Guan Yin Day
I have always admired Chenrezig (Tibetan) or Guan Yin in all her manifestations in Buddhism because of what she represents. When I was younger, I meditated a lot on compassion and recited a lot of mantras, and I can say that Chenrezig is one of the few Buddhas that I always prayed to and worshipped.
Before coming to Malaysia, I always had a fascination with the Chinese form of Guan Yin. I remember having a line drawing of Guan Yin and placing it on my altar when I was still living in the United States. I used to read about Guan Yin in books by John Blofeld. I had no idea at that time that I would end up here in Malaysia, establish Kechara, and share the Dharma amongst the Buddhist community here. I was delighted to find that Guan Yin was so widely worshipped amongst the Malaysian Chinese Buddhist community, and I have since learnt more about Guan Yin, her origins, her history, the background of her worship, and of the celebration of Guan Yin Day.
Hence, I would like to share with all of you some information about Guan Yin, her celebrations, a few of her famous temples, and how you can go about visiting them. It is my wish that this article will direct you toward inviting a Guan Yin home and engage in Her powerful prayers in the future. I hope that with this article, you will develop a deeper appreciation of the festivities surrounding Guan Yin as it is celebrated in Malaysia by the Buddhist community.
The Goddess of Mercy, Guan Yin is regarded by the Chinese to be both a Buddhist and Taoist deity. In the Mahayana Buddhist tradition, she is venerated as a bodhisattva that embodies the Buddha’s compassion. Throughout her various manifestations, Guan Yin is considered the most popular bodhisattva in northern Asian countries that practises Mahayana Buddhism.
The worship of Guan Yin was so popular and efficacious that she was even brought over into Taoist practice, where she is regarded as an immortal and is, by far, one of the most popular Chinese deities. She is often depicted as a lady shrouded in white robes, and her likeness is represented in traditional scroll paintings and white porcelain statues. It is generally accepted amongst the Chinese Buddhists that the deity Guan Yin originated from the Indian male Bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara, whose worship was brought into China via the Silk Road during the transmission of Buddhism into China. Hence, Guan Yin is sometimes depicted both as a man and woman, which symbolise transcendence over gender, labels and the self-cherishing ‘I’.
The earliest record of Avalokiteshvara or Guan Yin was mentioned in the Lotus Sutra, which is known as Saddharma Pundarika Sutra in Sanskrit. Guan Yin or Avalokiteshvara was mentioned in the 25th chapter of this ancient Sanskrit text. Within this chapter, her sacred name was explained as ‘The One Who Perceives the Cries of the World’. This reflects the direct translation of her full Chinese name, Guan Shi Yin.
This chapter praises Avalokiteshvara as one of the highest beings in the Buddhist pantheon. Within this chapter, it says “If one were to pray with true devotion to Avalokiteshvara for a moment, one would generate more blessings than if one worshipped with all types of offerings and to as many gods as there are in the grains of sand on the shores of Ganges River for an entire lifetime”. Using this text as a basis, Avalokiteshvara grew to become one of the most important deities within Mahayana Buddhism.
Interestingly, the Lotus Sutra also contains an explanation on the ability of Avalokiteshvara to take on various incarnations in order to benefit sentient beings. Within the text, it was mentioned that Avalokiteshvara had the ability to manifest in the form of worldly gods, including Indra and Brahma, all-powerful Kings or Chakravartin, Dharma Protectors such Vaisravana, any form of Buddha, any gender, age, human or non-human form in order to teach the Dharma to sentient beings.
There are many traditions in China and other East Asian countries that have added many distinctive characteristics and legends to Avalokiteshvara and Guan Yin. Within China, Guan Yin was originally depicted as a male bodhisattva in early Chinese art, and therefore depicted with chest-revealing clothing, and sometimes depicted with a light moustache. Later Chinese art depicted Guan Yin in the female form. Due to explanations in the Lotus Sutra and so forth, some practitioners believe that Guan Yin is androgynous, or perhaps without gender.
The Legend of Miaoshan
In China, Guan Yin was originally worshipped in a male form but eventually came to be worshipped in a female form as the Goddess of Mercy. This transformation into a female deity took place during the Northern Song dynasty (960-1126 CE) and is tied with the emergence of the legend of Miao Shan.
