by Serkong Dorjechang, Gaden Lhokpa Khangtsen Gyal Se Rinpoche brought Methar with him for the initiation. Methar actually went with the lama in the form of a man. He said, “Except for Serkong Dorjechang, no one knows about me.”
Gradually, Methar was connected with the Zi Bug Pel Rab Pa’i family. At the time, Methar was very angry. After inviting Serkong Dorjechang three times, he was later bound by an oath.
On Serkong Dorjechang’s second visit to the Zi Bug Pel Rab Pa’i family, he passed by the holy place of Gonpo [Mahakala] called Drom Thöd Dar Lung Nyen Gyi Phodrang. After visiting this holy place, he then went to the Zi Bug Pel Rab Pa’i family’s house.
The mother of the family spontaneously took trance and when Serkong Dorjechang arrived, Methar, taking trance of the mother, said, “My Bodhisattva guru has arrived.” Methar then paid his respects to him. Serkong Dorjechang also gave him a teaching and advice about cause and effect, saying, “You should show compassion to sentient beings.” At the end, Serkong Dorjechang said, “Stop harming sentient beings and go to the place named Drom Thöd. I have requested Gonpo Chag Drug [Six-Armed Mahakala] to give you the position of changtso.”
Serkong Dorjechang told him, “During your journey to that place, you should maintain compassion and for your food, take this bowl of chang [barley beer].” Then, instead of handing the bowl to Methar, Serkong Dorjechang poured the chang. Not a single drop of chang however, fell to the floor and it floated in the air. Those who were present were surprised.
Methar took the chang and set off on his journey to Drom Thöd. After that incident, the Zi Bug Pel Rab Pa’i family and their place was calm for a long period of time.
When Serkong Dorjechang was near a bridge called Dechen Zampa, suddenly the spirit Methar came there and offered a namzö [a khata of the best quality] to him. At the time, Serkong Dorjechang was riding a horse. With his khata offering, Methar resigned as the assistant of Gonpo then went back to the Zi Bug Pel Rab Pa’i family and made problems for them.
So Serkong Dorjechang went back to the Zi Bug Pel Rab Pa’i family house and explained to Methar about the karma of harming others, and the benefit of helping others. Methar was so impressed and touched by the advice of Serkong Dorjechang that he took an oath that he will never harm anyone.
After that, Methar was accepted as a Protector and a tenkhang [Protector chapel] was built. Serkong Dorjechang requested the jindak [sponsor] of the Meldro area to do daily prayers to Methar at that tenkhang. Serkong Dorjechang also told Methar, “You should always be helpful to them.” After that, Serkong Dorjechang composed a praise of Methar.
Serkong Dorje Chang’s Biography by Rakra Rinpoche
Rakra Rinpoche composed a commentary to Serkong Dorje Chang’s biography, which was written by Zemey Rinpoche. In it he clarifies what is briefly mentioned in Zemey Rinpoche’s writing. If anything was explained clearly in Zemey Rinpoche’s text, it is not given much attention in Rakra Rinpoche’s version. However if Zemey Rinpoche only briefly mentioned something, then Rakra Rinpoche expanded upon it in his version. On pages 184-191, Rakra Rinpoche clarifies points regarding Serkong Dorje Chang and Methar. See below for translation.
[ ] = indicates information or a phrase that has been added for clarity or context
Before Serkong Dorjechang passed away, there was an evil spirit called Methar. In Methar’s past life [as Tengyeling’s changtso or manager/treasurer] he did Yamantaka retreat nine times.
In a place called Meldro there was a clan called Zi Bug Pel Rab Pa’i who requested Serkong Dorjechang three times to come there and subdue the evil spirit named Methar.
Serkong Tsenshab said he had heard that Methar was a staff member of Tengyeling and he was brutally murdered by the Tibetan government army. The student of Serkong Dorjechang [meaning Serkong Tsenshab] said that when Methar takes trance in ordinary people, he makes a ‘sir sir’ [inhaling sharply] sound. It shows he has the imprint of being stabbed many times. After he died, he was reborn as a wrathful spirit. In Gaden, while reading a pecha [scripture] at night, a junior monk would see a big mala come in front of him and it would rotate on its own, making a ‘thrig thrig’ sound [the sound of counting mala beads]. Some of the monks experienced that when they were reading their pecha, it was pulled from their hands and thrown away.
