Heart to Heart with Teresa Hsu Book Review
This book contains the biography of a Fantastic heroin called “Teresa Hsu”. I am moved by her life simply because it amazes and touches me so much and it has made me understood that even though she was not very rich or whatsoever, she was still able to serve and benefit so many lives. I just adore her, her compassion is truly overwhelming. If she was still alive, I would really love to visit her and spend time listening to her stories.
Grass Does Not Satisfy Hunger
Teresa Hsu was born on the 7th of July, 1898 in Kak Chioh, Shantou, a tiny peasant village in the southern Guangdong province of China. As the second amongst the eight children in the family. “I was the second child and a girl, so I had no status. It was always my fault when anything went wrong,” she says. Her older sister, Ursula had a position being the ‘first daughter’, and her younger sister, Lucy, a lovely-looking child was the ‘beautiful daughter’. The youngest child, Anthony, was a male which gave him instant status and worth in the family hierarchy.
Teresa recalled that, “We were very, very poor, so poor that we had to climb trees to gather seeds. We ate some of the edible ones while we soaked the others in the river to lather them into soap to wash the clothes.”
She readily quipped, “In fact, we took everything from nature; bamboo shoots, sweet potatoes, thumb-sized red and yellow nuts, fruits and even some grasses that could be eaten!” She declared, “I remember eating grass while I was very hungry. I was about seven years old then in 1905! (This made me feel how fortunate I am for not having to go through such experiences.)
She continued, “I was by the roadside and when nobody was watching, I grabbed a handful of grass and put it into my mouth.” This grass-eating, non-satisfying hunger experience drove the young Teresa to vow that for as long as she lived, she would see that no one need to to go through that desperate experience. Further, she vowed that within her power, everyone should have their basic needs met.
The quaint little village where Teresa was born had no shops or schools. It was so small that only sixteen families lived in it. Everybody knew everyone and people were seldom sick. If someone in the village fell ill, the fellow villagers would bring herbs from the hills. The villagers of “Kak Chioh” had empirical knowledge of the different herbs and their efficacy which was passed on from one generation to the next. People in the village were generally very happy and cordial – there was no fighting and competition like in our present age.
The Communal Lifestyle
Life was very communal there, they frequently shared and used things, and the work too. The men did the farming and fishing while the women cooked, sewed and weaved. In all 38 relatives lived together in this community of aunts, uncles, in-laws, cousins and so on.
Although life in Kak Chioh village was poor and basic, they were self-sufficient – they made whatever was needed. The men would cut the wood to make tables, chairs and baskets. Everybody got used to fashion chopsticks and baskets. They all got along with one another and there were no disputes, they were all quite happy.
Teresa reminisces, “We usually went around bare-footed unless we had to walk long distances. Then we wore our hand made wooden clogs. If we found that our clogs were missing, we just used someone else’s. Later in the day, our “missing clogs” would reappear!”
In Teresa’s words, there was “No yours or mine, there were no shut doors and people went in and out of one another’s houses taking what they needed” (without having to ask, this was how trustworthy the people were with each other). This described the open and sharing communal spirit that existed in Kak Chioh. Parents had no worries of their children going out and playing and when it was time to eat, they just returned home. The life of the villagers revolved around the sun – waking up in the morning (for another day of hard work) and going home when the sun sets. After sunset, there were no lights and everyone would be in bed. Life was simple and uncomplicated, there was no fear of thieves and burglars. (I want to share Teresa’s early lifestyle with everyone because I thought that it would amaze people with the fact that environment contributes to nurturing a person’s mind.)
The Compassionate Nature in Teresa’s Ancestry
Compassion for others runs in Teresa’s ancestry. Teresa’s maternal great grandfather was a Chinese physician. Very often he did not charge his poor patients fees for treatment. As a staunch Christian he argued, “They are sick already. That’s why they came to see me for help.” He lived a very frugal life wasting nothing, not even a grain of rice. At all times, he subscribed to the principle of “Love your Neighbour as Yourself.” Their family later adopted this doctrine which became ingrained in the hearts of their ancestors and their later generations.
Teresa’s mother was another role model for compassion and a person who was magnanimous. Although they were poor, she would generously give the beggars and people who needed her help, assistance and food. Teresa recounts, “One evening while we were eating sweet potatoes which was our only food for dinner, a woman carrying a child appeared at the entrance of our house. Mother did not even stop to think and consider. She took the sweet potatoes and gave them to the woman. Mother had endlessly told us that we must help these hungry people. We won’t die if we skip a meal or two, but these hungry people may collapse and die if they do not get food in time.”