Historically, the cult of Miao Shan first emerged from Xiang Shan Si (Fragrant Mountain Monastery) via an inscription written by Jiang Zhi Qi (1031-1104 CE) in 1100 CE. The Fragrant Mountain Monastery has been known for its magnificent statue of Guan Yin with a thousand arms and a thousand eyes, also known as The Great Compassionate One (Da Bei). In Jiang’s writings, he identifies the Fragrant Mountain Monastery as the location of Guan Yin’s manifestation, where she revealed herself in her Great Compassionate form with a thousand arms and eyes, neatly joining the Miao Shan legend with the image of Guan Yin enshrined in the monastery. He went on to claim that the relics of Miao Shan were enshrined in a stupa, thus establishing Fragrant Mountain Monastery as a popular destination for pilgrims.
According to a written account of that period by scholar Zu Xiu, who wrote a chronicle of Buddhism in 1164 CE, Guan Yin was said to have been reborn as the Princess Miao Shan. Her father was a king whose name was Miao Chuang Yen, while her mother was named Pao Ying, who bore three daughters, the eldest Miao Yen, the second Miao Yin, and the youngest Miao Shan.
When Miao Shan was conceived, the queen dreamt that she swallowed the moon. When the child was about to be born, the earth shook, and wonderful fragrance and heavenly flowers rained down from the celestial realms above. Miao Shan was born clean as if she had already been washed by celestial beings. Her body bore holy marks that were noble and majestic. The people were amazed and some said that these were signs of an incarnation of a holy being. Although her parents were amazed by these signs, they had other plans in store for her.
The bodhisattva grew up to be a chaste, humble, and saintly girl in court. She was predisposed towards the Buddha’s teachings, and even brought her ladies-in-waiting into Buddhism. Her father, a tyrant king, had plans to marry her off to a rich man in order to dissuade her from her spiritual inclinations, but when he told her that she would be marrying the wealthy man, she replied that she would only obey her father’s command if the marriage would ease three misfortunes.
Out of curiosity, the father asked what the three misfortunes were. She explained that the first misfortune was the universal suffering of old age. The second misfortune was the suffering of falling ill. The third misfortune was the inevitable suffering of death itself. The princess declared that if her marriage could not ease any the three sufferings, then she would rather retire to a life of seclusion and spiritual practice.
Enraged by her terms, the king ordered for her daughter to be put into hard labour at the royal gardens, and her food to be rationed in order to break her. Despite this, she would not give in. Her mother and sisters tried begged her to reconsider, but to no avail. Then, her mother and sisters pleaded with her father, and the king eventually relented and allowed her to enter White Sparrow Monastery, but he also ordered the nuns to ensure that Miao Shan was given the toughest work.
The frightened nuns put her to work on many different chores – fetching wood and water, working with the pestle and mortar in the kitchen, and tending to the temple’s vegetable gardens. Under her care, the vegetables were bountiful even in winter, and a spring miraculously welled up just next to the kitchen. Years rolled by, but Miao Shan was steadfast in her conviction. When the king heard reports of the miracles of the thriving vegetable garden and wellspring, he flew into a rage. He barked for soldiers to retrieve her head and to kill all the nuns.
When the soldiers arrived at the temple, a fog suddenly appeared and blanketed the whole temple. When the fog cleared, the soldiers searched everywhere, but Miao Shan was nowhere to be found. It was said that a benevolent spirit hid her in a nearby mountain, and the spirit moved her several times before she finally found herself on Fragrant Mountain, where she dwelt, surviving on fruits from the nearby trees and drinking from a stream.
Time passed, and the king eventually contracted a virulent disease until he could no longer sleep or eat. He was in a lot of pain, his body was covered with sores, and the court physician was unable to cure him. A monk appeared and offered to cure the king but his method would require the arms and eyes of one free from anger. The king uttered a sigh of despair as he found this to be an impossible task. The monk then told the king, “On Fragrant Mountain, in the south-west of your majesty’s dominion, there is a bodhisattva engaged in spiritual practices. If you send a messenger to present your request to her, she would definitely comply.”
The king quickly commanded the chamberlain to make the necessary arrangements. When a party arrived and made the request to Miao Shan, she said, “My father insulted the Three Jewels, and he persecuted and suppressed the Sangha when he executed innocent nuns. He is experiencing the negative karma right now.” Then she gouged out her eyes and severed her arms. She offered them to the envoy and she requested that the messenger to relay her exhortation to the king to turn towards virtue and no longer be deluded by false doctrines.