In Gaden there was a Geshe Lama-la or Geshe Dhamchö Tenpel, he [Rakra Rinpoche] does not remember very well. During his geshe tangor [geshe offering] ceremony, the damja thukpa [noodle soup] was ready and suddenly there was a ‘sir sir’ sound in the big pot. The damja thukpa instantly turned into water. When he was circumambulating the monastery with incense [after all the offerings were done], the geshe-la was crying at the time [because it was not a good sign for him].
After a period of many bad signs, they [the Zi Bug Pel Rab Pa’i family] invited some lamas from Gaden to subdue the spirit Methar by doing a fire puja. Among them was a lama called Geshe Agya Rinpoche, a mahasiddha, who was invited. On his way to Gaden he came to a bridge called Dechen Zampa. Before he crossed the bridge, Methar offered him the scripture of Je Tsongkhapa. After giving him the book, Methar requested Agya Rinpoche not to do the fire puja. Agya Rinpoche resumed his journey but somewhere between Dechen area and Gyami area, he pretended to fall from his horse. He said, “I cannot subdue Methar” and he returned to Lhasa.
After this, Kyabje Serkong Dorjechang was invited. Again, Serkong Dorjechang was about to cross Dechen Zampa when Methar appeared, taking on the form of a man. He also offered Je Tsongkhapa’s scripture to him and requested Serkong Dorjechang not to do the fire puja.
A member of Zi Bug Pel Rab Pa’i had invited Serkong Dorjechang three times. During the second request, Serkong Dorjechang travelled from Lhasa. During his journey from Lhasa to Zi Bug Pel Rab Pa’i’s house situated in Meldro, he visited Drom Thöd Dar Lung Nyen Gyi Phodrang. Then he continued on his journey and arrived at Zi Bug Pel Rab Pa’i’s house.
At the time, the mother of the family spontaneously took trance of Methar. Methar, taking trance of the mother, said, “My guru Bodhisattva has arrived.” Then Methar paid his respects. Serkong Dorjechang gave a teaching about cause and effect, and compassion to Methar. At the end of the teaching, Serkong Dorjechang said, “You should stop harming sentient beings and you must go to Drom Thöd. I have requested Gonpo Chag Drug [Six-Armed Mahakala] to give you the position of changtso. During your journey to that monastery you should maintain a practice of compassion.”
For food for his journey, Serkong Dorjechang told Methar, “Take this bowl of chang [barley beer] for your journey.” Then, instead of giving the bowl to Methar, he poured the chang on the floor but the chang did not touch the floor. Instead it floated in the air and left the room, and not a single drop fell to the floor. Many people saw this and were so surprised. After that, things for the Zi Bug Pel Rab Pa’i family became calm and peaceful for a long time.
After a long gap, again Methar made many problems for them. Serkong Dorjechang was in Lhoka at the time. During his journey to Zi Bug Pel Ra Wa’s house, he had to cross over a big mountain at night. All of a sudden, a big black cloud appeared and it started to rain. Because of the black cloud, the disciples and attendants could not see the way clearly. They could only see boulders. The group was scattered but Serkong Dorjechang continued on his way, as though someone was pulling the bridle of his horse and guiding him. When he arrived at Zi Bug Pel Ra Wa’s house, Serkong Dorjechang gave a teaching about the karma of harming people and about the benefit of helping people. Methar was so touched by the advice of Serkong Dorjechang, he took an oath that he would not harm anyone and his mind was turned to Dharma.
Serkong Dorjechang advised to make a tenkhang [Protector chapel] and to do a daily prayer over there. Serkong Dorjechang then composed a praise to Methar. A person named Lama-la asked Serkong Dorjechang, “During the journey, all of your disciples were scattered but you were the only one who came without facing obstacles. Why is that?” Serkong Dorjechang answered Lama-la by saying, “Damchen Garwa Nagpo guided me.” Serkong Tsenshab had heard about this incident.