New Lease of Life in Penang
Her mother, Madam Tan Sok Chan decided to move to Penang when Teresa was about seventeen years old. Her mother was a person with character, one who was courageous and resourceful. As she had relatives in Penang, she reckoned that her children would have a better lease of life there. Taking her four children with her, they soon arrived at their new destination only to have a rude awakening. Her relatives did not want to see nor talk to them. They felt that both mother and children were a disgrace to them being poor, uneducated and badly dressed.
But fate smiled on her family and her mother managed to “rent” a house from the Roman Catholic Church in Macalister Road for $4 a month. To pay the rent, the family had to wash linen, clean the priest’s house and the church. There were no mops so Teresa and her siblings had to clean the floor “on their knees” with water drawn from a well. It was hard work. And Teresa was quick to quip in, “We enjoyed it!” And with the permission from the priest, her family grew vegetables and beans on the empty plot of land. They were poor, on “foreign soil” but the family stayed together while undergoing the hardships. Fortunately everyone was healthy and did not suffer any illness and their days were peaceful.
Time passed them by and soon a decade was over. Teresa did not attend school and she was illiterate. Her secret dream of going to school burnt in her heart always. The Catholic church ran a primary school near where Teresa lived and each time she passed the school, she was captivated by the sounds of the children learning their alphabets and reciting their multiplication tables. Teresa would listen with deep interest and silently wished, “If only I could study… that would be wonderful!”
The society in which Teresa lived in then was very conservative. The community people expected Teresa to be married in her twenties and have a baby; else she would be regarded as an “old auntie” or even worse, a “spinster”! Word has it that a lady who is still unmarried at a marriageable age either has a “nasty temper” or is stricken with a dreadful illness.
Teresa’s elder sister Ursula was in her thirties then. And as she was still single, many tried to match-make her to a number of eligible bachelors. Irked by such constant interferences, Ursula left for work in Hong Kong and eventually settled down in Singapore.
And with Ursula gone, the attention was soon turned to Teresa. Teresa was petite for her age and with her long hair which she tied into a shiny braid, many parents considered Teresa to be a good match for their sons. Matchmakers were sent to talk with Teresa’s mother and her. “I don’t want to get married,” Teresa told her mother.
“I do not want to be tied down by a man. I don’t want to get married. I want my freedom,” Teresa replied strongly. But this did not deter the matchmakers as they kept coming back with more proposals and offers. “Lock the doors and don’t let them in” Teresa added.
“But these are our neighbours. We can’t treat them like that!” her mother replied. To which Teresa replied tersely, “Then I shall do what Ursula did…I shall leave too.” With sadness her mother exclaimed, “No, no, who will look after me when you leave?” Teresa’s mother thought she was only joking. But as it turned out, Teresa left for Hong Kong in 1923 to avoid the constant harassment from the matchmakers.
A New Lease of Life in Hong Kong
When Teresa first arrived in Hong Kong, she met a fellow villager from her province in China. The man upon learning that Teresa had no place to stay, told her, “I run a childcare centre. There are classrooms downstairs but I have an empty room upstairs, You can live there and help clean the premises.”
Living alone, Teresa had a sense of independence and more time to reflect on her life. Every time she swept or cleaned the floor, it crossed her mind, “I must learn more skills to change my life. I can’t be sweeping and cleaning floors my entire life.” With a new resolve, Teresa enrolled and attended night classes to learn English, typing, shorthand and accounting. And on Sundays, she would go to church services where she would sit at the back and listened attentively to the priest’s sermons, She diligently practised her shorthand skills and improved her listening and writing skills.
Soon thereafter Teresa chanced upon a newspaper advertisement on a vacancy in the German news agency. It was an accounting job. Teresa applied for the job and got it. Her German boss agreed to pay her a monthly salary of $20. This marked the start of a new phrase in the life of Teresa. Teresa truly appreciated her job. The workload was heavy but Teresa was happy, On her payday, she was so elated with the first money she had ever earned that she quickly sent some money to her mother in Penang.