When the two items arrived at the palace, the monk quickly made them up into medicine. The king took the concoction and instantly recovered. He generously rewarded the monk-physician. But the monk refused and told him, “Why do you thank me? You should be thanking the one who provided the arms and eyes for your cure.” Suddenly he was gone and the king realised it was divine intervention. He ordered for his coach and he went with his queen and two remaining daughters to Fragrant Mountain to personally offer his gratitude to the bodhisattva.
Upon their arrival and before they could even speak, the queen already recognised her own daughter, Miao Shan. They found themselves choking with tears. Miao Shan said, “Does my lady remember Miao Shan? Mindful of my father’s love, I have repaid him with my arms and eyes.” Upon hearing these words, her parents embraced her and wept. Just when the queen was about to wipe Miao Shan’s tears with her tongue, a divine spectacle unfolded before their very eyes. Heavenly clouds encircled them, divine music of celestial musicians could be heard, the earth shook, and flowers rained down from the celestial realms above.
Miao Shan transformed into the Thousand Arms and Thousand Eyes Guan Yin and she hovered majestically into the air. Attendants numbering in the tens of thousands appeared, singing praises of her compassion, and their songs shook the mountains and valleys. Suddenly, the bodhisattva reverted back into Miao Shan as she departed. It was said that the king, queen, and the two sisters made a funeral pyre, preserved the holy relics that emerged, and constructed a stupa on the same mountain to house the relics.
Guan Yin was popularly represented in male form Chinese religious art before the Song dynasty (10th -13th century CE). The representation of Guan Yin as both genders during this period and after was attributed to the explanation mentioned in the Lotus Sutra, in which Guan Yin could appear as both male or female in order relieve the suffering of sentient beings, along with the unique ability to bestow children on those who are barren.
This exemplified compassion and kindness of a bodhisattva to the ancient Chinese masses. She became known as the mother goddess and patron of expecting mothers and seamen, which led her to become more popularly depicted as the female figure that we are all familiar with today. Today, the Bodhisattva Guan Yin is ubiquitously depicted as a benevolent, white-robed female figure, similar to the graceful Indian two-armed Avalokiteshvara Padmapani or Holder of the Lotus.
Nevertheless, towards the end of the Song period, there were still depictions of Guan Yin as a youthful male figure dressed in Northern Song style robes and seated gracefully. He is usually posed looking downwards, which is meant to symbolise his ever watchfulness upon the suffering of sentient beings. This image has since evolved into the female figure dressed in flowing white robes adorned with refined jewellery to represent her spiritual attainments. She holds a porcelain vase containing sacred water in her left hand, and with her right hand she holds a branch of a willow tree. Weeping willow is a Chinese symbol for compassion, because the branches of the willow tree are soft and yet, they are able to withstand severe thunderstorms that normally uproot other harder and thicker trees. The willow branch is also depicted hanging from the mouth of the vase.
Guan Yin has an image of Buddha Amitabha placed at the crown of her head, signifying the veneration of the spiritual guide. She is usually depicted as a solitary figure, sometimes riding on top of a dragon while traversing the southern seas of China, sometimes accompanied by a white parrot.
In the Precious Scroll of the Parrot, a story is told of the parrot that became a disciple of Guan Yin. During the Tang Dynasty, a small parrot was said to have ventured out in search of food for its mother but a poacher captured it. Parrots were kept as pets during the Tang Dynasty period. When it managed to escape, the bird discovered that its mother had already perished. The parrot grieved for its mother and performed for her funeral. Her death inspired the parrot to become a disciple of Guan Yin. In popular depictions, the parrot is usually white in colour and is depicted as standing to the right of Guan Yin, with clasping either a pearl or with prayer beads in its beak. This parrot has since becomes a symbol of filial piety.
Thousand-armed Kuan Yin
Another popular form of Guan Yin is the Thousand-armed Guan Yin, and her origin can be traced to the Karandavyuha Sutra. In this sutra, Avalokiteshvara is hailed as “The One with a Thousand Arms and a Thousand Eyes”, and is sometimes described as being superior to all the Buddhas and gods in the Indian pantheon.