Serkong Tsenshab heard that after Serkong Dorjechang had subdued Methar for the third time, on that third time, after Methar had taken an oath not to harm, Methar resigned from Mahakala [as a changtso]. Then he joined as Dorje Shugden’s changtso [minister] and entered into Dorje Shugden’s mandala.
By having a strong connection with Serkong Dorjechang, Methar also has a good connection with Serkong Tsenshab. Whenever the yangsi [reincarnation] of Serkong Dorjechang would do something mischievous, Methar used to come at night in Serkong Tsenshab’s dreams and tell Serkong Tsenshab what the young incarnation did. At that time, Serkong Dorjechang was living in Gaden and Lhoka, and Serkong Tsenshab was in Lhasa but despite the distance, Methar would still appear in his dreams. In Lhoka, the young yangsi lived with his assistants. The assistants often visited Lhasa and would update Serkong Tsenshab on the yangsi. But even before they could update, Serkong Tsenshab already knew what Serkong Dorjechang was up to. This [incident] was told by Drepung Gya Geshe.
The following was told by Drepung Gya Geshe. Serkong Tsenshab said that during Serkong Dorjechang’s stay in Lhasa in Serkong Tsenshab’s house, they were visited by a short nun with a red face who was known to be an oracle of Methar. She stayed there for a few days but Drepung Gya Geshe never saw her take trance. During Serkong Tsenshab’s youth, he had asked Methar, “How did you harm the other people?” At first Methar was not willing to answer; he only used to say, “Now I have stopped harming people.” Later, he said, “If you keep insisting for me to tell you what I did, maybe you already know? For example, many people used to die suddenly during gatherings. These are the things I have done. During parties, when people were distracted by entertainment, I would go and pull out the essence of their organs. After the gathering, when they return home, they would suddenly fall sick and pass away. This is what is meant by I harmed people.”
Serkong Tsenshab, when he was the debate partner of the Dalai Lama, stayed in Norbulingka. Even before going to his room, he used to feel like someone was calling him to the room, gesturing to him. And sometimes when Serkong Tsenshab had some miscommunication with other people, Methar used to be angry. Sometimes Serkong Tsenshab would find it difficult to locate his important items even if they were near to him [almost as though his vision was blocked]. Serkong Tsenshab told Rakra Rinpoche, “Sometimes Methar hides my personal belongings and I cannot find them and this makes me so embarrassed.”
Provided below is the original Tibetan source of the part in Serkong Dorje Chang’s biography that speaks about Methar.
You can download the complete biography of Serkong Dorje Chang as written by Rakra Rinpoche here.
Even though the line of Demo Rinpoche incarnations was banned, this was overturned when the 13th Dalai Lama himself recognised and enthroned his nephew, Tenzin Gyatso, as the 10th incarnation of Demo Rinpoche. This incarnation returned his monks vows later in life, and took a consort, who used to be a nun. They gave birth to three sons, one of whom is Gelek Rinpoche who he now resides in the United States.
- This description of the Methar is taken from Rene de Nebesky-Wojkowitz. Oracles and Demons of Tibet. 1996, Book Faith India. Page 144.
- Melvyn C. Goldstein. A History of Modern Tibet, 1913-1951: The Demise of the Lamaist State. 1991, University of California Press.
- Rene de Nebesky-Wojkowitz. Demons and Oracles of Tibet. 1996, Book Faith India.
- Dundun Namgyal Tsarong. In the Service of His Country: The Biography of Dasang Damdul Tsarong Commander General of Tibet. 2000, Snow Lion.
For more interesting information:
- The Spirit Nyatrul: Magic, Mischief and Misery
- The Fourteenth Dalai Lama & Dorje Shugden
- The Fifth Dalai Lama & Dorje Shugden
- Never Seen Before Footage of Dorje Shugden Oracles
- Comparison between the Shamarpa and Tulku Drakpa Gyeltsen
- Nechung – The Retiring Devil of Tibet
- Achi Chokyi Drolma – Chief Protectress of the Drikung Kagyu
- Dharma Protectors of Tibetan Buddhism
- They were not wrong
- Music Delighting the Ocean of Protectors – A Definitive Guide to Dorje Shugden by Trijang Rinpoche
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