On payday, Teresa discovered that the German lady’s salary was $250 while hers was only a paltry $20! The company employed another 21 Chinese ladies and they, like Teresa were earning $20 a month but were doing most of the work.
Teresa with her strong sense of equality and fairness decided to ask the boss for a raise after discussing with her other Chinese workmates. They were all delighted that Teresa was willing to speak up on their behalf and they all agreed that if they did not get the increase they requested they would all leave.
The General Manager, a German, was pleasantly surprised with Teresa’s courage to speak up. In fact he was so taken in by Teresa’s seriousness, commitment and good performance of her work that he said, “I will increase your salary to $70 but the others will have to wait. I can’t increase everyone’s salary to that level at the same time.”
Teresa with a strong sense of fairness said, “If you are increasing my salary to $70, then do it for everyone else. Otherwise, we will all quit!” The General Manager unfazed by her firm statement replied, “I will only increase yours. The others will have to wait.” You may resign if you wish. There are many people like you looking for work here.
Teresa was the only one who resigned while the other Chinese girls remained in their jobs without any increment whatsoever.
A Blessing in Disguise
Maybe Teresa was too naive or maybe she acted too rash by standing up for her colleagues. Maybe! But it turned out to be a silver lining for her. As soon as she left her job, Teresa saw an advertisement calling for a stenographer. She applied and was called for an interview the next day.
On entering the interview room, a big, tall foreigner asked, “When can you start work?” Taken aback by this question, Teresa said, “But you have not tested me yet.” The man took his time and finally answered, “I have evaluated you from your handwritten application letter as I am a handwriting expert.” I know your character. Her new boss gave her $20, and told her to go buy herself some chocolates. Now, $20 was her monthly salary in her earlier job. That was a big sum of money but Teresa was not moved by it. She firmly refused to accept the money saying, “I do not accept the money that I have not earned.” Such is the truthful nature of Teresa in the face of such a daunting temptation.
The boss smiled and then said, “Alright then, report for work tomorrow. Your salary is $150.” Teresa was stunned. She just could not believe her ears. In just two days, her income skyrocketed from a mere $20 to $150! She was so elated that she immediately wrote to her mother informing her of her good fortune.
At that time, Teresa rented a room in Kowloon and it costs her $4 per month. To go to work each day, she had to take the ferry to Hong Kong and that daily transport cost her $3 a month. She divided her salary into three portions; one for the rent, another for food and transport and the rest for her mother.
A Frugal Life Not Squandering One Single Cent
After a lavish dinner incident working for the German news agency when she came out of the extravagant restaurant only to meet with a poor street beggar who had not eaten for many days, Teresa was extremely frugal with herself. She set a budget of an average of 30 cents per day for her food and drinks and never more than 50 cents. And any balance was carefully saved and donated to the sick and needy.
This frugal lifestyle soon caught the attention of her friends who questioned her, “Why are you so silly? This is your hard earned money and you don’t spend it on yourself but instead you give it away. What happens if you fall sick one day and need the money?”
To this Teresa confidently replied, “Mother Nature has given me a healthy body. It is not only for me but this body is to work for others too. Everyone on this earth is my family. I have to love and help them.”
A Calling to Care For the Needy
The Second World War broke out in the late 1930’s and early 1940’s. The Japanese army invaded Hong Kong and Teresa’s German boss fled to Chongqing leaving her in charge. In the days that followed, the situation became worse. Teresa’s boss telegrammed her asking her to join him in Chongqing.
The Japanese airplanes were bombing Hong Kong unrelentingly. As the airport was closed, there was no flights out. Teresa waited for 3 days and 3 nights at the airport. Finally on a moonless night, the plane sneaked out and managed to fly to Chongqing. At Chongqing, her boss was waiting for her at the airport. At that time General Chiang Kai-Shek had moved his office to Chongqing. Teresa did some of the news translation for General Chiang and his wife, Madam Soong Mei-Ling during her spare time.
As the battle spread towards Chongqing, there was a huge influx of refugees and wounded soldiers into the city. The Japanese planes kept dropping bombs on Chongqing and there were mass destruction with the wounded and dead lying everywhere.
In keeping to her vow on frugality, Teresa would carry a water bottle and some boiled eggs to work. When the warning sirens went off, Teresa would run for shelter and hide there for days. Faced with the horrors of war from her own personal experience where she witnessed destruction and brutality, Teresa started to abhor warfare and destruction.