Another popular Buddhist legend, as narrated in the Complete Tale of Guan Yin and the Southern Seas, presents Guan Yin as vowing never to rest until she had freed all sentient beings from samsara, or the Sanskrit cycle of death and rebirth. After struggling to comprehend the suffering of sentient beings, her head split into eleven pieces. It was said that Buddha Amitabha appeared at this point and healed her by turning each broken piece into a face that perceive the cries of all sentient beings. Upon hearing these cries, Guan Yin attempted to reach out to these suffering beings, but found that her arms shattered into a thousand pieces as well. Buddha Amitabha then appeared again, and gave her a thousand arms to reach out and aid those who suffer.
Guan Yin and her acolytes
Guan Yin is also often depicted as flanked by two children or two warriors. The two children are her acolytes; the girl is known as Long Nü and the boy is called Shan Cai. Shan Cai is the Chinese name for a disabled Indian boy by the name of Sudhana. He travelled to Potala in order to study under Guan Yin, who put him to the test by conjuring 3 sword-wielding bandits who came charging at the bodhisattva. The chase came to an end when the bodhisattva jumped off the cliff and the boy without thinking, hobbled over the cliff to save the bodhisattva. Fortunately, he was saved by Guan Yin, who went on to heal his feet and restore his appearance as well. Guan Yin then taught him the entire Dharma. In another tale, the daughter of a naga king took on the form of a carp, and was caught in a fisherman’s net. Struggling in the net and about to be sold by the fisherman, she let out a cry to the heavens and Guan Yin heard her plea for help. Guan Yin dispatched Shan Cai to bargain for the fish’s release, but he was quickly out-bided by many who guessed that the flesh of this strange fish would grant immortality.
Guan Yin intervened by projecting her voice, saying “A life should belong to one who tries to save it and not one who tries to take it.” Frightened and embarrassed by their shameful actions, the fish was given to Shan Cai who brought it back to Guan Yin. Guan Yin returned the fish to the ocean and the naga king’s daughter assumed her original form and was reunited with her father.
In gratitude, the naga king sent his granddaughter, Long Nü, to offer a pearl of light to Guan Yin and, overwhelmed by her compassion, she offered herself to be her disciple. Thus, both Shan Cai and Long Nü would often be depicted as acolytes of Guan Yin. This story is also the inspiration for the depiction of the Fujian Guan Yin as a maiden dressed in Tang period attire carrying a basket of fish.
Another popular form of Guan Yin arose along the coastal areas of Southern China and was worshipped amongst seamen and fishermen. This form of Guan Yin, along with others that were catalogued in late 16th century Chinese encyclopaedias, was also depicted in the line drawing of the novel Golden Lotus from the same period.
In other depictions involving the two warriors, one of the warriors standing with Guan Yin is the general Guan Yu of the late Han dynasty, who is known as Qie Lan or the Bodhisattva Sangharama. He is featured in the Chinese classical epic Records of the Three Kingdoms, and was known to have sworn before the Zen patriarch Zhi Yi (founder of the Tien Tai school) in order to protect the Buddha’s teachings along with its monasteries.
The other warrior accompanying Guan Yin is Wei Tuo or the Bodhisattva Skanda. Wei Tuo is believed to be an incarnation of the Bodhisattva Vajrapani, and was believed to have been one of the generals who protected Miao Shan on her escape from the palace and away from her cruel father. According to one account, both the general and Miao Shan were murdered at the hand of Miao Shan’s cruel father and he became a bodhisattva to continue protecting Guan Yin.
Guan Yin as the attendant to Buddha Amitabha
In Chinese tradition, Guan Yin is also one of the bodhisattva figures popularly depicted alongside Buddha Amitabha along with the Bodhisattva Mahastamaprapta. This trinity is known as the Three Saints of the Western Pure Land, and they are depicted as the central figures in the pure land of Sukhavati. In addition to that, she is also depicted alongside other bodhisattvas and buddhas, sometimes flanked by the two previously-mentioned warriors, who manifest as bodhisattvas to protect the temple and the faith.
Kuan Yin Day
There are generally three celebrations associated with Guan Yin: her birthday, the day of her enlightenment, and the day she left home. Her birthday is celebrated on the 19th of the second lunar month, her enlightenment day is celebrated on the 19th of the sixth lunar month, and the day she left home is celebrated on the 19th of the ninth lunar month.
On Guan Yin’s birthday, devotees observe a vegetarian diet in remembrance of her compassion and kindness. They visit temples or major shrines to offer incense, flowers and food – usually fruits, special festive cakes or vegetarian dishes. Another popular offering is to add oil into the oil lamps on Guan Yin’s shrines in order to keep the flames burning. Devotees seeking to have a child would offer prayers, incense and offerings to the Guan Yin, and when they do get a child, the child would be placed at the feet of Guan Yin to be spiritually adopted by her, as it is believed that she will bless the child with longevity.
As for people from monastic orders, they celebrate the day by reciting the Universal Door chapter of the Lotus Sutra. This chapter is an extensive praise of the bodhisattva’s boundless compassion and kindness, of her ability to liberate sentient beings from the seven types of calamities, her ability to grant the two types of requests, and her ability to transform herself into the thirty-two manifestations.
Guan Yin Temples in Malaysia
After Islam, Buddhism is the second largest religion in Malaysia, with 19.2% of Malaysia’s population identifying themselves as Buddhist. However, some estimates push that figure higher to 21.6% when the figure is combined with other Chinese religions. Buddhism is mainly practised by the Malaysian Chinese population in Malaysia, as well as by other ethnicities, such as Malaysian Indians, and Malaysians of Siamese Burmese, and Sri Lankan descent.
The majority of Malaysian Buddhists are great devotees of Guan Yin and have established great Guan Yin temples throughout Malaysia. The following are a few examples of Guan Yin temples in Malaysia.
Kuan Yin Temple Kuala Lumpur
This temple was built in 1888 by the Chinese community and dedicated to Guan Yin. The temple architecture is evidently Chinese with a touch of Baroque, and while it has been recently refurbished, many of its older elements remain. In the main prayer hall stands the statue of Buddha Sakyamuni on the main shrine, with a statue of Guan Yin of the Southern Seas on his right, and the Thousand Armed Guan Yin on his left. Other statues on the shrine are the Kshitigarbha, also known as the Earth-store Bodhisattva, and Di Zang. Opening Hours are between 7am to 5pm daily.
Historically, this temple started as a Hokkien Chinese place of worship. Stories tell of a Chinese cemetery built near the grounds of what is now known as Stadium Merdeka, and the temple offered a place of solace for visitors to the cemetery. Around 1920, the British administration declared the temple as a place of worship, and ceded the rights over to the Kuala Lumpur and Selangor Hokkien Association. Unfortunately, it suffered damages from two fires in 1963 and 1989, but was renovated and restored on both occasions.
Getting to the Kuan Yin Temple
The temple is located across from Bulatan Merdeka and is situated next to Stadium Merdeka at the tail end of Petaling Street. One can get to Petaling Street, and then park and walk over to the temple. The Maharajalela Monorail Station is conveniently nearby, and offers more easy access to the temple.
Kuan Yin Temple
50480 Kuala Lumpur
Places to stay near the Kuan Yin Temple
- Cosmic Boutique Hotel
No. 21 & 23
50150 Kuala Lumpur
Phone: +60 3 9226 3339
- OYO Rooms Maharajalela Monorail Station
21 Jalan Maharajalela
Phone: +60 17 7584 3417
- Grid 9 Hotel
9 Jalan Maharajalela
50150 Kuala Lumpur
Phone: +60 3 9226 2629
Kun Yam Thong Temple, Kuala Lumpur
Kun Yam Thong Temple is also known as the Dharma Realm Guan Yin Sagely Monastery. This temple was built in 1880 and was originally named Deng Bi An Temple until it was taken over by the Dharma Realm Buddhist Association in 1993, and then renovated and reopened in 2006. High-rise office towers, hotels and shopping malls surround the temple, making it a quiet oasis in the middle of the bustling city.
The main prayer hall, called the Great Jewelled Hall has a shrine with three giant golden Buddha statues, each weighing one tonne. They are the Buddha Shakyamuni, the Medicine Buddha, and the Amitabha Buddha. Aside from the shrine, there is a famous food hall at the back of the temple that serves healthy and tasty vegetarian meals for a nominal fee. The temple also has a library and bookstore for those seeking a little bit of knowledge.
Getting to the Kun Yam Thong Temple
The temple is located on Jalan Ampang right in the heart of Kuala Lumpur. It is between the Citibank tower and KLCC shopping centre, just a stone’s throw away from the MCA building. You can also get to the temple via the Ampang Park LRT station.