And because she worked in a news bureau, Teresa soon learnt that the British Red Cross Society was organizing an International Voluntary Service for Peace (IVSP) nursing them and they would be coming to Chongqing soon. The IVSP team consisted of youth who were 17 and 18-year olds. Their main duty was not to fight in the battlefields but to nurse the wounded. Teresa found her calling in this cause as it was in alignment with her “peace” philosophy. She thought, “These young men have left their own country and traveled to a distant land to care for the wounded. When they themselves needed help and care, who is going to help and care for them?”
Teresa spontaneouly decided to resign from her news bureau job and join the IVSP team taking on the job of looking after these British volunteers. Having made this decision on her own accord, she wondered what her mother would say. She wrote, “Mother, I intend to resign from my news bureau job and join the IVSP team and look after the young volunteers for free. I will not be able to send money home to you anymore.” Her mother replied and agreed that Teresa was doing the right thing.
Upon receiving her mother’s blessings, Teresa happily tendered her resignation. Much to the surprise and dismay of her boss who thought that she was dissatisfied with her salary and he immediately offered to increase her pay. Teresa had to calmly reassure her boss that she was leaving for a good reason and cause. This stumped him, as he could not understand “why anyone would give up a well-paid job to be an IVSP volunteer.”
Teresa met the IVSP team at the Chongqing airport and asked, “Can you train me to be a nurse?” The IVSP team leader was taken aback and answered politely, “We serve others, not train people.” Teresa then told him, “You are in China and you don’t speak the local language. Besides, there is no one to look after you. I can be your translator and also help look after your living necessities.”
Her sincerity impressed the team leader and the IVSP volunteers accepted her proposal. In the peace team, Teresa took on the role of “foster mother” to the 20 young men translating for them.
A Wonderful Twist of Fate
After having worked in the IVSP for four years where she saw countless sick and wounded war victims, she still lacked the nursing skills to be in much of help. Teresa realised, “Man who all suffer from sickness and death and I must help wherever I can. I must learn nursing to help.” With this thought, Teresa decided to learn nursing . However as her Chinese was weak, she could not enrol in the local nursing school. So, she decided to go to England for her training.
In 1945 at the age of 47 years old, Teresa applied for visa to travel to England. Before leaving for England, Teresa decided to return to Penang to visit her mother whom she had not seen for many years. So Teresa went back to Penang to stay with her mother for a month. After that, Teresa sailed for England.
At the time the qualifying age for nursing students was between the ages of 17 and 25. Teresa was already over-aged as she was then 47. There was no way any nursing school would accept her. Teresa was determined to achieve her ambition as a nurse. She refused to accept any rejection. So, she wrote to the matron of the London Nursing Council and told her that she was not studying nursing to earn money but rather to dedicate and devote her whole life and energy to caring and helping the sick. These words moved the matron so much that she was immediately accepted. The matron said that this was the right spirit of a nurse.
The main reason for Teresa’s journey to England was to learn nursing. She concentrated on her studies. In fact she did very well in the Pre-Clinical Course Examination, Teresa was first amongst her class of 20 students. And in the Hospital Junior Examination, she again came out second out of 47 student nurses.
Training at Royal Free Hospital
Teresa stayed fully focus on her training, she has been giving free treatments to people who could not afford and she has been doing this until the day she passed away (7th of December, 2011). Although the nursing course book took three years to complete, she continued to study other subjects related to nursing such as Home Nursing, Health Visiting, etc. In her nursing school due to her petite stature and her youthful Oriental appearance despite being 50 years old, she was often mistaken to be in her 20’s! Whenever they needed someone to be a “patient”, her classmates would shove her forward, “Go little girl! You go!” In the hospital too whenever the nurses did not want to do any particular job, they would say, “Tell the little girl to do it”
However, the “little girl” did not mind it at all. She did not shirk from doing the work. And neither did she get angry that she had to do the work of others. “I am here to work and I am pleased to work. The more I do, the better,” she says.
Each summer, the nursing students had a three-week break. During this period, Teresa worked as an Exchange Volunteer with the Red Cross Society in the various European countries. She had worked in Germany, France, Spain, Switzerland, Norway and Denmark.
Eight Years in Paraguay
Towards the end of her stay in England (circa 1953), Teresa received a letter from the “Society of Brothers” in Paraguay. The Society was set up by a total of 21 countries. When Teresa learnt that the Society was a haven for refugees and had no money to pay the nurses, she accepted the offer.
In 1953 Teresa left England and after sailing for more than three weeks she finally arrived in Asuncion, Paraguay. Teresa was received by a member of the Society who took her to the headquarters. Along the way Teresa saw poverty everywhere and she realised that Paraguay was a very undeveloped and poverty-stricken country. The whole landscape was totally a sharp contrast to the hustle and bustle of England. Teresa realised that Paraguay needed more help than England and she was glad to accept the Society’s request.
The Society had a poorly staffed hospital with three doctors. The doctors had to attend more than a hundred patients suffering from all sorts of diseases, illness and ailments. Teresa’s presence and assistance was heartily and warmly welcomed.
Teresa went straight to work. Her duties were wide and varied such as giving injections and medicine to the patients, care of the bedridden, attending to women’s health problems, childbirth, post-natal care and those patients who lived outside the Society’s premises. Her eight years of experiences in the various medical fields and her hands-on and clinical skills in England helped her greatly in handling the nursing problems in Paraguay. And for that she was very grateful.
In Paraguay, everyone called her “Teresa”, a name associated with the more famous Albanian Catholic nun, “Mother Teresa”. Teresa Hsu was equally moved by Mother Teresa’s work in India in providing warm, sincere care for the aged sick. Teresa dedicated her entire time to the Society’s work and in the process, earned the respect of many. However it became inevitable that there were some conflicts of views and opinions. The Society rules stated that everything was shared. But the “sharing” was restricted to the Society’s members only -it was not meant for anyone outside. Teresa was not in agreement with this regulation. In her mind, the whole world is a brotherhood and one should love and help one another. Although she was a member of the Society, Teresa did not discriminate between the Society’s members and non-members. Each day she delivered food and medicine to the leprosy patients living outside of town. And along the way, she would visit the poor and offered her help too. Once, Teresa saw a little poor boy with high fever. The family had no money and no medicine. On returning to the Society’s premises, Teresa took some medicine and gave it to the poor boy’s family. There was also countless poor and destitute families outside the Society’s grounds. Teresa would give them food and medicine whenever she went on her rounds. When the senior administrator, the House Mother came to know of this matter, she was not happy with Teresa.
One day, the House Mother called Teresa and said, “Teresa, although you are very good in your work and we all respect you on the personal level, there are some things which we cannot approve.” Teresa was puzzled as she was confident that everything she did in the last eight years was done with total honesty and sincerity. Then, the House Mother hit the nail on the head, “You repeatedly take and give our medicine to the poor and sick. That’s not right. You simply cannot give the Society’s things away to others. It’s against our regulations.”
“But they are very poor, sick and have no money to buy medicine. We have enough medicine in the hospital. Surely we can spare them some.” Teresa explained.
“They are outsiders. We only take care of our own people. We cannot care for others,” the House Mother told Teresa. To which Teresa responded, “But they are not outsiders. They are our brothers and sister. I love them as I loved my patients in the Society. If they fall sick, they also need care and help.”
“They are not part of the Society. We need not look after them. As you are part of the Society, so you have to follow our rules. That means that you must stop giving them food and medicine.”
“Food, I’ll give them my share. Surely, I can decide on what to do with my own food.” Teresa retorted. “We give you food because you need to eat. If you don’t need it, you can refuse it. But you cannot take our food and give it to others.” the House Mother replied sternly.
Teresa was rather shocked and taken back by her remarks. She asked herself, “Was I wrong? I worked for the Society for eight year now without asking for any returns. Am I wrong to see and treat everyone as my brother and sister? Why did the House Mother discriminate? Why did she draw a line between members and non-members? Why won’t she help them?”
When necessary, she “stole” to feed the poor and the sick. She could not stand to see the needy suffer. They are human beings too. Their lives are also precious and regardless of whether they are the Society’s members or not, they are still entitled to care and respect. Teresa struck with her principles and as a result ran into many arguments with the House Mother. Watching the sick and the needy suffer with no relief in sight, Teresa felt very sorry.
An Affectionate Reunion with Mum
Teresa received a letter from her younger sister, Lucy on behalf of their mother stating that, “Poor people are everywhere but there is only one mother! Mum is getting old at 80-plus and needs you to return and look after her.” Teresa was jolted by this and she decided to leave Paraguay after 8 months because of the shortage of money. Teresa and her mother finally reunited after 30 years of not seeing each other. (Teresa has been in constant contact with her mother, exchanging mail with her weekly for more than 30 years.)