Kun Yam Thong Temple
165 Jalan Ampang
50450 Kuala Lumpur
Phone: +60 3 2164 8055
Places to stay near Kun Yam Thong Temple
- Corus Hotel Kuala Lumpur
50450 Kuala Lumpur
Phone: +60 3 2161 8888
- Le Apple Boutique Hotel (KLCC)
160 Jalan Ampang
55000 Kuala Lumpur
Phone: +60 3 2179 3777
- GTower Hotel
199 Jalan Tun Razak
50400 Kuala Lumpur
Phone: +60 3 2168 1919
Kuan Yin Teng Temple Penang
The Kuan Yin Teng Temple, or Kong Hock Keong temple, is one of the oldest Chinese temples in Georgetown, Penang, and has Guan Yin as its central deity. It was built in 1728 at the cost of 4,000 Spanish dollars, a huge sum for its time. It was one of the most magnificent Chinese buildings in Northern Malaya of its time, as most of the other Chinese temples of George Town had not been built by the various clans to rival it yet.
There are several accounts surrounding the Kuan Yin Teng Temple, although very little have been documented in official records. For example, during World War II, the Japanese dropped a bomb on the temple to destroy it. Through sheer luck or perhaps divine intervention, the bomb landed in the courtyard instead, and the temple was left unscathed. Other accounts described how a large number of Penangites took shelter in the Kuan Yin Teng Temple during the war as well.
Getting to the Kuan Yin Teng Temple
The temple is located in Georgetown, at the intersection of China Street and Jalan Kapitan Keling (formerly known as Pitt Street).
Kuan Yin Teng Temple
Jalan Masjid Kapitan Keling
Places to stay near the Kuan Yin Teng Temple
- Palm Mansion Boutique Suites
76 – 88 China Street
Phone: +60 4 261 3609
- Red Inn Court
35 B&C Jalan Mesjid Kapitan Keling
Phone: +60 4 261 1144
- Queen’s Hostel
20 & 22 Queen Street
Phone: +60 13 489 6218
Kek Lok Si Temple Penang
The Kek Lok Si Temple (also known in Penang Hokkien for ‘Temple of Supreme Bliss’ or ‘Temple of Sukhavati’, and pronounced in Mandarin Chinese as Ji Le Si) is a Mahayana Buddhist temple situated in Air Itam in Penang. The temple complex faces the sea, giving it an impressive vista, and is one of the best-known Buddhist temples in Malaysia. It is also said to be the largest Buddhist temple in Malaysia.
It is an important pilgrimage site for Buddhists from the region, as visitors come from Hong Kong, the Philippines, Singapore and other countries in Southeast Asia. The temple complex was built over a period from 1890 to 1930, and was an inspirational initiative by Beow Lean, its Abbot. The most striking feature of the temple is the seven-storey Pagoda of Rama VI, also known as the Pagoda of Ten Thousand Buddhas, with its 10,000 alabaster and bronze statues of Buddha, and a 30 metre (99 ft) tall bronze statue of Guan Yin.
Getting to the Kek Lok Si Temple
At the corner of Jalan Air Itam and Jalan Pasar in Georgetown, you will see a big sign pointing towards the temple. Just follow the sign down Jalan Pasar, and when you come to an intersection, turn left. Not far down the road, you will see a small alleyway path to the left, and that leads to a set of stairs, which in turn leads to the main walkway. You will then have to walk up a set of staircases and corridors that are all surrounded by a series of souvenir shops.
Kek Lok Si Temple
86 S Jalan Kampung Pisang
Phone: +60 4 828 3317
Places to stay near the Kek Lok Si Temple
- Vstay Guesthouse
134-K 1st Floor Jalan Paya Terubong
Phone: +60 16 422 6879
- Fang Zu Ming Concept Guesthouse
1228 N3 & P3 Jalan Paya Terubong
Phone: +60 19 477 7661
- Fastbook Hostel
1228L-3 Jalan Paya Terubong
Phone: +60 19 477 7661
For more interesting information:
- Chenrezig Ngesung Kundrol
- Blessing Eye Problems
- The Buddhist Protectors of the Chinese Zodiac
- Holy Place of Kuan Yin
- Ganapati Ragavajra
- 1000-Armed Kuan Yin-Foo Hai Ch’an Monastery
- Deaf Blind and Mute Transforms into 1,000 Arm Chenrezig
- Avalokiteshvara, Turkey Swamp, Marc & Me
- Visiting the Huge Kuan Yin in Pinang
- Something Simple for the Deceased
- Pu Tuo Shan
- The Meaning of OM MANI PADME HUNG
- Kuan Yin of Macau City
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