Founding the “Home for the Aged Sick”
Teresa came to know about the Kwong Wai Shiu Hospital for the poor from Ursula. She also found out that due to the lack of funds, the hospital could not afford to hire a nurse despite having 380 patients. As the hospital could only offer a paltry salary for nurses, no one applied. When Teresa learnt about this, she offered herself as a volunteer.
She started work as an unsalaried matron for the hospital. Her work included taking care of their food and diet. She soon found out that the patients were not being properly looked after. Maybe it was because the lack of funds; or maybe the number of patient was too overwhelming. Teresa also felt that the hours of waiting for their (patients) meals was not kind especially as they were old, sick and bedridden. She appealed to the hospital to add one more meal but was rejected.
Despite her many appeals, the hospital administration still would not agree. Feeling disappointed and unable to see the elderly residents suffer anymore, Teresa asked Ursula for financial support to buy bread for the 380 residents. As it was unofficial, she would personally deliver a bun and a drink to each of them at 8 p.m.
Although she used her own money, the hospital still did not approve of her good actions. They felt that she was overidding their decisions and forbade her to continue. After working in Kwong Wai Shiu Hospital for two years and seven months, Teresa left.
Shortly after she retired, Hsu set up the Heart to Heart Service with Sharana Yao, her co-social worker, a non-profit, non-government aided welfare service which provides food, clothes and monthly cash contributions to those in need. With the help of volunteers who drive her around, she brought necessities to the homes of elderly women and the destitudes who were in their 80s and 90s on public assistance. She would buy them food such as rice, sugar, biscuits, beverages and a monthly cash allowance of between $20 and $180. She got her rations and funds from various sources—merchants, people in the neighbourhood, church friends, and their friends. The needy get on Heart-to-Heart’s list based on good faith by word of mouth.
Teresa Hsu, at the age of 113 on a Wednesday, 7th of December 2011 has passed away peacefully.
These Are the 10 Things That I Have Learnt From This Book:
- If one “small sized” lady can benefit so many people’s lives and make such a huge change to people around the world, why can’t we? I would like to start practising compassion like her from now on. Simply because I think she is worth following.
- Does it really matter what the world thinks about us? Apparently it does not. We should just do our best to help and care for others. Teresa always cared for others more than she has cared for herself, if we are able to nurture such attitude, can you imagine how the world would be like? I can imagine it being a true paradise.
- Teresa Hsu has been a vegetarian since birth. As I have said many times, being a vegetarian does not only save many lives, but we can also improve our health.
- Nurturing compassion starts at home, we must be able to treat our parents and siblings with care and love. And from there, we can only start spreading compassion to people around us, so that they are too inspired to be kind.
- Equality- We are blinded by branded items, expensive cars and houses, thinking that having all these would give us a good life but in actuality, real happiness arises when we open ourselves up to be in others’ help.
- I have learnt that having a happy life is way more important than a luxurious life. What can a luxurious life bring us? After all when we pass away, we will not be able to bring them with us. A happy life creates happiness and good karma with others around us, so then we can be in good terms with each other in our future lifetimes.
- Giving- We do not need extras in our life. Having extras of everything will only feed our ego and do us no good. But if we share it with others, others can enjoy it with us.
- This book has gave me the strength and hope of doing better things with my life instead of just getting a normal desk job and spending my free time lazing around. For For example, now I am striving to become a lawyer that will help both people and animals to let them earn their rights to live a free life.
- I have learnt to be frugal from Teresa. Being frugal is not bad at all, as long as it fills our needs not wants, it is enough. We should give and share it with the poor and needies as they need it too.
- Her life has definitely touched thousands of lives even to this day and it will still touch other’s heart and mind as long as humanity prevails. Her work is just remarkable, I have truly fell in love with her. This book contains so much of her presence, without a doubt, I can feel her energy around. There are more to what Teresa has done throughout her life and it’s all in the book. It has been a great pleasure for me to write an article on H.E Tsem Rinpoche’s blog. Stay tuned, as you will see more articles from me!
About the Book
Author: Raymond Loh
Publisher: [Penang]: Raymond Loh, c2011
Paperback: 248 pages
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